1) Response is based on Experience. 7) Response

1) All voluntary actions are controlled by Forebrain (

1) All reflex actions are controlled by Hind brain (
Cranial Reflex action and spinal cord ( Spinal reflex actions)

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2) It may spontaneously initiate actions without any
sensory stimulation.

2) It is caused by sensory stimulation e.g.; blinking of
the eyes.

3) It has slow response as cerebrum needs time to think
before an action.

3) It has Fast response.

4) It makes decision about making action like controlling
skeletal muscle.

4) It is not under control of will.

5) It has various responses to same stimulus. E.G; When
you get hungry, you decide what to eat or if you want to eat or not.

5) It has same responses to same stimulus e.g. ; Knee

6) raising hand when someone  wants to ask question or waving at someone
when saying bye bye  are examples of
voluntary actions.

6) Pumping of heart, blinking of eye, peristalsis
movement, knee jerk are examples of reflex or involuntary actions

7) Response is based on Experience.

7) Response is quick to avoid any upcoming danger.

8) Impulse passes over to opposite side of the body. For
e.g. right side of the brain controls left side of the body and vice versa.(Steane, 2017)

8) Stimulus, Neurones, action all on same side of body. (Steane, 2017)

nervous system controls the internal environment of the body without conscious
intervention and helps to control vital functions such as maintaining heartbeat,
digestion, temperature, composition of blood and excretion. For e.g. when in
stress, heart rate, blood pressure, and blood sugar goes up, this is controlled
by autonomic nervous system. The two types of autonomic nerves, sympathetic and
parasympathetic, have opposite effects but balance each other most of the time.

Both nerves produce different responses in a specific organ. The sympathetic
responses prepare the body to cope at the time of stress and parasympathetic
responses assists to conserve or restore energy. (Aviva.co.uk, 2017)

The autonomic nervous system controls the involuntary action or
reflex action, however the voluntary action or somatic nerves works together
with autonomic nervous system. For e.g. When the skin is exposed to cold air it
becomes blue, this is autonomic. At the same time impulses are sent to brain
for sensation of cold, this is somatic or voluntary action.


Amphetamines stimulates the central nervous system, they are
psychostimulants. They speed up the transmission of nerve impulses by
increasing the presence of three chemicals in brain known as neurotransmitters.

They are Dopamine, Serotonin and Norepinephrine or noradrenaline.

Amphetamines brings subjective changes in consciousness and mood
that user might find pleasant (Euphoria) or increased alertness.

Release of dopamine into brain gives a sense of reward and pleasure
like consuming a nice meal or when hugging your child.

Increase in serotonin level will cause diminishing of pain
perception, aggressiveness, appetite, and sexual behavior.

Norepinephrine causes body’s flight or fight response, increasing
heart rate, release of glucose from energy stores etc.

What normally happens is, dopamine is normally released in synapse
as a result of pleasurable activities such as eating food and then is recycled
by transporters back to the nerve cell and good feeling is over.

Amphetamines causes
increase in dopamine levels by invading the nerve cell preceding the synapse
and release extra dopamine in synapse and then prevent it from being recycled
making the feeling lasting longer and intense



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