Entrepreneurship plays a vital role in South African economy and social stability. It grows the economy and addresses the unemployment challenges. Currently, South African university graduates face unemployment due to lack of opportunities and work experience. This research study will investigate the students’ level of perceptions students have towards Entrepreneurship as an alternative to reducing the unemployment rate: A Cases study of students in Hatfield, Pretoria. The students’ perception, interest and intent in into entrepreneurship will also be investigated.
1.2 Background to the Problem
South African Reserve Bank Quarterly Bulletin (SARB, 2017: 18) indicated that the official unemployment rate remained unchanged at 27.7% in the third quarter of 2017. On the other hand, the current youth unemployment rate stands at 52.2% (SARB, 2017:18). In light of this it is clear that South African youth faces a challenge of unemployment.
Herrington, Kew and Mwanga (2017: i) indicated that the country is challenged by chronically extraordinary levels of unemployment and underemployment, and the persistent trend of low entrepreneurial intention. The report further states that it is discouraging that the rates of all levels of early-stage entrepreneurial activity have dropped considerably and the nascent entrepreneurial rate is down by 30% (Herrington et al., 2017: i).
Given the above information, it is clear that South Africa has a high number of youth unemployment. This research study will assist in highlight if students are viewing entrepreneurship as an alternative or not in addressing unemployment in the country.
The recommendations will be made to assist the universities around Hatfield to enhance their mandates and effective in producing future entrepreneurs.
1.3 Research Problem
City of Tshwane (CoT) the capital city of South Africa is one of the cities which has more tertiary institutions. It has more students which are representing different demographics. The high number of students from these institutions will graduate and form part of the unemployment statistics. Due to the high rate of unemployment there is a need to inform and interrogate the interest these students have on entrepreneurship.
Hatfield is a suburb in Pretoria, it has high number of students due to its proximity to the University of Pretoria, Hatfield Campus. The University of Pretoria (UP) has introduced business incubator to encourage their students to venture into entrepreneurship. A platform is created for their students in order to broaden their knowledge on entrepreneurship hence the research will be focusing on students around Hatfield. There is also a need to curb the unemployment rate of the graduates.
1.4 Aim of the Study
The aim of this research study is to investigate perceptions of University of Pretoria students towards entrepreneurship at in Hatfield. Attention will also be paid to their interest, intent, when it comes to entrepreneurship. This study also aims to increase on existing knowledge.
According to Steenekamp, Van der Merwe and Althayde (2011:16) there are limited research studies that are available on young South African learners’ attitude and behaviour on entrepreneurship. Urban (2016:15) states that entrepreneurship can be used as a tool to solve unemployment in South Africa.
1.5 Research Objectives
The research objectives of this research study are to:
• Investigate the perception of students towards entrepreneurship.
• Explore the level of intent of students towards entrepreneurship.
• Provide recommendations to universities around Hatfield to be more effective on their mandate.
1.6 Significance of the Study
This research study will be able to highlight if the students are interested or not in entrepreneurship in order to solve the challenge of high unemployment rate. The research will also highlight whether or not the number of entrepreneurs are growing or declining from the pipeline. It will indicate if the entrepreneurial initiatives that are done by universities had brought entrepreneurship awareness and changes around Hatfield. The study will increase on existing knowledge.
This section introduced the background and importance of this research study. The problem statement and aim of the study were outlined. The next section will cover the literature review that is existing for entrepreneurship, entrepreneurial education, perception and entrepreneurial theories.
Proof read the above section.
SECTION TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
This section will present literature review of theories and academic studies to argue the importance of entrepreneurship amongst the graduates. This literature review covers the entrepreneurial theories, impact on entrepreneurship in South African economy, entrepreneurship education and state of entrepreneurship amongst South African youth. Academic literature about the perception towards entrepreneurship will be also be covered in this chapter.
2.2 Entrepreneurship Defined
Fatoki and Chidonga (2011:162) approach on theoretical construct on entrepreneurial literature states that entrepreneurial intention includes Ajzen and Fishbein 1975 theory of reasoned behaviour, Shapero and Sokol entrepreneurial event theory of 1982, Bandura’ s process driven theory of 1991 and Ajzen theory of planned behaviour of 1991. Ajzen and Fishbein (1975) theory of reasoned action states that one’s intention influences them to engage into behaviour in line with the said intention, and the attitude towards the behaviour influences intentions (Fatoki and Chidonga, 2011: 162). This suggests that intention drives the behaviour of a person.
The process driven theory developed by Bandura in 1986 is one of the theory of entrepreneurial intention (Fatoki and Chidonga, 2011: 162). Bandura suggested that, an individual’s perception drives the behaviour to implement the action moreover according to the said theory, thoughts are stimulated by external environment, which influences the attitude and results in intention, which if strong enough it can lead one’s behaviour (Fatoka and Chitonga, 2011:162). On the other hand, the theory studies life path changes and their impact on individual interest and perceptions of possibility related to new venture formation.
Moreover, the underlying assumption of the entrepreneurial event theory is that, major life changes speed up a change in entrepreneurial intention and subsequent behaviour (Fatoka and Chitonga, 2011:162).
Fatoka and Chitonga (2011:162) study had focused on Ajzen (1991) theory of planned behaviour. The theory focused on individual’s intentions which determined the actual behaviour towards something which the researcher will also take note of. According to Ajzen theory of planned behaviour, there is a relationship between the intention to be an entrepreneur and the act of becoming one (Fatoka and Chitonga, 2011:162).
These theories will form part of the foundation in establishing the objectives of this research study. The link between the perception, intention and behaviour of the student will be investigated further in this research study.
2.3 Impact of Entrepreneurship on South Africa Economy
Entrepreneurship contributes to the economic development by addressing employment prospects and providing services (Hussain and Zafar-Yaqub, 2010:23). Hisrich and Brush (2009:34), asserts that an entrepreneur is the crucial motivator of economic development by introducing new ideas, innovations and new ways to doing business.
A number of research studies confirm that entrepreneurship contribute positively to the economic growth of the country (Thurik and Caree, 2003:465; Nieman and Nieuwenhuizen, 2009:4; Hisrich and Brush, 2009:23; Moore, Petty, Palich and Longenecker, 2010:480). Petrin (1994:7) and Khawar (2007:3) also concur that entrepreneurship contributes to the expanding of the economic base, economic growth and strengthen the process of wealth creation. This clearly shows that entrepreneurship does contribute in creating employment.
Entrepreneurship adds to economic growth, when entrepreneurs create new opportunities to address unemployment (Shrivastava and Shrivastava, 2013). According to Fatoki and Chindonga (2011), the youth’s participation in entrepreneurship assist those in gaining economic freedom and it ease dependence on government. Youth unemployment levels are minimised in developing countries when young people engage in businesses (Sindabiwe and Mbabazi, 2014). This indicates that when number of entrepreneurs grow in the developing countries, the levels of unemployment decrease in that country.
The above literature states that if youth are engaged in entrepreneurial activities, it will have a positive impact on the country’s economy growth. It further suggests that it reduces the levels of unemployment in the country.
The former City of Tshwane (CoT) executive mayor, during his Capital City address, has committed that the CoT will empower small businesses from the marginalised communities. Furthermore, the CoT has initiated the Tshepo 10 000 programme, intended to assist young people to become successful entrepreneurs (Ramokgopa 2015:6). Absa Bank and the CoT had trained 9344 people in financial management, and the UP has offered entrepreneurial training to 10 600 people (Ramokgopa 2015:7). The CoT has an interest in developing young entrepreneurs together with UP.
2.4 Entrepreneurial Education
According to Fayolle and Klandt (2006:1), entrepreneurship education is any academic programme or process of learning to develop entrepreneurial capabilities. Aslam, Awan and Khan (2012: 115) state that formal entrepreneurial education directly impacts on students’ behaviour towards entrepreneurship as a profession. Kumar and Abirami (2014:16) concur that education and learning are important in improving entrepreneurial mind-sets and this is important since entrepreneurship contribute to employment. According to Bux (2016: 30), scholarly literature on entrepreneurial perceptions, attitudes and intentions is significant.
El Harbi and Anderson (2010:15) urge for focus on discourse on entrepreneurship regarding young people, by providing friendly environment and support entrepreneurial infrastructure. Garba (2010:140) states that developing countries had embraced the prospects and value of entrepreneurship in promoting economic growth through human resources. Redfort and Trigo (2007) further states that entrepreneurship education has a role in promoting an entrepreneurial society in the country. The absence of entrepreneurial education may lead to low level of entrepreneurial intention of students. Therefore, entrepreneurship education contributes in encouraging people to be entrepreneurs and in developing entrepreneurial intentions amongst the youth.
UP offers entrepreneurship modules or courses in its Bachelor of Commerce, Masters and PhD degree, also short courses. This is part of the university strategy to improve the low levels of entrepreneurship amongst students in South Africa (Amoros ; Bosma, 2013).
Kusmintarti, Thoyib, Ashar and Maskie (2014:102) research study suggest that student who have intent towards entrepreneurship and entrepreneurial characteristics tend to venture into entrepreneurship in future. The perceptions of students where support structures of entrepreneurship are in place will be investigated in this research study. This will give a clear indication if the support structures have an influence in the perception of the students towards entrepreneurship.
2.5 Entrepreneurship amongst South African Youth
It was proposed by Kgagara (2011: i) that entrepreneurship has played a vital role in economic prosperity and social stability in many developed countries. University graduates are confronted by the reality of high levels of unemployment as they don’t work experience and have minimal skills to secure a job (Kgagara, 2011: i).
Kgagara (2011: i) further argues that there is enough evidence that the levels of entrepreneurship are still not improving in South Africa even though entrepreneurship is offered as a module in most of universities. Furthermore, the discouraging observation is that there is a rise in number of graduates, a high number of them having academic qualifications are finding it difficult to find employment (Kgagara, 2011: i).
Kgagara (2011: ii) indicated that the study was focused on South African black youth and poor background families with only few parents that made it to the university level, and mostly not in entrepreneurship. Moreover, there is a lack of support structure in entrepreneurial education and training. The emphasis should be focused on encouraging entrepreneurial activities (Kgagara, 2017: ii).
Kgagara study had focused more on young Africans demographic who are from the lower working class. This study will cover the gap by including all working class. Secondly Kgagara study was conducted on an environment where there was no support structure for entrepreneurial activities. The researcher intends to conduct the study where there is sufficient support structures system namely business incubator introduced by the UP.
2.6 Perception towards Entrepreneurship
Ehlers and Lazenby (2007:108) show that economic forces can impact market opportunities positively or negatively in the country. Fatoka and Chitonga, (2011:163) states that if the youth have negative perception in working environment, it might influence them to become entrepreneurs.
Perception is how an individual think about the reality of something; and its subjective reality (Lindsay and Norman, 1977). Perception is a critical aspect in entrepreneurship. A positive perception of an individual towards entrepreneurship will normally lead that person to take part in entrepreneurial activities (GEM, 2010). World Economic Forum (2010) states that students’ perception of entrepreneurship can be impacted by fear of failure, culture and family.
According to Kelly, Bosma and Amoros (2011), research studies focusing on students’ perception towards entrepreneurship have concluded that universities have a great influence on students’ perception towards entrepreneurship as a line of business. This research study will investigate the level of perception of the students towards entrepreneurship in order to scale if there is a positive perception or not amongst students.
2.7 Entrepreneurial Intention
Entrepreneurial intention is defined as the entrepreneurs’ thinking or states of mind that channel the attention, capability, and actions towards business ideas (Bird, 1988). Intentions is one of the driving force for a person who want to start engaging in entrepreneurship or starting a new business.
Bandura (2001) states that intention gives an indication of future action to be performed; and a proactive commitment to realise the intended action. An intention is plan to action something in the near future. According to Davidson (1995) entrepreneurial intentions are anticipated to foretell individual choices to form their own business. For the purposes this research study, entrepreneurial intention is defined as the determination to plan to start a new business, opposed to be employed by an organisation.
This section reviewed literature that is relevant to the research topic and key matters that influence the research problem. It also highlights the gaps that need to be investigated. In light of the above, the researcher has compiled this literature review since it’s in line with this research study.
The next section will discuss the methodology of the research study to address the objectives.
The intention of the literature is not just to state what other sources have said but to discuss the different views. This is encouraged here too.
SECTION THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
This section will cover the research methodology that was adopted in order to achieve the research study objectives. According to Leedy and Ormrod (2005:2), research is the systematic process of gathering, analysing and interpreting data in order to contribute in the body of knowledge and understanding of a phenomenon in the area of interest. The research design for this study comprised a descriptive study of students’ perceptions of the behaviour towards Entrepreneurship as an alternative to reducing the unemployment rate. This research study focused on undergraduate students that resides in Hatfield, Pretoria.
3.2 Research Methodology
Methodology consists of two elements, namely underlying assumption and justification guiding the choice of methods, and the technical aspect of the methods (Berglund, 2007:125). This research study has followed a quantitative approach since the focus of the study was a descriptive survey design in the form of questionnaire. According to Creswell (2007: 145), quantitative research is a process that is systematic and objective in its ways of using numerical data from only a selected subgroup of a universe to generalise the findings to the universe that is being studied.
This research study has utilised a descriptive research design. Quantitative data has been collected by means of a survey design, from a sample implementing a standardised research instrument in the form of a questionnaire (Creswell et al., 2007: 291). The researcher’s personal value will form part of the research.
3.2.1 Quantitative Research Methodology
Quantitative research is an organised process that uses numerical data to get information about the world. This research method assigns variables in order to analyse relationships amongst them, and gives conclusions to cause-and-effect relations between variables (Leedy and Ormrod, 2005:94).
According to Mack (2010:178) quantitative research uses statistical analysis to link what is already known and what can be learned through research. In the quantitative research, the process starts with assumptions, hypotheses are articulated, variables are set, data is collected using the selected instrument and analysis of the collected data is conducted to yield the results.
3.2.2 Qualitative Research Methodology
Qualitative research is an inductive approach that produces theory from information gathered and it considers a theoretical background (Spratt, Walker and Robinson, 2004:134). The qualitative approach has the ability of answering questions arising from complex nature phenomenon.
3.2.3 Rational for the Selection of Quantitative Research Approach
This research aims to investigate the perception of students towards entrepreneurship as an alternative in addressing unemployment. This research study will seek to describe the perception of students towards entrepreneurship. The following characteristics of the quantitative research provide adequate justification for this research to adopt the quantitative research approach (Brink and Wood, 1998:5):
• Measurement can be used to define the existing single reality.
• It is normally brief.
• Data analysis is performed by the use of statistical analysis to determine relationships and differences between the set variables.
• Reliability and validity tests are conducted.
• Sample represents the larger population.
• It reduces subjectivity of the researcher.
• Findings can be generated statistically.
Given the above reasons, the research method best suits to deliver the desired objectives of this research study.
3.3 Research Philosophy
According to Kusumawardhani (2013:113), research paradigm is a collection of theories that influence how research should be done in a particular discipline. This research study had follow the positivist paradigm. The reason positivist was followed; it was due to the use of a questionnaire. The researcher has utilise the quantitative paradigm based on positivism, which aims to evaluate the social world objectively and predict human behaviour (Creswell et al., 2007: 291).
3.3.1 Positivist Paradigm
Positivism firstly entails a belief based on the assumption that patterns (trends), generalisations, methods, procedures; cause-and-effect issues are also applicable to the social sciences (Vosloo, 2014). Vosloo (2014) also link positivism directly to the scientific model. The positivist approach objective is to determine general laws that can be utilised to predict human activity (Kusumawardhani, 2013:54). This approach is adopted for this research study as it allows the researcher to observe and describe social science phenomenon.
3.3.2 Phenomenological Paradigm
According to Langdridge (2007:4) phenomenology is a discipline that focuses on the live in experience and people’s perceptions of the world. This paradigm is more suitable for qualitative approach than the quantitative approach. It considers a small sample.
3.3.3 Reasons for Choosing Positivist Paradigm
The researcher seeks to define a phenomenon in the field of social science hence the positivist paradigm was adopted. Mack (2010:132) states that positivist paradigm has a characteristics of statistical analysis and it generalise findings. The research study aims to generalise its findings to the selected population and to use statistical analysis. This research study seeks to describe the perceptions into the behaviours of students towards entrepreneurship as an alternative in reducing unemployment rate.
3.4 Research Design
The final product of the research and all the steps that are followed to achieve this final product are the main focus of the research design. A research design is a plan or an outline that details on how the researcher aims to conduct the research (Babbie and Mouton, 2011:74; Cooper and Schindler, 2008:71). This study employed a descriptive research design that uses a survey strategy for data collection. A descriptive research is all about describing people who take part in the study so as to provide information about the naturally occurring status, behaviour, attitudes or other characteristics of a particular group (Kowalczyk, 2015).
The major reason why a descriptive survey was selected for this study was to enable the researchers to capture views from a large cross section of the population of respondents thus ensuring that a variety of ideas whether conflicting or agreeing on the perception of students towards entrepreneurship, are included in the study.
In the descriptive research design is where phenomena are defined as they are. Descriptive studies usually take raw data and convert them into functional form that can be interpreted (Bux, 2016). Descriptive studies can be employed in all types of research methods including quantitative method.
A descriptive research design attempts to describe and explain conditions of the present by using many subjects and questionnaires to fully describe a phenomenon. A descriptive study based on a survey research design is one of the most popular research designs.
3.5 Research Strategies
The research method of this study outlines the strategy of investigation, research design assumptions and how data was collected (Myers, 2009:44). Quantitative was classified as the research method for this study. General reading suggest that natural phenomena study is researched with the use of quantitative research methods.
3.5.1 Positivist Research Strategy
Researchers tried to explore other avenues to study human society as human beings are objective (De Vos, Strydom, Schulze and Patel, 2011b:5). Positivist research investigate social phenomena by applying social science model of research (Denscombe, 2008:14; 2010b:120).
3.5.2 Phenomenological Research Strategy
Phenomenological research strategy considers more open ended questions and it aims to captures the experience of individuals on the certain phenomena. This research strategy is applied in the qualitative approach. The reliability is low and its validity is high.
3.5.3 Reasons for Choosing the Positivist Research Strategy
The positivist research strategy was chosen base on research topic that aim to investigate the social phenomena. The behaviour of human beings and their perception towards entrepreneurship is been investigated in this research study.
3.6 Sampling Strategy
Hussey and Hussey (1997:55) define population as any precisely defined set of people or collection of items which is under survey, while a sample is clearly defined as “a subset of a population and should represent the interest of the study.
3.6.1 Target Population
The research study was restricted to Hatfield, Pretoria. The suburb was chosen as it has high number of students residing and studying there; and it has fairly distributed representative from all racial groups. The population in Hatfield is 9274 according to Stats SA Census 2011. The target population of this study include all undergraduate students who are residing at Hatfield, Pretoria. This research study targeted all undergraduate students that are currently registered with any university around Hatfield.
3.6.2 Sample Size
Sample size is an important part of the research study therefore determining its size is crucial. According Palys (2008:697) the selected sample of the study must be in line with objectives of the research. The acceptable sample must be a full representative of the targeted population. A questionnaire was administered to 80 respondents in order to collect primary data regarding their perception towards entrepreneurship as a solution to address unemployment.
3.6.3 Sampling Techniques
This research study has adopted the simple random sampling technique. Gravetter and Forzano (2011:146) state that using simple random sampling eliminates biasness on the selection procedure which results in more representative samples. The technique makes it easier to generalise the research findings as due to its representativeness of the population.
18.104.22.168 Probability Sampling
Between the two sampling methods – namely, probability sampling and non-probability sampling, probability sampling was selected for this study. In the probability sampling method, every member of the population has an equal chance of being selected for the sample (Tustin et al, 2005:344). The probability methods are normally a simple random sampling, systematic sampling and stratified sampling.
22.214.171.124 Non-probability Sampling
Radipere (2012:157) defines non-probability samples as where there are unknown chances of a member of the population to be selected. It is also a process where the researchers use their own discretion and they use their own judgement and convenience to select the sample.
126.96.36.199 Rational for Selecting Probability Sampling
The probability sampling method was used to achieve fair opportunity for every student around Hatfield to stand a chance to be selected in the sample.This method helped in elimination of biasness in regard of demographics of the students.
3.7 Research Instrument
The research instrument that was selected for this research study was a questionnaire, with closed-ended questions in line with the objectives of the study. The questions were kept on a simple manner for respondents to be able to complete with easy.
3.7.1 Questionnaire Construction
The selected survey instrument for this study is questionnaire. The questionnaire consisted of 25 close-ended questions divided into four sections. Each section addresses questions per objective of the research study.
The four sections of questionnaire are structured in this format:
• Section A: Demographic Information
• Section B: Perception Towards Entrepreneurship
• Section C: Intention Towards Entrepreneurship
• Section D: Awareness about Entrepreneurship at universities
3.8 Pilot Study
Welman and Kruger (1999:146) state that pilot study helps surface flaws in measurement procedures, identifies ambiguous questions and non-verbal behaviour of participants. A pilot study is a small scale run of the study to test if the study is in order. The pilot study took place after a clear research objectives and aims of the research was defined.
The researcher was able to refine the questionnaire in order to achieve the objective of the study. This was achieved by employing the pilot study.
A pilot survey of ten (10) participants was conducted initially in order to revise the questions to meet the objectives of the study. A set of questionnaires were constructed after finished review the past research in the literature review. After that, a validity and reliability tests were conducted to test the validity of the questionnaires.
3.9 Administration of Questionnaires
One platform was used to administer questionnaires to the participants. Questionnaire was distributed by the use of an email and WhatsApp with the link at esurveycreater.com.
3.9.1 Collection of Questionnaires
The data was collected by means of self-administered questionnaires. The questionnaire was distributed by means of a link that was created from the www.esurveycreater.com. Electronic version was monitored online to track the completion. Participants were completing the survey online and it was also submitted online. There were 68 respondents who completed the questionnaire fully and 5 respondents did not fully complete the survey, and 7 respondents did not complete the survey at all.
3.9.2 Storage and Security of Data from Questionnaires
All completed questionnaires were downloaded and attached as Appendix C, and will be forwarded to Mancosa.
3.10 Data Analysis
Data was subjected into a descriptive analysis. Mack (2010:166) states that the process converting raw data into understandable form and interpreted it is a descriptive analysis. Data was summarised and calculated into means, standard deviations and frequency distribution as the descriptive analysis permits those calculations.
The esurveycreator software was used to code and analyse data. The data was interpreted and converted into useful graphs and frequency tables. The results were used to draw out recommendations and conclusions.
3.11 Validity and Reliability
Validity and reliability are the key central subjects in all measurements. The outcomes of the research depend on the validity and reliability of the research instruments.
Tichapondwa (2013:144) proposes that an instrument validity is based on whether it can measure what it supposed to measure. Validity refers to measuring instruments that show the extent to which differences in score on the measurement reflect true differences among individuals, groups or situations in terms of the characteristics. They are used to measure or reflect true differences in the same individual or group rather than constant or random errors.
Reliability refers to the degree of accuracy of a measurement of an instrument (Polit and Hungler, 1999:296). Mouton and Marais (1990:79) state that one of the key consideration when collecting data is the reliability of the research instrument. Reliability analysis was tested on the Pilot study survey. According to the Cronbach Alpha, if the result value is greater than 0.70 then the results are acceptable of reliability test (Nunnaly, 1978). The test results conducted for reliability test were all greater than 0.70. This confirms that the instrument is reliable.
3.12 Elimination of Bias
In order to eliminate biasness, the research study adopted the simple random sampling technique.
3.13 Ethical Considerations
When people are involved in the research study as participants, there are ethical elements that the researcher faces. Researchers need to safeguard the rights of participants and institutions (Kimberlin and Winterstein, 2008:120). In this research study, the researcher has observed and respected the rights of all participants.
3.13.1 Ensuring participants have given informed consent
At the beginning of the survey, the researcher has explained about the research being conducted and highlight the fact that participants may withdraw at any time. A consent letter was presented to participants before questionnaire is completed. The participation was voluntary and independent and every participant was informed of their right to participate and to withdraw.
3.13.2 Ensuring no harm comes to participants
During data collection respect for human dignity and freedom from harm was maintain and observed (Kimberlin and Winterton, 2008:156). While conducting the survey, there was no participant was physical harm during completion of the questionnaire.
3.13.3 Ensuring confidentiality and anonymity
The participants’ information and responses collected during the study are kept private and results in this study are presented on an anonymous manner to protect the identities of the participants (Creswell et al., 2007: 291). This aspect includes the principle of trust in which I assured the participants that their trust would not be exploited for personal gain or benefit, by deceiving or betraying them in the research route or its published outcomes (Lubbe, 2003:41).
3.13.4 Ensuring that permission is obtained
There was no permission required to conduct the study as it was focus on public participation not participation from institutions. Individual permission was requested from the participants verbally and in the form of cover letter attached to the questionnaire.
This section has outline the research methodology for this research study. Reseach strategy, research paradigm, research design, population and sampling were discussed in this section. Ethical consideration was address in totality
The next section four will present the survey results with a discussion on the results and interpretation of the key findings.?
SECTION FOUR: RESULTS, DISCUSSION AND INTERPRETATION OF FINDINGS
This section will cover the data analysis of this research study. Discussion and interpretation of research data will also be covered in this section. Research limitations and conclusion will be discussed.
4.2 Interpretation and Discussion
The descriptive analysis of data in line with the objective of the research study will be discussed in order to draw out research findings.
4.2.1 Demography Information
The targeted population of this study was undergraduate university students staying around Hatfield in Pretoria. A sample of 80 were selected using a simple random sampling technique. In the selected sample population, seven (7) did not respond back, five (5) were disqualified as they were incomplete and 68 responses were qualified for the analysis.
188.8.131.52 Gender Representation
Figure 4.1 below represents the gender composition of students that participated in this research study. There were 40 (58.8%) female respondents and 28 (41.2%) male respondents. More female students have participated in this research study.
Figure 1 4.1: Gender Representation
184.108.40.206 Age Grouping
Figure 4.2 represents age group statistics of the respondents that participated in this research study. There was 40 (58.8%) respondents from 20-29 years’ age group, 20 (29.4%) respondents from 0-19 years’ age group and 8 (11.8%) from 30-39 years’ age group. The highest participants were from the 20-29 years’ age group. This is age group forms the highest number in the undergraduate level of most universities, which is a fair representation of the population.
Figure 2 4.2: Age Grouping
4.2.2 Entrepreneurship Module/Course
Figure 4.3 below represents participants that have enrol any entrepreneurship courses or module.
There is high number of respondents that have not enrol entrepreneurship course or module during their studies. About 23 (33.8%) respondents have indicated that they have enrol an entrepreneurship courses or module and 45 (66.2%) respondents indicated that they have not enrol any entrepreneurship course. This shows a need to include entrepreneurship modules in different fields of studies.
Figure 3 4.3: Entrepreneurship Course Enrolment
4.2.3 Perceptions towards Entrepreneurship
Table 4.1 below shows that overall percentage of perception towards entrepreneurship by the students. In investigating the perception of participants towards entrepreneurship, the above table indicates:
• 51.47% of respondents agreed to consider entrepreneurship as a career.
• 36.76% of respondents prefer to start their own businesses than to work for a company.
• 32.35% have agreed that starting a business is risky.
• 27.94% have agreed and 25% have strongly agreed that entrepreneurs make more money.
• 44.12% have agreed that entrepreneurship can solve unemployment challenges in South Africa, and 38.24% had also strongly agreed to this.
The results clearly show that (44.12% and 38.24%) most respondents believe that entrepreneurship can solve unemployment in South African. It can be concluded from this results that many respondents believe that entrepreneurship can solve the unemployment challenge in South Africa. Participants have a positive perception towards entrepreneurship as more than 51% consider it as a career.
Table 14.1: Perceptions towards Entrepreneurship
4.2.4 Intentions towards Entrepreneurship
From Table 4.2, intention towards entrepreneurship by participants is consolidated and interpreted as follows:
• 51.47% agreed to consider entrepreneurship as a career.
• 38.24% agreed and 32.35% strongly agree that they are risk takers.
• A high number of 41.18% agree to have intentions to become entrepreneurs.
• 44.12% agree that students must become entrepreneurs.
• Respondents (32.35%) strongly agree that they will start their own business in less than three years.
It can be concluded from the results that responded have positive intention towards entrepreneurship. From Table 4.2 (41.18% and 30.88%) have intentions to become entrepreneurs, which is a positive indication that respondents have good intentions towards entrepreneurship. This signals the rise of number of entrepreneurs in the near future as many respondents have an intent to be entrepreneurs. However, many were neutral (23.53%) about business opportunities in South Africa.
Table 24.2: Intention towards Entrepreneurship
4.2.5 Awareness about Entrepreneurship at University
From Table 4.3, the consolidation of results of awareness about entrepreneurship at universities is interpreted as follows:
• 36.76% respondents feel that students are being encouraged to pursue entrepreneurship in their university.
• 27.94% (disagree) respondents are not aware of business start-up the university is offering.
• 39.71% (Strongly disagree) respondents have never applied for business funding.
• 32.35% respondents believe that they have satisfactory information or knowledge about entrepreneurship.
• 38.24% respondents are neutral about the awareness/seminars that the university is conducting.
The results indicate that there is minimal awareness about university entrepreneurship programmes.. Students feel that they are being encouraged in classes to pursue entrepreneurship.
Table 3 4.3: Awareness about Entrepreneurship at University
4.3 Limitations of the Study
There were limitations during the conducting this research study:
• The time to conduct the study was limited to obtain a permission from universities around Pretoria, as universities have research committees to approve requests for conducting research surveys.
• The sample size of this study was small to generalise the entire population
• The sample size was dominated by students from only one institution
• The fair representation of different races was limited.
• There is a high possibility that perception of students can differ from reality.
In this section, the results of this research study was interpreted and discussed. There were more female respondents than males. The 20-29 years’ age group was the highest in number compare to other age groupings. The results of the respondents had shown that entrepreneurship is been perceived as a good thing amongst undergraduate students. Many respondents have high intention to become entrepreneurs. There is a minimal awareness in universities when it comes to the entrepreneurship awareness programmes.
SECTION FIVE: CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
The previous section has presented the results of data of the research study and interpretation. In this section, conclusion and recommendation of this research study will be presented. This research was conducted in order to investigate the perception, intention and awareness of undergraduate students towards entrepreneurship in Hatfield, Pretoria.
5.2 Findings from the Research Study
From the research study it was concluded that entrepreneurship contribute in creating employment and adds to economic growth of the country. That in order to address unemployment in the country, there must me new ways or innovations that will create new jobs, and this can be done by entrepreneurs.
5.3 Findings from the Literature Review
The literature review was covered in section 2 of this research report. From the literature review in section 2, it can be concluded that:
• Universities have a great influence on students’ perception towards entrepreneurship.
• Entrepreneurial intention of students drives their behaviour in becoming entrepreneurs.
• Entrepreneurship education contribute in encouraging people to become entrepreneurs and in developing entrepreneurial intentions amongst the youth.
5.4 Findings from the Primary Research
After conducting the research survey and interpreting the descriptive data from the primary research, this research study may conclude that:
• There was a positive perception toward entrepreneurship amongst the students.
• Students believe that entrepreneurship can solve unemployment in South Africa.
• There was high level of entrepreneurial intent amongst undergraduate students.
• Entrepreneurship awareness programmes in universities is at minimal.
• There were fewer undergraduate students that have enrolled for an entrepreneurship courses or modules in their studies.
5.5 Conclusions from the Findings
The results from the sample of 68 undergraduate students in Hatfield shows that entrepreneurship can be an alternative in reducing unemployment. From the research finding of this study it can be concluded that students from Hatfield in Pretoria view entrepreneurship as an alternative to reduce unemployment in South Africa. Their behaviour towards entrepreneurship can be concluded as positive as they have higher levels entrepreneurial intentions towards in it. It can be concluded from the findings that there are high number of entrepreneurs in the pipeline due to students who want to start their own businesses in the next three years. There are little or no awareness programmes in university campuses.
This section covers the recommendations that are based from the findings of this research study. From the results of this study, students view entrepreneurship as an alternative in reducing unemployment in South Africa.
5.6.1 Recommendation One: Business Funding Programmes to Students
Universities need to educate students on the direct source of start-up business funding available. This will bring awareness to students as many of them are not aware of available business financing. This will require universities to conduct business funding programmes.
5.6.2 Recommendation Two: Entrepreneurship Support
Institutions need to provide support to students with entrepreneurial intentions. It will encourage students to venture into entrepreneurship. Data bases of interested students will need to be initiated to monitor and provide support to the entrepreneurs.
5.6.3 Recommendation Three: Entrepreneurship Module
Universities need to implement entrepreneurship module to every programme or faculty. It will equip students with innovation in line with their qualification for them to venture into entrepreneurship. Curriculums might need to adjusted by institutions. This will necessitate further research study to verify it is feasible to implement.
This section has presented the conclusion of the findings of this research study including the recommendations that were triggered by the findings of this study. The findings of the results of this research study were covered in this section.