AbstractFOSS (free/open source software) , GNU and linux these wordsare the keys for new generation of technology That free us form limitation andit is important fact factor for our new intelligent world in this long way weneed to solve problems and develop complement devices .
the brief explain forphilosophy , usage platforms , unconscious user , components ,features of FOSS,GNU ,Linux are identified in this paper. IntroductionFree software provide freedom in computing for users freeparts are in running program , change source codes , release this new codes orthe other people codes. Let’s just rememeber in free software free it’s notabout price it’s about freedom ChallengesHaving no law in this adventuring tech can heart so , need ofoperating system ,the control on this computers,Don’tencourage nonfree,Many modern computers are designed to make it impossible toreplace their preloaded software with free software illegal replacement of software,control of government overcomputinghistorythis idea came from MIT university cause the students havesame computers and they can use the other students codes so the links getstronger and improved that occure in 1971 the system works exactly like FOSSbut this name doesn’t exsist .
richard stallman(one of the student)leave MIT towrite new software named GNU for sharing community. he was elected to do thejob and he chose to make the system compatible with Unix so that it would be portableand Unix users would easily swich .first program for GNU was multilanguage ,multiplatform compiler then he heard about kit( Free University Compiler ) thatalso called VUCK the unique feature was the ability to handle multiplelanguages like C and Pastal with diffrent target machines . he gain the sourcecode of Pastel that have been coded at Lawrence Livermore Lab but i give up addC front because this need many stack spaces then he find out the compiler workby attaching the whole input then he convert it to a chain of instructions sothe output is ready without freeing any storage so he present new compilercalled GCC this was after his work on GNU Emacs This enabled him to begin usingUnix systems to do editing.supportingThe FSF justifies the name “GNU/Linux” primarily onthe grounds that the GNU project was specifically developing a complete system,of which they argue that the Linux kernel filled one of the final gaps thelarge number of GNU components and GNU source codeIn addition, the FSF also argues that “GNU/Linuxrecognizes the role that our idealism played in building our community, andhelps the public recognize the practical importance of these ideals”,incontrast to the focus on “technical advantage” rather than”freedom” of the Linux kernel developersIn the case of the Linuxkernel, notable and recurring examples of this focus on technical advantageover freedom come from the long-time inclusion in the Linux kernel of manynon-free firmware files and other files with non-free license terms The ordinary understanding of “operating system”includes both the kernel—the specific subsystem that directly interfaces withthe hardware—and the “userland” software that is employed by the userand by application software to control the computer.
Moreover, both the name”GNU” and the name “Linux” are intentionally related to thename “Unix”, and Unix has always conceptually included the C libraryand userland tools as well as the kernel.in the 1991 release notes for versions0.01 to 0.11 of the Linux kernel (which was not released under the GNU GeneralPublic License until version 0.1232), Torvalds wrote, “Sadly, a kernelby itself gets you nowhere Most of the tools used with linux are GNU software.also wrote during the 1992 Tanenbaum-Torvalds debate that, “As has beennoted (not only by me), the linux kernel is a miniscule part of a completesystem”Tanenbaum had criticized Torvalds for developing Linux as amonolithic kernel, which he considered obsolete and inferior to microkernelssuch as Mach.He believed that Linux would be rejected in favor of the GNU HURDmicrokernel, which had stalled in development for years.3philosey ofnamethe technological name is better to remind the work of thistechniqueso instead of linux that remind system’s origin use GNU/linux.
The GNU/Linux naming controversy is a dispute between membersof the free software community and open-source software community over whetherto refer to computer operating systems that use a combination of GNU softwareand the Linux kernel as “GNU/Linux” or “Linux”.Developmentinteresting word the experts use for the feature of FOSS iscopyleft maybe in your mind you think is copyright yes you are right now iscopyright but in future we have copyleft cause there is no right when we canhave every codes of other people! So we can see that new industry and moneycurrent in new ideas …progarms in free software that is not copy-righted isfree but anyone can make a proprietary modified version of it for developingthis idea the charty instution called FSF(free software foundation).Impact inour lifeit was still an evil. Today we no longer have any copies ofUnix, because we have replaced them with free operating systems1Sciencedevelopmentthe linux is diffrent because is Portable ,Open Source ,Multi-User ,Multiprogramming ,Hierarchical File System ,Shell (for execute commandsof the operating system)and Security stallman Lisps Experiences and the Development of GNU Emacseverythings for stallman have been started from highschool by the Lisp 1.5 his first step with Lisp was at Harvard he wrote amachine with 8k of memory that called Lisp interpreter for the PDP-11 becausewrite theinterpreter in a thousand instructions this machine provide him some room for alittle bit of data this islike real software .when his work start at MIT he worked at at the Artificial Intelligence Lab not by JonL, but by RussNoftsker during thiswork he wrote a texteditor, Emacs the unique feature was programming language and being capable forediting therefore loading new command could happen during editing and also youcan code when you are using we share every program with everyone who want it atthat time there was no organized way for sharing to the design of Emacs so theconnection spark…
the early Emacs did not have Lisp and interpreter wasn’t for emacs and owend forTECO ,TECHO was editor for text and it was as bad as you could imagine Industryfor industry we have a little complicated Architecture Hardwarelayerthis contain RAM/HDD with hardwarefree softwares are essential for these days for the softwares that apperciate the user’sfreedom and community are free software .we know this isn’t about price but it may causemisunderstanding therefore they also call it “libre software” somesoftwares like altium are expensive but the flash player is free but they bothextend power to their users.by free software users control the program and youmust obligated the producers to give this control cause you deserve it one samplegnewsense is fully free software GNU/Limuxdistribution and you can use it without restrictive license , make copies foryour friends , school or business . to use free software is to make a politicaland ethical choice asserting your lights to learn and to share what you learnwithout others this software buit by people across the globe who work togetheras a community and sponsored by the FSF. the linuxuser’s life first he have started for college student without anycomputing backround in college he get excited to FSF6 months he was trying to understand how linux workshiswireless card lacked a native driver at the time so he learned to usendiswrapper to run it .I fiddled with xorg.conf files for endless hours to make NVIDIA graphics card play nicely hetaught to use OpenSource and other open source apps to do his work , replacingthe proprietary ones I had run on windows these were trying times , and hefound he is booting into windows -the ones that were in separate boxs-most ofthe time for homework of school that couldn’t be completed by linux so he givedup using linux however after start experimenting with linux. by dispelling hisinterest in doing anything that have the results of going out so he was kept athome so what is better than learning Mandriva.
so he learn the ability to use opensource then he start toappreciate the unique user experence that the open source way of life offeredcause i could browse the web without worring about malware , or installingobnoxious , resource-hogging antivirus software .he mentioned that this is sosimple , command-line tools could automating tedious tasks. he become likepeople who convince others to run linux live CD or badmounthing Microsoft.hewanted to save world of linux then he became voluntree at linux he wasproviding the convincing sentences like wireless and networking issues even innewspapers . in paris he usedaircrack-ng to help and wireless access so Linux could do such incredeblethingsbut some negative point we recognize linux by no fault of its own didn’t respond. so sometimes wequit linux and use Microsoft Office , we need much time for learning linux.but in these several years linux became easier .
HTML5 make ourweb linux-friendly by decreasing reliance on Adobe Flash which not nicelyplayed with linux it’s hardbut it deservesearching in salary of FSF experts will completely convince usto learn linux/GNU and the careers or opportunities are perfect if you look at commands in linux as money youwill learn it excellent !the try is free theabove chart is Debian GNU/Linux: The Past, the Present and the Future ACKNOWLEDGMENTYoda’s aphorism (“There is no ‘try'”)sounds neat, but it doesn’t work for me. I have done most of my work whileanxious about whether I could do the job, and unsure that it would be enough toachieve the goal if I did. But I tried anyway, because there was no one but mebetween the enemy and my city. Surprising myself, I have sometimes succeeded.
Sometimes I failed; some of my citieshave fallen. Then I found another threatened city, and got ready for anotherbattle. Over time, I’ve learned to look for threats and put myself between themand my city, calling on other hackers to come and join me.Nowadays, often I’m not the only one.It is a relief and a joy when I see a regiment of hackers digging in to holdthe line, and I realize, this city may survive—for now. But the dangers aregreater each year, and now Microsoft has explicitly targeted our community.
Wecan’t take the future of freedom for granted. Don’t take it for granted! If youwant to keep your freedom, you must be prepared to defend it.richard stallmancomponent of linux3 main component kernelthe core that do major and various workskernalmodefull access to resourcesusermodeaccess to hardware and kernal codekernels switch between 2 mode systemlibraryimplement most functions systemutilityprogram responsible for some taskCONCLUSIONSlets just have brief review of the achievement that occure byGNUthe goverment could have high quality by using GNU/Linux Integration of translationsEstablishment of a new work-flowIntegration of foreign essaysCreation of functional indexes