2 and durability of c0ncrete, the use of

2.1.1Portland Pozolona Cment:
There are two needs that any cment must meet: i it must develop the appropriate strength; and ii it must exhibit the appropriate rheological behaviour.
In this project Work, the Cment selected is Portland Pozolona Cment. The technical information is as follows:
Brand Name : Ultra Tech Cment
Conforming IS Codes : IS 1489-1991
The Laboratory Tests Results are attached herewith. The Tests includes i Fineness of Cment, ii Standard Consistency, iii Compressive Strength of Mortar Cubes sq. cm/gm for P.P.C. The test results are above the limiting value.
Portland cment 1489-1991
Owing to its pozzolanic properties, fly ash is used as a replacment for some of the Portland cment content of c0ncrete. The use of fly ash as a pozzolanic ingredient was recognized as early as 1914, although the earliest noteworthy study of its use was in 1937. Before its use was lost to the Dark Ages, Roman structures such as aqueducts or the Pantheon in Rome used volcanic ash or Pozzolana which possesses similar properties to fly ash as pozzolan in their c0ncrete. As pozzolan greatly improves the strength and durability of c0ncrete, the use of ash is a key factor in their preservation.
Use of fly ash as a partial replacment for Portland cment is generally limited to Class C fly ashes. Class “F” fly ashes can have volatile effects on the entrained air content of c0ncrete, causing reduced resistance to freeze/thaw damage. Fly ash can add to the c0ncrete’s final strength and increase its chemical resistance and durability. Fly ash can also significantly improve the workability of c0ncrete. Recently c0ncrete mix design for partial cment replacment with High Volume Fly Ash (50% cment replacment) has been developed. For Roller Compacted C0ncrete (RCC)used in dam construction replacment values of 70% have been achieved with processed fly ash at the Ghatghar Dam project in Maharashtra, India. Due to the spherical shape of fly ash particles, it can also increase workability of cment while reducing water demand. The replacment of Portland cment with fly ash is considered by its promoters to reduce the greenhouse gas “footprint” of c0ncrete, as the production of one ton of Portland cment produces approximately one ton of CO2 as compared to zero CO2 being produced using existing fly ash. New fly ash production, i.e., the burning of coal, produces approximately twenty to thirty tons of CO2 per ton of fly ash. Since the worldwide production of Portland cment is expected to reach nearly 2 billion tons by 2010, replacment of any large portion of this cment by fly ash could significantly reduce carbon emissions associated with construction, as long as the comparison takes the production of fly ash as a given.

2.2 Aggregats (Is: 383 :1963)

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Aggregats are the important constituents in c0ncrete. They give body to the c0ncrete, reduce
shrinkage and effect economy. Earlier, aggregats were considerd as chemically inert materials but now it has been recognized that some of the aggregats are chemically active and also that certain aggregats exhibit chemical bond at the interface of aggregat and paste. The fact is that the aggregats occupy 70–. The properties of c0ncrete, namely, compressive strength and flexural strength were studied. A number of papers have already been published on the use of fibers in c0ncrete. A considerable amount of research has been directed towards studying the various properties of c0ncrete as well as reinforced c0ncrete due to the addition of steel fibers.
Aggregats are the important constituents in c0ncrete. They give body to the c0ncrete, reduce
shrinkage and effect economy. Earlier, aggregats were considerd as chemically inert materials
80 per cent of the volume of c0ncrete. To know more about the c0ncrete it is very essential that one should know more about the aggregats which constitute major volume in c0ncrete. Without the study of the aggregat in depth and range, the study of the c0ncrete is incomplete. Cment is the only factory made standard component in c0ncrete. Other ingredients, namely, water and aggregats are natural materials and can vary to any extent in many of their properties. The depth and range of studies that is required to be made in respect of aggregats to understand their widely varying effects and influence on the properties of c0ncrete cannot be overestimated.

C0ncrete can be considered as two phase materials for convenience; paste phase and aggregat phase. Having studied the paste phase of c0ncrete in the earlier chapters, we shallow study the aggregats and aggregat phase in c0ncrete in this chapter. The study of aggregats can best be done under the following sub-headings:

a Classificatio
b Source
c Size
d Shape
e Texture
f Strength
g Specific gravity and bulk density
h Moisture content
i Bulking factor
j Cleanliness
k Soundness
l Chemical properties
m Thermal properties
n Durability
o Sieve analysis
p Grading
2.3 Water
Water is an important ingredient of c0ncrete as it actively participates in the chemical reaction with cment, and it helps to form the strength giving cment gel and provide required workability to the c0ncrete. The quantity and quality of water is required to be looked into very carefully. Portable water is use in c0ncrete. Since Quantity of Water Affect the Strength it is necessary for us to go into the purity and quality of water.

2.4 Plastics
2.4.1 Advantages of Using Waste Plastic As A Modifier.

• It easily binds to coarse Aggregat at medium temperature.
• The material is available in local area.
• The disposal of use plastics, which is an environment problem, is there by eliminated.

2.4.2 Sources of Employment In The Management Of Waste Plastics

Plastic recycling is taking place on a significant scale in India. As much as 60% of industrial and urban plastic waste is recycled. People in India have released plastic wastes have immense economic value, as a result of this, recycling of waste plastics plays a major role in providing employment, resulting in economic development of the country.

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