1) porponent of reasearch-then-theory strategy , Robert Menton

1) Astrology is not considered a science as it does not have explanatory power to describe the universe. science requires to follow strict principals known as scientific method but astrology does not follow this method. Astrology is a matter of chance, if it would be science we could get the precise, accurate and specific information. According to Popper’s criticism on naive empiricist astrology is a pseudo-empirical, it can be experimented and observed but it does not conforming to scientific standards.
3) Let me give an overview of research process in my understanding: firstly, we need to identify reasearch topic what I want to find about. then, we define the reasearch problem and set the research question. we already know what is known about this topic but what remains to be known?! So, we try to define the relationship that questions emerge with the topic of interest. at the next level, we try to determine how to conduct this reasearch. it means, I need to find the way how to answer the questions. So, what information do I need to answer the questions – is the information collection level of research process.Information analysis and interpretation level is what I managed to find by using methods, tools and techniques to collect and anaylse information. At the end, I write my research report in the form of report, journal, article, thesis or dissertation. I need to summerize the information I found in the applicable for me form.
4) Social sciences lean on 2 componenets: theory and empirical research. Social scientists perform in 2 worlds of experience and observation and the world of ideas and theories. when we make a link between these 2 worlds we achieve the explanation and understanding of social phenomena. so, how to create this link? should we create theory first and move forward to empirical research or visa versa.
Karl Popper is the preminent proponent of the theory-then-research strategy. He claims that there is a progress in science when conjectures are produced first and then disprove them through empirical research. this means that our reaserach is guided by our theoritical proposition. Data should be collected so that theory can be tested. While the porponent of reasearch-then-theory strategy , Robert Menton argues that this strategy creates new problem for theory that constructs new theoretical formulations which means that through piecing together the explanation and understanding, we make up a theory.
5) An ecological fallacy is an assymption of that relationships apply at a group level also apply at an individual level. for example. My friend is from Japan. He is the most intelligent person I know. This means people from Japan tend to be highly intelligent but that does not mean that every one from Japan is intellegient. He does not seem intelleginet just because he is from Japan.
6) a relationship observed between two variables that do not result from any direct relationship but is wrongly appeared to be related to each other due to the role of third variable, the fact is called a spurious relationship. for example: if we take asian americans, 60% of people between 25 and 29 have already completed college. while the rate of white people is 40%, the rate of black people is much more less just 23%. while looking at this picture, we can consider that race has an impact on educational attainment. this is an example of spuritial relationship where race does not have an effect but it is racism that mediates the relationship between 2 variables.
11) Confidence interval is the amount of uncertainty a sample population estimate (the mean or proportion) of a true population. if we want to determine the average age of victims of robbery in Azerbaian, we can say 30 years old. But the best answer is to define interval of true answer that lays in 20-40 years old. the Confidence interval is a sample mean or proportion plus or minus to calculate upper limit and lower limit of sample statistics. In this case, upper limit is 40, lower limit is 20. before calculating we should choose either 90%, 95% or 99% of confidence level.this is amount of uncertainty. the true population will be presented in 90%, 95% or 99% of all sample estimated CI. it also means that 10%, 5% or 1% would not contain true population score. Then we keep going to calculate CI by using mean.
12) Longitudinal study is a research design that deals with the collection and analysis of data over period of time. Longitudinal research design tracks the same variables that are growing, developing or changing over long or short period of time. for instance. Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging started to follow 50.000 both men and women at the age of 45-85 over 20 years to find out the reason of development of desease and disabiltiy through some factors like social, lifestyle, medical, psychological and biological impacts. The aim of this reaseacrh is to gain knowledge about those factors that effect development of desease and disability.
13) Validity and reliability are the most imortant elements of qulaity of test. Validity is about providing strong evidence: what do we measure? are we measuring what we wish to measure? Reliability is repetabilty and consistency of questions. what charasteristics are measured and how well?
Questions are indicators, so we should ensure a variety of question types. they can be either open ended or multiple choices. if the questions are open ended it means they are more valid than realiable, on the contrary if they are multiple choices, it means they are more reliable than valid.
14) In order to ransform concept of terrorism into a variable, we need to operationalize concept firstly, and go throught the process of identifiying indicators and then variables. In other words, we can transform concept into variables directly or through indicators. concept of Terrorism is caused by many possible reasons. I am going to identify multiple indicators that cause a terrorsim. terrorism can be observed both in rich and poor countries regardless type of government. from my perspective, root causes of terrorism are: economic factors (variables:social inequality, economic sanctions, unemployment), political factors(variables:government repression, human rights) and social factors (variables:human development, religion). So, terrorism is dependent variable. We know more reasons that lead to terrorism rather than how terrorism influence on other factors.
15) It is hypothesized that over the past decade battered women violence is accepted as a justification for self-defense in crimes. In my hypothesis, it is predicting of the relationship between variables. It is valid because it is falsifiable and may undergo changes until research progresses.

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