What is a federation?
A federation is an organization or political body characterized
by its union between its smaller units. It is an assembly of states under a
central government but individuality in each of their internal affairs.
Nigeria as a
federation is fully independent which consists of three main regions: (northern,
western, and eastern), which was recognized by Bernard Bourdillon in 1939. He later gave the constitution to
his descendant Arthur Richards and it was later changed to the Richard
constitution of 1946.
Prior to this Nigeria was formally separated into the
northern and southern province, but gradually increased to three from 1901-1958.
Even though native-born leaders were appointed to govern the
provinces, there was still a large presence of British authority among the
As the British rule
ended in 1960, the Nigerian independence act 1960 changed
the Nigerian federation into an independent body, governed by Nnamdi Azikwe (November 16, 1960- October 1, 1963).
Nigeria was later stated as a republic on the 1st of October 1963,
as the former governor-general, Nnamdi Azikwe as the president.
Federal government is a structure that distributes the power
between the state government and other local governments. The constitution formulates
a domestic government in which entail an executive, legislative and judicial arm,
along with a scheme of checks and balances among the three units. The
president, the constitution of Nigeria and the federal courts bestow the powers
of each branch.
A state is a collection of individuals inhabiting a stable
region obliged by similar customs and trends into one political entity.
Nigeria is divided into numerous states, which are governmental
units that share power with the federal government. There are 36 states in Nigeria and each has its
own capital city under the same central agreement of the country, overseen by a
governor whom serves a maximum of 8
years in power.
The state regime may
have some form of independence or be under the authority of the federal
government. The main roles are to ensure the security of lives and properties
of the citizens, provision of essential amenities, creation of healthy
environment for businesses, establishment of health care services and
The local government is a system of public management that
exists as the lowest tier of government within a state.
Nigeria has 774
local government areas and a council consisting of a chairman and other
members, who are recognized as the Councillors, administers each area. The
local government has several functions, such as; assortment of taxes, economic suggestion
to the state, vehicle licensing, creation and conservation of public
establishments and markets, provision and preservation of public
transportation, construction and management of roads, highways and drains, etc.