A general Marx thought classes would disappear in

Topic: ScienceSocial Science
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Last updated: May 17, 2019

A critical theorist was Habermas, he concluded that earlier paradigms were not up to date with the current situation and did not question earlier thinking patterns. He developed theories build on a typology of interest.

He said three types of interest generated three types of knowledge. A technical interest based on analytical knowledge, a practical interest was concerned with learning about the meaning of a situation and the emancipating interest was in line with learning about the growth and advancement of a circumstance  Critical theory.                                                                                                                                                                  societyFeminist theory is one of the major contemporary sociological theories, which analyzes the status of women and men in society with the purpose of using that knowledge to better women’s lives.

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They have also started to question the differences between women, including how race, class, ethnicity, and age intersect with gender. Feminist theory is most concerned with giving a voice to women and highlighting the various ways women have contributed to  Feminism:   This view that human history consists of ongoing class struggle that will ultimately culminate in the establishment of communism, in which the workers own the means of economic production (for example, factories). In sociology, Marxism explains social change and movements. Developed by Karl Marx in the mid-1800s, Marxism holds that in a capitalist society the owners of the means of production oppress those who work in them. The resulting class conflict leads to social change in the form of revolution, as the workers overthrow the ruling class.

In general Marx thought classes would disappear in a communist society. Marxism             Auguste Comte helped develop functionalism in the 19th century, and functionalist Emile Durkheim later compared society to the human body. Just as the body consists of different, interrelated organs that enable it to survive, society consists of different components that enable it to survive and which depend on each other. This sees society as a system of relationships that creates the structure of the society in which we live. According to functionalism, it can explain social structures and social behavior in terms of the components of a society and their functions.

Functionalists like Durkheim say sociologists should study social facts. Emile Durkheim, father of sociology developed his view of human society as functioning like a single organism (like the human body). This perspective is called organic analogy. Functionalism It is a branch of interpretivist sociology, emphasizes the importance to explain human behavior and human society by examining the ways in which people interpret the actions of others, develop a self-concept or self-image, and act in terms of meanings. It was developed by George Herbert Mead an American Sociologist (1863-1931) he was the founder of Symbolic Interactionism Symbolic interactionism,  This theory takes a contrasting stance to structuralists on looking at society.

The social action perspectives examine smaller groups within society and unlike structuralism, are concerned with the subjective states of individuals bringing about a different view on social change. Marxism believe that social change arises because of the actions of large institutions or groups of people. However, they ignore the influence individuals have on social change and the way individuals react to it.  Anti-positivism or interpretivism  mental events to chemical events. It also involves the contention that “processes are reducible to physiological, physical or chemical events,” and even that “social processes are reducible to relationships between and actions of individuals,” or that “biological organisms are reducible to physical systems.”| Sources: http://en.wikipedia.

org/wiki/PositivismDefinition of PositivismIn sociology, positivism is the view that social phenomena (such as human social behavior and how societies are structured) ought to be studied using only the methods of the natural sciences. So, positivism is a view about the appropriate methodology of social science, emphasizing empirical observation. It is also associated with empiricism (the view that knowledge is primarily based on experience via the five senses), and it is opposed to metaphysics — roughly, the philosophical study of what is real — on the grounds that metaphysical claims cannot be verified by sense experience. Positivism was developed in the 19th century by Auguste Comte, who coined the term “sociology.” Many contemporary thinkers criticize positivism, claiming for example that not all data is empirically observable.

Definition: Positivism is a way of thinking developed by Auguste Comte and is based on the assumption that it is possible to observe social life and establish reliable, valid knowledge about how it works. This knowledge can then be used to affect the course of social change and improve the human condition. Positivism also argues that sociology should concern itself only with what can be observed with the senses and that theories of social life should be built in a rigid, linear, and methodical way on a base of verifiable fact. It has had relatively little influence on contemporary sociology, however, because it is argued that it encourages a misleading emphasis on superficial facts without any attention to underlying mechanisms that cannot be observed.|it towards the future was key in transitioning from the theological and metaphysical phases. The idea of progress was central to Comte’s new science, Sociology.

Sociology would “lead to the historical consideration of every science” because “the history of one science, including pure political history, would make no sense unless it were attached to the study of the general progress of all of humanity”. As Comte would say, “from science comes prediction; from prediction comes action.”The key features of positivism as of the 1950s, as defined in the “received view”, are:1. A focus on science as a product, a linguistic or numerical set of statements; 2. A concern with axiomatization, that is, with demonstrating the logical structure and coherence of these statements; 3. An insistence on at least some of these statements being testable, that is amenable to being verified, confirmed, or falsified by the empirical observation of reality; statements that would, by their nature, be regarded as untestable included the teleological; (Thus positivism rejects much of classical metaphysics.

) 4. The belief that science is markedly cumulative;5. The belief that science is predominantly transcultural;6. The belief that science rests on specific results that are dissociated from the personality and social position of the investigator; 7.

The belief that science contains theories or research traditions that are largely commensurable; 8. The belief that science sometimes incorporates new ideas that are discontinuous from old ones; 9. The belief that science involves the idea of the unity of science, that there is, underlying the various scientific disciplines, basically one science about one real world.Positivism is also depicted as “the view that all true knowledge is scientific,” and that all things are ultimately measurable. Because of its “close association with reductionism,” positivism and reductionism involve the view that “entities of one kind.

.. are reducible to entities of another,” such as societies to numbers, or Comte describes the Metaphysical Phase of man as the time since the Enlightenment, a time steeped in logical rationalism, to the time after right the French Revolution. This second phase states that the universal rights of man are most important. The idea that man is born with certain rights, that should and cannot be taken away, that must be respected and central at its heart. With this in mind democracies and dictators rose and fell in attempt to maintain the innate rights of man.The final stage of the trilogy of Comte’s universal law is the Scientific, or Positive Stage.

The central idea of this phase is the idea that individual rights are more important than the rule of any one person. Comte stated the idea that man is able to govern himself is what makes this stage innately different from the rest. There is no higher power governing the masses and the intrigue of any one person than the idea that he can achieve anything based on his individual free will and authority. It is third principle that is is what is most important in the positive stage.These three phases are what Comte calls the Universal Rule – in relation to society and its development.

Neither the second nor the third phase can be reached without the completion and understanding of the preceding stage. All stages must be completed in progress.The irony of this series of phases is that though Comte attempted to prove that human development has to go through these three stages it seems that the Positivist stage is far from becoming a realization. This is due to two truths. The Positivist Phase requires having complete understanding of the universe and world around us and requires that society should never know if it is in this Positivist Phase. Some may argue that the Positivist phase could not be reached unless one were God thus reverting to the first and initial phase or argue that man is constantly using science to discover and research new things leading one back to the second Metaphysical Phase. Thus, some believe Comte’s Positivism to be circular.

Comte believed that the appreciation of the past and the ability to build on Scientific explanations is the third way of explaining phenomenon. In the case of scientific reasoning it judges things based on observable and measurable ways of thinking. Metaphysical is the speculative reasoning people may think about when deciding on an action to take, for example Astrology or Karma are ways of metaphysical thinking. One of the key branches to stem from enlightenment is Positivism. Positivism is deeply based on the view that whatever exists can be verified through experiments, observation and mathematical or logical proof. This was initiated by Auguste Comte in the 19th century (reference). During the early development, many contemporary thinkers criticise positivism.

He argued that the only authentic knowledge is scientific knowledge and that such knowledge can only come from positive affirmation of theories through strict scientific method. This view is sometimes referred to as a scientist ideology and it is often shared by technocrats who believe in the necessary progress through scientific progress everything must be seen, heard, tasted, smelt and felt (senses) to draw facts about society and the way it works not to do with revelation. These three phases such as  The Theological Phase is based on whole-hearted belief in all things with reference to God. it deals with mankind accepting the doctrines of the church and not questioning the world.

It dealt with the restrictions put in place by the religious organization at the time and the total acceptance of any “fact” placed forth for society to believe.Positivism    The Enlightenment which begin at around 1600-1700 during the scientific revolution by European scholars believed in a few ideas. They had a mistrust of religion and believed more in quantitative measures (reference). Scientific thinking could be applied to society, taking risks can improve on society and as a generalisation, man is naturally good.

 The term ‘sociology’ is a discipline that helps us understand the functionality of human society. O’Byrne states that ‘Sociology is a study of how we live in a world with other people’ (O’Byrne, 2010, p3). Considerable research has been done around the sociological theory over the past millennium. A sociological theory is a set of ideas that provides an explanation for human society and they help us understand the world and how it works – as a result they provide a and partial view of reality.

They can be grouped together according to a variety of criteria. The most important of these is the distinction between Structural and Social action theories, combination of understanding the role of people and the economy on a micro and macro level. Therefore, it analyses the way society fits together. The development of sociological theories explains the world from many different viewpoints on a micro and macro level? These critical questions will be analyzed in this report by scrutinizing the various sociological theories that have developed over the years from enlightenment in the 1600’s all the way up to positivism and interpretivism that we have today. These differing viewpoints will then be applied to the topic of childhood obesity and how they perceive the same topic from completely opposing angles. Finally, the contribution of research of the theories to the topic area and how they have enhanced understanding of the ways in which research contributes to knowledge on this topic will be discussed.

Sociological theory has developed exponentially over the centuries. The ideas and thoughts about how the world constantly moves and develops can be explained literally and metaphorically {REF}. However, one may ask, what are the causes and reasons as to why society is the way it is? Why do humans behave in a certain way? Are certain actions down to simple statistics or is there a greater explanation and reasoning behind the social phenomena that


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