Abstract community. he was elected to do the

Abstract

FOSS (free/open source software) , GNU and linux these words
are the keys for new generation of technology That free us form limitation and
it is important fact factor for our new intelligent world in this long way we
need to solve problems and develop complement devices .the brief explain for
philosophy , usage platforms , unconscious user , components ,features of FOSS
,GNU ,Linux are identified in this paper.

 

Introduction

Free software provide freedom in computing for users free
parts are in running program , change source codes , release this new codes or
the other people codes. Let’s just rememeber in free software free it’s not
about price it’s about freedom

Challenges

Having no law in this adventuring tech can heart so , need of
operating system ,the control on this computers,Don’t
encourage nonfree,Many modern computers are designed to make it impossible to
replace their preloaded software with free software illegal replacement of software,control of government over
computing

history

this idea came from MIT university cause the students have
same computers and they can use the other students codes so the links get
stronger and improved that occure in 1971 the system works exactly like FOSS
but this name doesn’t exsist .richard stallman(one of the student)leave MIT to
write new software named GNU for sharing community. he was elected to do the
job and he chose to make the system compatible with Unix so that it would be portable
and Unix users would easily swich .first program for GNU was multilanguage ,
multiplatform compiler then he heard about kit( Free University Compiler ) that
also called VUCK the unique feature was the ability to handle multiple
languages like C and Pastal with diffrent target machines . he gain the source
code of Pastel that have been coded at Lawrence Livermore Lab but i give up add
C front because this need many stack spaces then he find out the compiler work
by attaching the whole input then he convert it to a chain of instructions so
the output is ready without freeing any storage so he present new compiler
called GCC this was after his work on GNU Emacs This enabled him to begin using
Unix systems to do editing.

supporting

The FSF justifies the name “GNU/Linux” primarily on
the grounds that the GNU project was specifically developing a complete system,
of which they argue that the Linux kernel filled one of the final gaps the
large number of GNU components and GNU source code

In addition, the FSF also argues that “GNU/Linux
recognizes the role that our idealism played in building our community, and
helps the public recognize the practical importance of these ideals”,in
contrast to the focus on “technical advantage” rather than
“freedom” of the Linux kernel developersIn the case of the Linux
kernel, notable and recurring examples of this focus on technical advantage
over freedom come from the long-time inclusion in the Linux kernel of many
non-free firmware files and other files with non-free license terms

 

The ordinary understanding of “operating system”
includes both the kernel—the specific subsystem that directly interfaces with
the hardware—and the “userland” software that is employed by the user
and by application software to control the computer. Moreover, both the name
“GNU” and the name “Linux” are intentionally related to the
name “Unix”, and Unix has always conceptually included the C library
and userland tools as well as the kernel.in the 1991 release notes for versions
0.01 to 0.11 of the Linux kernel (which was not released under the GNU General
Public License until version 0.1232), Torvalds wrote, “Sadly, a kernel
by itself gets you nowhere Most of the tools used with linux are GNU software.
also wrote during the 1992 Tanenbaum-Torvalds debate that, “As has been
noted (not only by me), the linux kernel is a miniscule part of a complete
system”Tanenbaum had criticized Torvalds for developing Linux as a
monolithic kernel, which he considered obsolete and inferior to microkernels
such as Mach.He believed that Linux would be rejected in favor of the GNU HURD
microkernel, which had stalled in development for years.3

philosey of
name

the technological name is better to remind the work of this
technique

so instead of linux that remind system’s origin use GNU/linux
.

The GNU/Linux naming controversy is a dispute between members
of the free software community and open-source software community over whether
to refer to computer operating systems that use a combination of GNU software
and the Linux kernel as “GNU/Linux” or “Linux”.

Development

interesting word the experts use for the feature of FOSS is
copyleft maybe in your mind you think is copyright yes you are right now is
copyright but in future we have copyleft cause there is no right when we can
have every codes of other people! So we can see that new industry and money
current in new ideas …progarms in free software that is not copy-righted is
free but anyone can make a proprietary modified version of it for developing
this idea the charty instution called FSF(free software foundation).

Impact in
our life

it was still an evil. Today we no longer have any copies of
Unix, because we have replaced them with free operating systems1

Science
development

the linux is diffrent because is Portable ,Open Source  ,Multi-User 
,Multiprogramming ,Hierarchical File System ,Shell (for execute commands
of the operating system)and Security

stallman Lisps Experiences and the Development of GNU Emacs

everythings for stallman have been started from highschool by the Lisp 1.5 his first step with Lisp was at Harvard he wrote a
machine with 8k of memory that called Lisp interpreter for the PDP-11 because
write the
interpreter in a thousand instructions this machine provide him some room for a
little bit of data this is
like real software .

when his work start at MIT he worked at at the Artificial Intelligence Lab not by JonL, but by Russ
Noftsker during this
work he wrote a text
editor, Emacs the unique feature was programming language and being capable for
editing therefore loading new command could happen during editing and also you
can code when you are using we share every program with everyone who want it at
that time there was no organized way for sharing to the design of Emacs so the
connection spark… the early Emacs did not have Lisp and  interpreter wasn’t for emacs and owend for
TECO ,TECHO was editor for text and it was as bad as you could imagine 

 

    Industry

for industry we have a little complicated Architecture

 

Hardware
layer

this contain RAM/HDD with hardware

free softwares are essential for these days

for the softwares that apperciate the user’s
freedom and community are free software .

we know this isn’t about price but it may cause
misunderstanding therefore they also call it “libre software” some
softwares like altium are expensive but the flash player is free but they both
extend power to their users.by free software users control the program and you
must obligated the producers to give this control cause you deserve it

one sample

gnewsense is fully free software GNU/Limux
distribution and you can use it without restrictive license , make copies for
your friends , school or business . to use free software is to make a political
and ethical choice asserting your lights to learn and to share what you learn
without others this software buit by people across the globe who work together
as a community and sponsored by the FSF. 

the linux
user’s life

first he have started for college student without any
computing backround in college he get excited to FSF

6 months he was trying to understand how linux workshis
wireless card lacked a native driver at the time so he learned to use
ndiswrapper to run it .I fiddled with xorg.conf 
files for endless hours to make NVIDIA graphics card play nicely he
taught to use OpenSource and other open source apps to do his work , replacing
the proprietary ones I had run on windows these were trying times , and he
found he is booting into windows -the ones that were in separate boxs-most of
the time for homework of school that couldn’t be completed by linux so he gived
up using linux however after start experimenting with linux. by dispelling his
interest in doing anything that have the results of going out so he was kept at
home so what is better than learning Mandriva.

so he learn the ability to use opensource then he start to
appreciate the unique user experence that the open source way of life offered
cause i could browse the web without worring about malware , or installing
obnoxious , resource-hogging antivirus software .he mentioned that this is so
simple , command-line tools could automating tedious tasks. he become like
people who convince others to run linux live CD or badmounthing Microsoft.he
wanted to save world of linux then he became voluntree at linux he was
providing the convincing sentences like wireless and networking issues even in
newspapers .

 in paris he used
aircrack-ng to help and wireless access so Linux could do such incredeble
things

but some negative point we recognize

linux by no fault of its own didn’t respond. so sometimes we
quit linux and use Microsoft Office , we need much time for learning linux.

but in these several years linux became easier .HTML5 make our
web linux-friendly by decreasing reliance on Adobe Flash which not nicely
played with linux

it’s hard
but it deserve

searching in salary of FSF experts will completely convince us
to learn linux/GNU and the careers or opportunities are perfect  if you look at commands in linux as money you
will learn it excellent !the try is free

the
above chart is Debian GNU/Linux: The Past, the Present and the Future

 

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

Yoda’s aphorism (“There is no ‘try'”)
sounds neat, but it doesn’t work for me. I have done most of my work while
anxious about whether I could do the job, and unsure that it would be enough to
achieve the goal if I did. But I tried anyway, because there was no one but me
between the enemy and my city. Surprising myself, I have sometimes succeeded.

Sometimes I failed; some of my cities
have fallen. Then I found another threatened city, and got ready for another
battle. Over time, I’ve learned to look for threats and put myself between them
and my city, calling on other hackers to come and join me.

Nowadays, often I’m not the only one.
It is a relief and a joy when I see a regiment of hackers digging in to hold
the line, and I realize, this city may survive—for now. But the dangers are
greater each year, and now Microsoft has explicitly targeted our community. We
can’t take the future of freedom for granted. Don’t take it for granted! If you
want to keep your freedom, you must be prepared to defend it.

richard stallman

component of linux

3 main component

kernel

the core that do major and various works

kernal
mode

full access to resources

user
mode

access to hardware and kernal code

kernels switch between 2 mode

system
library

implement most functions

system
utility

program responsible for some task

CONCLUSIONS

lets just have brief review of the achievement that occure by
GNU

the goverment could have high quality by using GNU/Linux

Integration of translations

Establishment of a new work-flow

Integration of foreign essays

Creation of functional indexes

Author: