2) are. It is at the bottom because

2)   The id is the selfish and primitive and
unconscious part of the mind that seeks to immediately satisfy our desires,
wants, impulses and urges, many of which are tied to survival. The id acts
according to pleasure principle, which the concept that needs have to be met
immediately. The id doesn’t consider reality or the needs or convince of anyone
else. The id is the only
component of personality that is present from birth, as infants rely on their
parents to do everything for them and they don’t consider the needs of their
parents. The id is what causes a baby to cry.  The ego moderates the id and the superego.
The ego is the rational part of our mind and balances the urges of the id
against reality. The ego represents reason and common sense and acts according
to reality principle, which is the control of the pleasure-seeking activity of the
id in realistic ways that will benefit long term. The superego is the moral
part of our mind and strives us to act in a socially appropriate manner. The
superego controls our sense between right and wrong and helps us to fit into
society. The superego punishes immoral behaviour by causing the feeling of


The top of the iceberg symbolises conscious awareness, the bottom
represents unconscious and the middle represents preconscious. The main part of
the iceberg beneath the water symbolises the id, where all of the desires,
thoughts and memories are. It is at the bottom because it symbolizes something
that is hidden. The preconscious part consists of memorises that are not part
of someone’s full awareness

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4)     Anna’s father contracted tuberculosis in
1880 and died in April. Anna O who was 21 years old at the time came to Dr
Breuer for treatment and was diagnosed with hysteria, she suffered from paralysis,
loss of sensation, hydrophobia and language difficulties as well as
hallucinations.  These hallucinations
were traumatic and consisted of skeletons and black snakes, possibly due to
seeing her own hair. Freud concluded that hysteria was due to sexual abuse
during childhood, Freud also concluded that Anna’s
paralysis was linked to her dreams, as she experienced a dream where a black
snake approached a person in bed and Anna was unable to protect the patient and
felt paralysed. Breuer
established that talking about what she was experiencing offered some relief,
which was called the ‘talking therapy’. It can be seen that trauma causes mental
symptoms and these symptoms disappear when Anna remembers the causes of her
symptoms. As Anna was unable to drink water however during therapy Anna
recalled a memory when she was younger and had a glass of water, she recalled
seeing a dog that she didn’t like drink from the glass. Breuer connected
this distressing memory to her inability to drink water. Anna’s treatment was important in the creation and
development of physchoanalyis, and to identify the causes of mental illness.

5a)   People with anxiety disorders have decreased
levels of serotonin, which is a neurotransmitter that cause one nerve to
communicate with another, telling it what to do. 







b) Chronic anxiety can cause fatigue,
difficulty sleeping, muscle tension, and irritability. Anxiety is a reaction to
a threat, like fear which focuses on a possible experience in the future. Gamma-aminobutyric
acid is the main brain chemical that inhibits the activity of neurons. Substances
that increase the activity of GABA decrease anxiety. Therefore tranquilizers
are usually used to treat anxiety conditions. Although they have some side
effects because GABA inhibits the activity of many types of neurons and not
just neurons involved in anxiety. GABA suppresses activity in most of the brain
which may lead to memory loss, fatigue, and slurred movement and speech.


Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental
disorders (4th ed., text rev.). Washington, DC: Author.

D. L., Toufexis, D. J., & Davis, M. (2003). Role of the bed nucleus of the
stria terminalis versus the amygdale in fear, stress, and anxiety. European
Journal of Pharmacology, 463, 199-216.








Generalized anxiety disorder is characterised
by excessive anxiety about many different aspects of life, for example
relationships, financial situations and work. Cognitive-behavioural therapy
(CBT) is the first psychological medication for GAD. In most CBT treatment clients
are taught how to notice early situational, behavioural, cognitive, or
physiological cues so that they can intervene early on in the anxiety cycle. They
are also taught relaxation techniques. Therapy is also used to explore concerns
and emotional experiences.


American Psychiatric Association.
(2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.; text
rev.). Washington, DC: Author.

Borkovec, T. D., Alcaine, O. M., &
Behar, E. (2004). Avoidance theory of worry and generalized anxiety disorder.
In Mennin, D. S., Heimberg, R. G., & Turk, C. L. (Eds.), Generalized
anxiety disorder: Advances in research and practice (pp. 77-108). New York:
Guilford Press.

Borkovec, T. D., & Ruscio, A. M.
(2001). Psychotherapy for generalized anxiety disorder. Journal of Clinical
Psychiatry, 62, 37-45.

Dugas, M. J., Buhr, K., &
Ladouceur, R. (2004). The role of intolerance of uncertainty in etiology and maintenance.
In Mennin, D. S., Heimberg, R. G., & Turk, C. L. (Eds.), Generalized
anxiety disorder: Advances in research and practice (pp. 143-163). New York:
Guilford Press.















Symptoms of having an anxiety disorder include muscle tension,
headaches, and insomnia, and there is a possibility that the excretory and
digestive system will suffer. The constant state of stress can lead to clinical
depression, as well as increased risk of diabetes, high blood pressure, and heart
disease. Anxiety disorders can occur at any time, but they usually begin by
middle age. Women are 60 percent more likely to have an anxiety disorder than
men. Some social signs of anxiety disorders are social withdrawal, changes in
personality, trouble in school, family or relationship problems, alcohol or
drug abuse, depression or suicidal thoughts, frequent emotional and physical
health issues.



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