1.1 related fatalities occur in low and middle

1.1 Introduction

Every day thousands of people are died  and injured on roads. According to the (WHO
2015), more than 1.2 million people die each year on road, making road traffic
injuries a leading cause of death globally (Organization, 2015) Road traffic accidents (RTAs) are a global public health problem.
Currently, RTAs are ranked ninth, and predicted to be the fifth leading cause
of death in 2030. Traffic accidents cause many losses in this century,
especially in human lives, property damages and economic resources. More than
2500 deaths every day over the world and the number is increase up to date. About
90 % of RTAs related fatalities occur in low and middle income countries (Petridou and Moustaki, 2000). Many previous studies showed that, between 2000 and 2020, deaths
by RTAs will decline by about 30% in high-income countries. Whereas in
low-income and middle-income countries, it will increase substantially (Peden et al., 2004) Men, women or children walking, biking or riding to school or
work, playing in the streets or setting out on long trips, may never return
home as a result of RTAs. Millions of people each year spend long times in hospital after
severe crashes and many will never be able to live, work or play as they used
to do. Current efforts to address road safety are not significant in comparison
to this growing tragedian that human is suffering (Peden et al., 2004). Americans say that their
loss in the World War as deaths and injuries were less than that in automobile
accidents. In Iraq, as well as in other neighboring countries, high rates of
serious RTAs have been reported Cars have been one of the main causes of
morbidity and mortality in developed countries. This phenomenon is even worst
in the developing countries such as in Iraq including Kurdistan Region due to
the increased number of cars and low attention to safety measures (MOWAFAK

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Erbil or Hawler is an ancient city and it was
developed rapidly in the last few years and the most important reason for
traffic problem in Hawler city is that the roads designed long time ago when
the numbers of vehicles were less. But nowadays number of population is about
(?) and the number of vehicles is approximately (?)so these roads are not
adequate and cannot accumulate for these huge number of vehicles. Because of
the continuous changes of the city hierarchy, and the rapid increase in the
traffic volume, and number of vehicles, Erbil as any city in Kurdistan Region
is suffering from the effects of road accidents, congestion, and low level of
services offered to the most parts of the city road network.

This study was conducted in Erbil city and
used some statistical data collected

from Directorate of Erbil Traffic Police in
Erbil for a 4 year period 2014-2017

and some other result (data) was obtained
that related to subject from several published papers.

Therefore, the overall aim of this paper
review was to study the cause of road traffic accidents in Erbil city, the main
factors that affects the occurrence of accidents, also to investigate the
pattern of RTAs crashes, injuries and fatalities in Erbil city.



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