What is a federation?A federation is an organization or political body characterizedby its union between its smaller units.
It is an assembly of states under acentral government but individuality in each of their internal affairs. Nigeria as afederation is fully independent which consists of three main regions: (northern,western, and eastern), which was recognized by Bernard Bourdillon in 1939. He later gave the constitution tohis descendant Arthur Richards and it was later changed to the Richardconstitution of 1946. Prior to this Nigeria was formally separated into thenorthern and southern province, but gradually increased to three from 1901-1958.
Even though native-born leaders were appointed to govern theprovinces, there was still a large presence of British authority among theregions. As the British ruleended in 1960, the Nigerian independence act 1960 changedthe Nigerian federation into an independent body, governed by Nnamdi Azikwe (November 16, 1960- October 1, 1963).Nigeria was later stated as a republic on the 1st of October 1963,as the former governor-general, Nnamdi Azikwe as the president. Federal government is a structure that distributes the powerbetween the state government and other local governments. The constitution formulatesa domestic government in which entail an executive, legislative and judicial arm,along with a scheme of checks and balances among the three units.
Thepresident, the constitution of Nigeria and the federal courts bestow the powersof each branch. State government A state is a collection of individuals inhabiting a stableregion obliged by similar customs and trends into one political entity.Nigeria is divided into numerous states, which are governmentalunits that share power with the federal government.
There are 36 states in Nigeria and each has itsown capital city under the same central agreement of the country, overseen by agovernor whom serves a maximum of 8years in power. The state regime mayhave some form of independence or be under the authority of the federalgovernment. The main roles are to ensure the security of lives and propertiesof the citizens, provision of essential amenities, creation of healthyenvironment for businesses, establishment of health care services andeducational systems. Local government The local government is a system of public management thatexists as the lowest tier of government within a state.Nigeria has 774local government areas and a council consisting of a chairman and othermembers, who are recognized as the Councillors, administers each area.
Thelocal government has several functions, such as; assortment of taxes, economic suggestionto the state, vehicle licensing, creation and conservation of publicestablishments and markets, provision and preservation of publictransportation, construction and management of roads, highways and drains, etc.