1.1 related fatalities occur in low and middle

1.1 IntroductionEvery day thousands of people are died  and injured on roads. According to the (WHO2015), more than 1.2 million people die each year on road, making road trafficinjuries a leading cause of death globally (Organization, 2015) Road traffic accidents (RTAs) are a global public health problem.

Currently, RTAs are ranked ninth, and predicted to be the fifth leading causeof death in 2030. Traffic accidents cause many losses in this century,especially in human lives, property damages and economic resources. More than2500 deaths every day over the world and the number is increase up to date. About90 % of RTAs related fatalities occur in low and middle income countries (Petridou and Moustaki, 2000). Many previous studies showed that, between 2000 and 2020, deathsby RTAs will decline by about 30% in high-income countries. Whereas inlow-income and middle-income countries, it will increase substantially (Peden et al., 2004) Men, women or children walking, biking or riding to school orwork, playing in the streets or setting out on long trips, may never returnhome as a result of RTAs. Millions of people each year spend long times in hospital aftersevere crashes and many will never be able to live, work or play as they usedto do.

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Current efforts to address road safety are not significant in comparisonto this growing tragedian that human is suffering (Peden et al., 2004). Americans say that theirloss in the World War as deaths and injuries were less than that in automobileaccidents.

In Iraq, as well as in other neighboring countries, high rates ofserious RTAs have been reported Cars have been one of the main causes ofmorbidity and mortality in developed countries. This phenomenon is even worstin the developing countries such as in Iraq including Kurdistan Region due tothe increased number of cars and low attention to safety measures (MOWAFAKM. NAKSHABANDI, MBChB, CABS, FICS* )Erbil or Hawler is an ancient city and it wasdeveloped rapidly in the last few years and the most important reason fortraffic problem in Hawler city is that the roads designed long time ago whenthe numbers of vehicles were less. But nowadays number of population is about(?) and the number of vehicles is approximately (?)so these roads are notadequate and cannot accumulate for these huge number of vehicles.

Because ofthe continuous changes of the city hierarchy, and the rapid increase in thetraffic volume, and number of vehicles, Erbil as any city in Kurdistan Regionis suffering from the effects of road accidents, congestion, and low level ofservices offered to the most parts of the city road network.This study was conducted in Erbil city andused some statistical data collectedfrom Directorate of Erbil Traffic Police inErbil for a 4 year period 2014-2017and some other result (data) was obtainedthat related to subject from several published papers.Therefore, the overall aim of this paperreview was to study the cause of road traffic accidents in Erbil city, the mainfactors that affects the occurrence of accidents, also to investigate thepattern of RTAs crashes, injuries and fatalities in Erbil city.

Author: Joy Herrera


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