| | |ABSENTEEISM | | | | | | | | | |DECLARATION |DECLARATION I hereby declare that the assignment entitled ‘ABSENTEEISM’ is an original work done by me in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of | | |ACKNOWLEDGEMENT | ACKNOWLEDGMENT I express my deep sense of gratitude to Dr. xxxxxxxx.
His time to time suggestions and valuable advice helped me very much in the completion of this Assignment.I convey heartfelt thanks to my family members, friends and well-wishers for their moral support throughout the preparation of this Assignment. | | |CONTENTS | CONTENTS 1. INTRODUCTION 2. ABSENTEEISM 3. CAUSES OF ABSENTEEISM 4. MEASURES TO CONTROL ABSENTEEISM 5.
GUIDELINES FOR ABSENTEEISM CONTROL 6. CONCLUSION 7. BIBILIOGRAPHY | |INTRODUCTION | INTRODUCTION Success of an organized industry is largely depending upon efficiency and experience of the workers.
In any organization some holidays and occasional vacations are permitted to the workers. This is done in order to increase the efficiency of the employees and also to keep them happy and satisfied by fulfilling their family and other commitments.Generally short leave without pay does not affect the work or production.
But long leave will influence the production and production capacity of the labour. The employee can take these leaves with the prior permission of the management. These leaves are known as authorized leaves.
However in addition to authorized leave employee tends to stay away from work at their will without informing the employer or obtaining their permission. This habit of enjoying willful unauthorized and unexplained avoidable absents is called absenteeism, which invites disciplinary actions.The rate of absenteeism is defined as the percentage of man-days lost due to absents to the total man-days scheduled to works, when employer has works available for the worker and worker is aware of it. Indian economy was mainly based on agriculture. But during the British period a number of industrial towns and small scales industries developed rural people started to migrate such towns for searching jobs, which created a new class of labours-industrial labour. As an effect to the industrial revolution in Europe, the British took interest to develop industrial cities like Calcutta and Bombay.The migrant labour from villages became back born of the industrial production.
As the rate of availability of transportation and other facilities are more in those cities new industries are also coming around these areas only. Industrial advancement is essential for the economical development of the country. So now India is trying to advance in industrial sector. Government policies are framed towards rapid industrial growth through technological advancement. Man money material and machine are the main four factors of production among this man are the most important factor and it is the ultimate end of production also.
A policy that requires within an organization about how to manage the state of chronic absence from work. Absenteeism is usually addressed through progressively stricter disciplinary measures that can result in the termination of the individual’s employment. This is generally governed by the organization’s attendance policy. | | |ABSENTEEISM | MEANING AND DEFINITIONS Absenteeism is the habit or practice of being an Absentee and an absentee is one who habitually stays away” Webster’s Dictionary. In other words, it means the absence of an employee from work when he is scheduled to be at work, it is unauthorized, unexplained, and avoidable and willfully absence from work. Absenteeism is a habitual pattern of absence from a duty or obligation.
Traditionally, absenteeism has been viewed as an indicator of poor individual performance, as well as a breach of an implicit contract between employee and employer; it was seen as a management problem, and framed in economic or quasi-economic terms.More recent scholarship seeks to understand absenteeism as an indicator of psychological, medical, or social adjustment to work. As a result, many employees feel obliged to come to work while ill, and transmit communicable diseases to their co-workers. This leads to even greater absenteeism and reduced productivity among other workers who try to work while ill. Work forces often excuse absenteeism caused by medical reasons if the worker supplies a doctor’s note or other form of documentation. Sometimes, people choose not to show up for work and do not call in advance, which businesses may find to be unprofessional and inconsiderate.This is called a “no call” or “no show.
” According to Nelson & Quick people who are dissatisfied with their jobs are absent more frequently. They went on to say that the type of dissatisfaction that most often leads employees to miss work is dissatisfaction with the work itself. The psychological model that discusses this is the “withdrawal model,” which assumes that absenteeism represents individual withdrawal from dissatisfying working conditions. This finds empirical support in a negative association between absence and job satisfaction, especially satisfaction with the work itself.Medical-based understanding of absenteeism find support in research that links absenteeism with smoking, problem drinking, low back pain, and migraines. Absence ascribed to medical causes is often still, at least in part, voluntary.
The line between psychological and medical causation is blurry, given that there are positive links between both work stress and depression and absenteeism. Depressive tendencies may lie behind some of the absence ascribed to poor physical health, as with adoption of a “culturally approved sick role. This places the adjective “sickness” before the word “absence,” and carries a burden of more proof than is usually offered. Evidence indicates that absence is generally viewed as “mildly deviant workplace behavior. ” For example, people tend to hold negative stereotypes of absentees, underreport their own absenteeism, and believe their own attendance record is better than that of their peers. Negative attributions about absence then bring about three outcomes: the behavior is open to social control, sensitive to social context, and is a potential source of workplace conflict.Absenteeism, often defined as unplanned absence of an employee, can considerably affect the operation of a shift work facility, especially if the absent person is critical to the operation. Absenteeism can result in: • payroll costs, as a replacement employee may have to be paid overtime • dissatisfied customers who have to wait longer for service • Disgruntled employees, especially those who regularly have to take up the slack of someone who is often absent.
Absenteeism results from health and personal reasons (such as the need to get more sleep, to get the car fixed, to find someone to look after their children).Only a third of absence is linked to health problems. The rate of absenteeism is calculated by taking two actors in to consideration that is the no of man shifts scheduled to work and number of persons actually present. Any employee is to be considered scheduled to work when employer has work available and the employee is aware of it, and when the employer has no reasons to expect well in advance that the employee will not be available for the work at the specified time. While calculating absenteeism, privilege leave strike lockout, lay-off or regularized overstay is excluded.
Since there is no uniform definition or interpretation of absenteeism prevails a statistical agency whether sponsored by the government or a private body should ensure that employers maintain figures on the basis of precise and uniform definition. Rate of Absenteeism = (No of man days lost / No of man days scheduled) * 100 There may be various factors such as physical conditions social factors, financial factors, which is responsible for the situations. CHRONIC ABSENTEEISM Human resources managers also grapple with problems posed by workers who are chronically absent.The legal right of employers to discipline employees who are chronically absent is firmly established; employers must first, however, make such employees aware of the problem and give them a chance to improve. Some companies have implemented a surprisingly simple solution to the problem of chronic absenteeism: they have the worst offenders counsel each other. In one research study patterned after drug and alcohol abuse programs, a company paired valued employees who had absence problems with each other. If one felt like skipping work, he or she was encouraged to call the buddy to talk it out.
During the study, the employees’ absence rates dropped by nearly 50 percent. Once they stopped participating in this absence-intervention program, their absence levels increased, but they remained lower than they had been before peer counseling. Employees who participated in the study found that they could talk freely with each other about the reasons behind their absences. The buddy would help talk through the problem, and encourage the wavering employee to return to work.
Absence-intervention programs have also revealed that absentee workers have little idea how much time they were really missing from work.They knew they were taking “too much” time, but until the buddy started tracking it for them, they were unaware of how their absence was affecting the company. Similarly, companies are increasingly aware that, by understanding the causes of absenteeism, the phenomenon can be reduced to its lowest possible level. Recent research has indicated that rates of absenteeism can be predicted by analyzing an employee’s job satisfaction, job involvement, and work stress. Additionally, a worker’s family status is a key predictor of absenteeism.
Employees with children, particularly single parents, are far more likely to be absent than those without children. As such, future absence-management policies will most likely include the concept of paid time off coupled with improved family health, child care/elder care, and other programs designed to improve the quality of employees’ lives and relieve some of their family and other non-work responsibilities. | | |CAUSES OF ABSENTEEISM |CAUSES OF ABSENTEEISM Absenteeism is a phenomenon found in every industry and in all countries. But the causes behind are unique on. It may be different to different countries. In common following are the main reasons for absenteeism. 1. Social and religious functions: Indian society is highly traditional and custom bound.
There fore religious and social functions naturally make the workers to stay away from work. Especially in Kerala festivals and functions are many. So man-days lost in the industries on account of them are large in number. . Drinking and amusement In the modem time life of industrial workers becomes highly mechanical. Also due to the completion it may have to face in his work place, he likely to experience a good amount of stress. Family circumstances who contribute to them occupational stress. Then to get escape from all the stress, few of them land up in drinking and concerned activities.
It may influence in the presence in very next day. 3. Industrial fatigue Insufficient remuneration may compel the worker to search for a part time job or other business.But continues work makes him quite fix and in turn he stays away from his prescribed work in the next day. 4. Unhealthy working condition Irritating and intolerable working conditions exist in the factory is also a factor for absenteeism. Heat, dust and other pollutants, noise and vibrations in the factory, bad lighting conditions, fumes, crowding all of these effect workers health causing him to remain absent for long time. 5.
Absence of adequate welfare facilities. Absenteeism is also due to the inadequate welfare facilities available to the workers.For majority of the industrialists in India still look upon welfare work as a barren liability rather than a wise investment. Fed up with the absents of basic facilities such as sanitation washing and bathing facilities, first aid appliances ambulance rooms, drinking water, canteen, rest rooms and creches etc; The worker quite often stay away from work place. 6. Supervisory attitude This places a vital roll in maintaining harmonious condition at the work place. A particular supervisor may misbehave in a shift. Naturally that supervisor is likely to get less no of workers to complete the task.
. In adequate leave facilities. Negligence on the part of employee to provide adequate leave facilities compel the workers to fall back on ESI leaves.
Thus ESI leaves is one way and escape route to get leave to meet the personnel requirements, rather than for sickness related matters of-course sickness is another reason for staying away from work. | | |MEASURES TO CONTROL ABSENTEEISM |Measures to Control Absenteeism Absenteeism is a serious problem of the management because it involves additional expense of heavy amount. Researches and under studies are kept in readiness to take place of the absentee failing which the overhead cost of the idle equipment has to be wanted. Experts’ recommends following measures, which can be adopted to reduce absenteeism. 1.
Adoption of a well defined recruitment procedure A good recruitment policy free of any unnecessary consideration for any group should be adopted.Employers should aim at the development of employees. 2. Healthy and hygienic working conditions. It is essential to provide healthy and proper working conditions. That will help the employee cheerful and increase productivity and efficiency of operations through the plant. 3. Reasonable wages, allowances and job security for workers Since wages of an employee determine his as well as his family’s standard of living this is the most important factor.
The management should pay reasonable wages and allowances. 4. Motivation of workers.The management should recognize the need of workers and offer them adequate and cheap hosing facilities, free education for their children other monitory and non-monitory benefits. These measures will definitely motivate them and they will contribute their best to the organization.
5. Improve communication and proper redressel of grievance. A suitable medium for organizational communication depending to the educational status of the employee should be created.
Also a procedure for prompt redressel of grievances is essential.Supervisors should also be trained handle the workers grievance in an informal and human manner. 6. Liberal grant of leave An effective way of dealing with absenteeism is to liberalize the leave rules the management’s strict attitude in granting leave on holidays even when the need is genuine tempts the workers to take ESI leaves.
7. Cordial relation between supervisors and workers Cordial relation between supervisors and workers in essential to maintain discipline and to increase productivity. One of the workers and supervises is absenteeism.
8. Safety and accident preventionApart from technical measures to ensure safety and accident by providing necessary protection to the workers, the personal factor which culminates into accidents can also be avoided by proper interaction between all lends. Management should provide opportunity fort this interaction and mutual understanding. 9. Development of workers education A system of worker’s education should be designed and developed by taking in to account their educational needs to lead a clear and healthy life to be responsible and committed worker, to be a beautiful citizen of the country and also to aware of the night and obligation. | |GUIDELINES FOR ABSENTEEISM CONTROL | GUIDELINES FOR ABSENTEEISM CONTROL There are two types of absenteeism, each of which requires a different type of approach. 1.
Innocent Absenteeism Innocent absenteeism refers to employees who are absent for reasons beyond their control; like sickness and injury. Innocent absenteeism is not culpable which means that it is blameless.In a labour relations context this means that it can not be remedied or treated by disciplinary measures. 2.
Culpable Absenteeism Culpable absenteeism refers to employees who are absent without authorization for reasons which are within their control. For instance, an employee who is on sick leave even though he/she is not sick, and it can be proven that the employee was not sick, is guilty of culpable absenteeism. To be culpable is to be blameworthy. In a labour relations context this means that progressive discipline can be applied.For the large majority of employees, absenteeism is legitimate, innocent absenteeism which occurs infrequently. Procedures for disciplinary action apply only to culpable absenteeism. Many organizations take the view that through the process of individual absentee counselling and treatment, the majority of employees will overcome their problems and return to an acceptable level of regular attendance.
Identifying Excessive Absenteeism Attendance records should be reviewed regularly to be sure that an employee’s sick-leave days are excessive compared to other employees.If a supervisor suspects that an employee is excessively absent, this can be confirmed through reviewing the attendance records. If all indications show that an employee is excessively absent, the next step is to gather as much information as possible in order to get a clearer picture of the situation. The employees’ files should be reviewed and the employees immediate supervisor should document all available information on the particular employee’s history. Individual CommunicationAfter all available information has been gathered, the administrator or supervisor should individually meet with each employee whom has been identified as having higher than average or questionable (or pattern) absences. This first meeting should be used to bring concerns regarding attendance to the employee’s attention. It is also an opportunity to discuss with the employee, in some depth, the causes of his or her attendance problem and possible steps he or she can take to remedy or control the absences.
Listen carefully to the employee’s responses.The tone of the meeting should not be adversarial, but a major purpose of the interview is to let the employee know that management treats attendance as a very important component of overall work performance. Keep your comments non-threatening and work-oriented. Stick to the facts (i. e. patters, profiles, rates etc.
). The employee should be given a copy of there attendance report with absences highlighted for discussion. This interview will give you the opportunity to explore in depth with the employee the reasons for his or her absence. Gather facts – do not make any assumptions.Provide support and counselling and offer guidance as the occasion demands to assist the employee to deal with the specific cause of the absence. Often, after the initial meeting employees reduce their absenteeism. The meeting shows that you are concerned and that absenteeism is taken seriously. The employee’s attendance should be closely monitored until it has been reduced to acceptable levels.
Appropriate counselling should take place as is thought necessary. If a marked improvement has been shown, commend the employee. The meeting should be documented and a copy placed in the employee’s file.Proof of Illness Sometimes it is helpful in counselling employees with excessive innocent or culpable absenteeism to inquire or verify the nature and reasons of their absence. The extent to which an employer may inquire into the nature of and reasons for an employee’s absence from the workplace is a delicate issue. The concepts of an employee’s privacy and an employer’s need for information affecting the workplace often come into conflict.
Seldom is the conflict more difficult to resolve than where personal medical information is involved.Unions will often strongly object to any efforts by management to inquire more deeply into the nature of an employee’s illness. You will need to consider the restraints of any language in collective agreements in relation to this issue. Generally speaking, however, the following “rules of thumb” can be derived from the existing jurisprudence: There is a prevailing right to privacy on the part of an employee unless the employer can demonstrate that its legitimate business interests necessitate some intrusion into the employee’s personal affairs.When such intrusion is justified it should be strictly limited to the degree of intrusion necessitated by the employer’s interests.
An employee has a duty to notify his employer of an intended absence, the cause of the absence and its expected duration. This information is required by the employer to meet its legitimate concerns to have at its disposal facts which will enable it to schedule work and organize its operation. An absent employee has an obligation to provide his employer with information regarding any change to his condition or circumstances relating to it which may affect the employer’s needs .As such, the interests of the employer in having this information outweighs the individual employee’s right to privacy.
An employer rule requiring proof for every absence is unreasonable if an absenteeism problem does not exist. A mere assertion by the person claiming to be sick is not satisfactory proof. The obligation to prove sickness, where the employer requires proof, rests with the employee. An employer is entitled upon reasonable and probable grounds to refuse to accept a physician’s certificate until it contains sufficient information to satisfy the employer’s reservations.
(i. e. een by physician, some indication of return to work, etc. ). Non-production of a required medical certificate could result in loss of pay until the certificate is produced. Where a medical certificate is rejected by an employer the employer must state the grounds for rejection and must point out to the employee what it requires to satisfy the onus of proof. An employer may require an employee to prove fitness for work where it has reasonable grounds to do so.
In a health care setting the nature of the employer’s business gives it a reasonably irresistible interest in this personal information for the purpose of assessing fitness.Where any unusual circumstances raise reasonable suspicion that an employee might have committed an abuse of an income protection program an employer may require an employee to explain such circumstances. For example, an employer may require responses as to whether the illness confined an employee to his/her bed or home; whether an employee engaged in any outside activity and the reasons for the activity. In summary then, any intrusion into the employee’s privacy must be shown to be reasonable, based on the individual circumstances and in relation to the operation of the employer’s business.If income protection abuse is suspected the extent to which such intrusion is “reasonable” would be far greater than in the case where it is not. If you are not clear on whether an inquiry is legally justified it is advisable to consult your superior. If after the initial interview, enough time and counselling efforts, as appropriate, have passed and the employee’s absenteeism has not improved, it may be necessary to take further action. Further action must be handled with extreme caution – a mistake in approach, timing or severity can be crippling from both an administration and labour relation’s point of view.
Determining whether counseling or disciplinary action is appropriate, depends on whether the employee’s absences are innocent or culpable. If the employee’s absenteeism is made up of both innocent and culpable absences, then each type must be dealt with as a separate issue. In a labour relation’s context innocent absenteeism and culpable absenteeism are mutually exclusive. One in no way affects the other. Counselling Innocent Absenteeism Innocent absenteeism is not blameworthy and therefore disciplinary action is not justified.It is obviously unfair to punish someone for conduct which is beyond his/her control. Absenteeism, no matter what the cause, imposes losses on the employer who is also not at fault.
The damage suffered by the employer must be weighed against the employee’s right to be sick. There is a point at which the employer’s right to expect the employee to attend regularly and fulfill the employment contract will outweigh the employee’s right to be sick. At such a point the termination of the employee may be justified, as will be discussed.The procedure an employer may take for innocent absenteeism is as follows: Initial counselling(s) Written counselling(s) Reduction(s) of hours and/or job reclassification Initial Counselling Presuming you have communicated attendance expectations generally and have already identified an employee as a problem, you will have met with him or her as part of your attendance program and you should now continue to monitor the effect of these efforts on his or her attendance.
If the absences are intermittent, meet with the employee each time he/she returns to work.If absence is prolonged, keep in touch with the employee regularly and stay updated on the status of his/her condition. You may require the employee to provide you with regular medical assessments. This will enable you to judge whether or not there is any likelihood of the employee providing regular attendance in future.
Regular medical assessments will also give you an idea of what steps the employee is taking to seek medical or other assistance. Formal meetings in which verbal warnings are given should be given as appropriate and documented.If no improvement occurs written warning may be necessary. Written Counselling If the absences persist, you should meet with the employee formally and provide him/her with a letter of concern.
If the absenteeism still continues to persist then the employee should be given a second letter of concern during another formal meeting. This letter would be stronger worded in that it would warn the employee that unless attendance improves, termination may be necessary. Reduction(s) of hours and or job reclassificationIn between the first and second letters the employee may be given the option to reduce his/her hours to better fit his/her personal circumstances. This option must be voluntarily accepted by the employee and can not be offered as an ultimatum, as a reduction in hours is a reduction in pay and therefore can be looked upon as discipline. If the nature of the illness or injury is such that the employee is unable to fulfill the requirements of his/her job, but could for example benefit from modified work, counsel the employee to bid on jobs of such type if they become available.
Discharge Only when all the previously noted needs and conditions have been met and everything has been done to accommodate the employee can termination be considered. An Arbitrator would consider the following in ruling on an innocent absenteeism dismissal case. • Has the employee done everything possible to regain their health and return to work? • Has the employer provided every assistance possible? (i. e. counselling, support, time off. ) • Has the employer informed the employee of the unworkable situation resulting from their sickness? Has the employer attempted to accommodate the employee by offering a more suitable position (if available) or a reduction of hours? • Has enough time elapsed to allow for every possible chance of recovery? • Has the employer treated the employee prejudicially in any way? As is evident, a great deal of time and effort must elapse before dismissal can take place.
These points would be used to substantiate or disprove the following two fold test. The absences must be shown to be clearly excessive. It must be proven that the employee will be unable to attend work on a regular basis in the future.
Corrective Action for Culpable Absenteeism As already indicated, culpable absenteeism consists of absences where it can be demonstrated that the employee is not actually ill and is able to improve his/her attendance. Presuming you have communicated attendance expectations generally, have identified the employee as a problem, have met with him/her as part of your attendance program, made your concerns on his specific absenteeism known and have offered counselling as appropriate, with no improvement despite your positive efforts, disciplinary procedures may be appropriate.The procedures for corrective/progressive discipline for culpable absenteeism are generally the same as for other progressive discipline problems. The discipline should not be prejudicial in any way. The general procedure is as follows: [Utilizing counselling memorandum] • Initial Warning(s) • Written Warning(s) • Suspension(s) • Discharge Verbal Warning Formally meet with the employee and explain that income protection is to be used only when an employee is legitimately ill.
Advise the employee that his/her attendance record must improve and be maintained at an improved level or further disciplinary action will result.Offer any counselling or guidance as is appropriate. Give further verbal warnings as required. Review the employee’s income protection records at regular intervals. Where a marked improvement has been shown, commend the employee. Where there is no improvement a written warning should be issued.
Written Warning Interview the employee again. Show him/her the statistics and point out that there has been no noticeable (or sufficient) improvement. Listen to the employee to see if there is a valid reason and offer any assistance you can.If no satisfactory explanation is given, advise the employee that he/she will be given a written warning. Be specific in your discussion with him/her and in the counselling memorandum as to the type of action to be taken and when it will be taken if the record does not improve. As soon as possible after this meeting provide the employee personally with the written warning and place a copy of his/her file. The written warning should identify any noticeable pattern If the amount and/or pattern continues, the next step in progressive discipline may be a second, stronger written warning.
Your decision to provide a second written warning as an alternative to proceeding to a higher level of discipline (i. e. suspension) will depend on a number of factors. Such factors are, the severity of the problem, the credibility of the employee’s explanations, the employee’s general work performance and length of service. Suspension (only after consultation with the appropriate superiors) If the problem of culpable absenteeism persists, following the next interview period and immediately following an absence, the employee should be interviewed and advised that he/she is to be suspended.
The length of the suspension will depend again on the severity of the problem, the credibility of the employee’s explanation, the employee’s general work performance and length of service. Subsequent suspensions are optional depending on the above condition. Dismissal (only after consultation with the appropriate superiors) Dismissals should only be considered when all of the above conditions and procedures have been met.
The Industrial Society suggests other steps organizations could take: • having a clear policy on absence monitoring • training managers to manage attendance training employees to recognize and manage signs of stress • improving employee motivation through training and development opportunities using return-to-work interviews after illness and informal procedures to keep individuals informed and to resolve problems by consensus. To tackle absenteeism effectively, says Paul Roberts, you must establish a solution that lets you detect and address the situation early to avoid short-term absenteeism becoming a long term issue. 1 Ensure you have a clear policy in place Your company policy should be easy to understand and not open to varying interpretations.It should outline details such as when an employee is entitled to be absent from the workplace, at what time the employee must inform their line manager that they are absent, and where employees should go for support.
2 Act on day one The first action to manage absenteeism should be on the first day that an employee is not present in the workplace. Check the facts surrounding the absence and address any resulting workload issues to ensure business continues. Line managers should highlight the services available to support the employee such as health insurance policies, company doctor services or an employee assistance program.Ensure your line managers are fully supported and have the relevant training to ensure they keep within the employment legal framework, such as the Disability and Discrimination Act (DDA), Medical Reports Act and the Data Protection Act.
3 Review at week three This trigger point is to catch cases that start to become long term. Fifteen days of absence is nearly twice the national average. A system that highlights an employee who is absent for 15 days will ensure that the organization is supporting the employee, their family, and facilitating return to work.Discussions should focus positively on when the employee is likely to return. If the case is serious, occupational health professionals can be utilized to give an independent medical opinion. Managers can base their business decisions on this information and take it into account if the DDA applies. 4 Monitor trends Trends often emerge among absent employees.
Working practices, times of opening and commercial deadlines can all play a part, rather than illness itself. Ensuring you record reasons for absence will enable you to identify trends in the workplace to help avoid future absentee cases. Nominate departmental responsibility Integrating health services is the key to providing the best and fastest support to the employee, resulting in an early return to work. In many organizations, a range of departments have some input into health services, such as compensation and benefits, health and safety, and HR. Often, these services overlap, leading to duplication. Nominate one department to be responsible for all health providers, insurers and services, to achieve economies of scale and to avoid duplication.
6 Involve othersAbsence management is a team effort and should not fall to just one person. Involving relevant parties in the solution will relieve the burden and highlight that tackling absenteeism is a normal part of working at your organization, and not a flash-in-the-pan project. 7 Communicate Make sure all employees know what support is available and how to access it. | | |CONCLUSION |CONCLUSION Absenteeism occurs when an employee of a company does not come to work due to scheduled time off, illness, injury, or any other reason. The cost of absenteeism to business, usually expressed in terms of lost productivity, is difficult to determine. Studies from government sources such as the U. S. Bureau of the Census and U.
S. Bureau of Labor Statistics put the direct losses at more than $40 billion a year; the Social Security Administration determined that, in one year, workers missed more than half a billion days.Various private studies and polls studying particular elements of absenteeism sometimes put the figure much higher. One recent Gallup poll did not put a price tag on the sniffles and swollen eyes, but claimed that more than 3 million workdays per year are lost when working people stay home because their allergies are acting up. The Massachusetts Institute of Technology released a study claiming that clinical depression alone resulted in more than 213 million lost workdays, costing $24 billion.
There is little written history of absenteeism in business literature, probably because until the 20th century businesses had a simple rule, “No work: no pay. ” The practice of offering paid “sick days” did not become widespread until labor unions forced companies into contracts allowing employees to take time off for illness or vacation. While practices vary among companies and union contracts, an average of four to ten sick days per year is standard. Although companies were originally unwilling to offer paid leave to workers, they have come to realize that humane absence-management policies are cost-effective.In fact, it is estimated that companies with effective employee absence strategies reduce their overall payroll costs by 10 percent. Furthermore, a study discovered a correlation between absenteeism and employee turnover.
Companies with high rates of absenteeism were found to be more likely to have their employees leave for jobs with other firms. In light of such findings, employers have recognized that a generous absence policy can be profitable and contribute to employee satisfaction and stability.Absenteeism is a habitual pattern of absence from a duty or obligation.
Frequent absence from the workplace may be indicative of poor morale or of sick building syndrome. However, many employers have implemented draconian absence policies which make no distinction between absences for genuine illness and absence for inappropriate reasons. As a result, many employees feel obliged to come to work while ill, and transmit communicable diseases to their co-workers.
This leads to even greater absenteeism and reduced productivity among other workers who try to work while ill.Attendance records should be reviewed regularly to be sure that an employee’s sick-leave days are excessive compared to other employees. If a supervisor suspects that an employee is excessively absent, this can be confirmed through reviewing the attendance records.
If all indications show that an employee is excessively absent, the next step is to gather as much information as possible in order to get a clearer picture of the situation. The employees’ files should be reviewed and the employees immediate supervisor should document all available information on the particular employee’s history.After all available information has been gathered, the administrator or supervisor should individually meet with each employee whom has been identified as having higher than average or questionable (or pattern) absences. This first meeting should be used to bring concerns regarding attendance to the employee’s attention.
It is also an opportunity to discuss with the employee, in some depth, the causes of his or her attendance problem and possible steps he or she can take to remedy or control the absences. Listen carefully to the employee’s responses.The tone of the meeting should not be adversarial, but a major purpose of the interview is to let the employee know that management treats attendance as a very important component of overall work performance. Keep your comments non-threatening and work-oriented.
Stick to the facts (i. e. patters, profiles, rates etc. ). The employee should be given a copy of their attendance report with absences highlighted for discussion. This interview will give you the opportunity to explore in depth with the employee the reasons for his or her absence.
Gather facts – do not make any assumptions.Provide support and counseling and offer guidance as the occasion demands to assist the employee to deal with the specific cause of the absence. Often, after the initial meeting employees reduce their absenteeism. The meeting shows that you are concerned and that absenteeism is taken seriously. The employee’s attendance should be closely monitored until it has been reduced to acceptable levels. Appropriate counseling should take place as is thought necessary.
If a marked improvement has been shown, commend the employee. The meeting should be documented and a copy placed in the employee’s file.Absenteeism of labor force is one of the obstacles in the advancements of industries.
But as a whole in general absenteeism as a hindrance, blocks the path to development of the industrial world it can be argued that it is the lake of commitment and to work and elimination to the work place or the factory is the basic reason for the phenomenon. Though it is a global problem it may be kept in the mind of person who studies about absenteeism, that the magnitude can be different in different localities and countries, it can be dependent according to the climate season etc. | |BIBILIOGRAPHY | BIBILIOGRAPHY 1. PERSONAL MANAGEMENT AND INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS TRIPATHI 2. RESARCH METHODOLOGY C. R. KOTHARI 3.
HAND BOOK ON MAMAGEMENT SKILLS GOWER 4. PERSONAL MANAGEMENT MAMORIA 5. ATTENDANCE REQUIRED MARKOWICH, M.
MICHAEL 6. 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