2) The id is the selfish and primitive andunconscious part of the mind that seeks to immediately satisfy our desires,wants, impulses and urges, many of which are tied to survival.
The id actsaccording to pleasure principle, which the concept that needs have to be metimmediately. The id doesn’t consider reality or the needs or convince of anyoneelse. The id is the onlycomponent of personality that is present from birth, as infants rely on theirparents to do everything for them and they don’t consider the needs of theirparents. The id is what causes a baby to cry. The ego moderates the id and the superego.
The ego is the rational part of our mind and balances the urges of the idagainst reality. The ego represents reason and common sense and acts accordingto reality principle, which is the control of the pleasure-seeking activity of theid in realistic ways that will benefit long term. The superego is the moralpart of our mind and strives us to act in a socially appropriate manner. Thesuperego controls our sense between right and wrong and helps us to fit intosociety. The superego punishes immoral behaviour by causing the feeling ofguilt. 3) The top of the iceberg symbolises conscious awareness, the bottomrepresents unconscious and the middle represents preconscious.
The main part ofthe iceberg beneath the water symbolises the id, where all of the desires,thoughts and memories are. It is at the bottom because it symbolizes somethingthat is hidden. The preconscious part consists of memorises that are not partof someone’s full awareness 4) Anna’s father contracted tuberculosis in1880 and died in April. Anna O who was 21 years old at the time came to DrBreuer for treatment and was diagnosed with hysteria, she suffered from paralysis,loss of sensation, hydrophobia and language difficulties as well ashallucinations.
These hallucinationswere traumatic and consisted of skeletons and black snakes, possibly due toseeing her own hair. Freud concluded that hysteria was due to sexual abuseduring childhood, Freud also concluded that Anna’sparalysis was linked to her dreams, as she experienced a dream where a blacksnake approached a person in bed and Anna was unable to protect the patient andfelt paralysed. Breuerestablished that talking about what she was experiencing offered some relief,which was called the ‘talking therapy’. It can be seen that trauma causes mentalsymptoms and these symptoms disappear when Anna remembers the causes of hersymptoms. As Anna was unable to drink water however during therapy Annarecalled a memory when she was younger and had a glass of water, she recalledseeing a dog that she didn’t like drink from the glass. Breuer connectedthis distressing memory to her inability to drink water. Anna’s treatment was important in the creation anddevelopment of physchoanalyis, and to identify the causes of mental illness.5a) People with anxiety disorders have decreasedlevels of serotonin, which is a neurotransmitter that cause one nerve tocommunicate with another, telling it what to do.
b) Chronic anxiety can cause fatigue,difficulty sleeping, muscle tension, and irritability. Anxiety is a reaction toa threat, like fear which focuses on a possible experience in the future. Gamma-aminobutyricacid is the main brain chemical that inhibits the activity of neurons. Substancesthat increase the activity of GABA decrease anxiety. Therefore tranquilizersare usually used to treat anxiety conditions. Although they have some sideeffects because GABA inhibits the activity of many types of neurons and notjust neurons involved in anxiety. GABA suppresses activity in most of the brainwhich may lead to memory loss, fatigue, and slurred movement and speech.References:AmericanPsychiatric Association.
(2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mentaldisorders (4th ed., text rev.). Washington, DC: Author.
Walker,D. L., Toufexis, D.
J., & Davis, M. (2003). Role of the bed nucleus of thestria terminalis versus the amygdale in fear, stress, and anxiety. EuropeanJournal of Pharmacology, 463, 199-216. Generalized anxiety disorder is characterisedby excessive anxiety about many different aspects of life, for examplerelationships, financial situations and work. Cognitive-behavioural therapy(CBT) is the first psychological medication for GAD. In most CBT treatment clientsare taught how to notice early situational, behavioural, cognitive, orphysiological cues so that they can intervene early on in the anxiety cycle.
Theyare also taught relaxation techniques. Therapy is also used to explore concernsand emotional experiences.References· American Psychiatric Association.(2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.
; textrev.). Washington, DC: Author.· Borkovec, T. D., Alcaine, O. M.
, , E. (2004). Avoidance theory of worry and generalized anxiety disorder.In Mennin, D. S., Heimberg, R. G.
, & Turk, C. L. (Eds.), Generalizedanxiety disorder: Advances in research and practice (pp. 77-108). New York:Guilford Press.· Borkovec, T. D.
, & Ruscio, A. M.(2001). Psychotherapy for generalized anxiety disorder. Journal of ClinicalPsychiatry, 62, 37-45.· Dugas, M. J.
, Buhr, K., , R. (2004). The role of intolerance of uncertainty in etiology and maintenance.In Mennin, D. S., Heimberg, R.
G., & Turk, C. L. (Eds.), Generalizedanxiety disorder: Advances in research and practice (pp. 143-163). New York:Guilford Press. Symptoms of having an anxiety disorder include muscle tension,headaches, and insomnia, and there is a possibility that the excretory anddigestive system will suffer.
The constant state of stress can lead to clinicaldepression, as well as increased risk of diabetes, high blood pressure, and heartdisease. Anxiety disorders can occur at any time, but they usually begin bymiddle age. Women are 60 percent more likely to have an anxiety disorder thanmen. Some social signs of anxiety disorders are social withdrawal, changes inpersonality, trouble in school, family or relationship problems, alcohol ordrug abuse, depression or suicidal thoughts, frequent emotional and physicalhealth issues.