ABSTRACT:Cybersecurity is the activity of protecting information and information systems(networks, computers, data bases, data centres and applications) withappropriate procedural and technological security measures. Firewalls,antivirus software, and other technological solutions for safeguarding personaldata and computer networks are essential but not sufficient to ensure security.As our nation rapidly building its Cyber Infrastructure, it is equally importantthat we educate our population to work properly with this infrastructure.
Cyber-Ethics, Cyber-Safety, and Cyber-Security issues need to be integrated inthe educational process beginning at an early age. Security counter measureshelp ensure the confidentiality, availability, and integrity of informationsystems by preventing or mitigating asset losses from Cyber security attacks.Recently cyber security has emerged as an established discipline for computersystems and infrastructures with a focus on protection of valuable informationstored on those systems from adversaries who want to obtain, corrupt, damage,destroy or prohibit access to it.. Cyber Security plays an important role inthe development of information technology as well as Internet services. Ourattention is usually drawn on “Cyber Security” when we hear about “CyberCrimes”. Our first thought on “National Cyber Security” therefore starts on howgood is our infrastructure for handling “Cyber Crimes”.
This paper focus on importanceof cyber security and how it affects ourlives.INTRODUCTION:In India wewent straight from no telephones to the latest in mobile technology? saysCherian Samuel of the Institute for Defence studies and Analysis,(IDSA)in NewDelhi and the same with internet connected computers.They came in on all of asudden and no one was taught even the basic fact about cyber security?. Indiastands fifth in worldwide ranking of countries affected by cybercrime.Althoughit should be emphasised that these figures are extrapolations. Much of itsvulnerability is explain by widespread computer illiteracy and easily piratedmachines.
Internet is one of the fastest-growing areas of technicalinfrastructure development. In today’s business environment, disruptivetechnologies such as cloud computing, social computing, and next-generationmobile computing are fundamentally changing how organizations utilizeinformation technology for sharing information and conducting commerce online.Today more than 80% of total commercial transactions are done online, so thisfield required a high quality of security for transparent and besttransactions. The scope of Cyber Security extends not only to the security ofIT systems within the enterprise, but also to the broader digital networks uponwhich they rely including cyber space itself and critical infrastructures.Cyber security plays an important role in the development of informationtechnology, as well as Internet services. Enhancing cyber security andprotecting critical information infrastructures are essential to each nation’ssecurity and economic well-being1.
Society has become dependent on cybersystems across the full range of human activities, including commerce, finance,health care, energy, entertainment, communications, and national defense .Recent research findings also show that the level of public concern for privacyand personal information has increased since 2006 ,Internet users are worriedthat they give away too much personal information and want to be forgotten whenthere is no legitimate grounds for retaining their personal information. Cybersecurity depends on the care that people take and thedecisions they make whenthey set up, maintain, and usecomputers and the Internet. Cyber-security coversphysicalprotection (both hardware and software) of personalinformation andtechnology resources from unauthorizedaccess gained viatechnologicalmeans.Albert Einstein was quoted as saying ?Problems cannot besolved with thesame level of awareness that created them.?The problem of End-User mistakescannot be solved byadding more technology; it has to be solved with a jointeffortand partnership between the Information Technology community of interestas well as the general business community along with the critical support oftop management.
CYBERCRIME:Computercrime, cybercrime, electronic crime or hi-tech crime basically a criminalactivity where a network or computer is the target, source, or place of thecrime 1,5,9. Network crime encloses a wide range of illegally potentialactive activities. Whenever a person tries to steal information, or causedamage to computer network, this is assumed to be entirely virtual in which theparticular information exists in digital form but the damage caused is real,which ceases the machine and has no physical consequence. A computer may act asa source of evidence, even though not directly or completely used for the criminalpurposes, it acts as an excellent device for keeping the record and has giventhe in Tiwari et al., International Journal of Advanced Research in ComputerScience and Software Engineering 6(4), April – 2016, pp.
46-52 © 2016, IJARCSSEAll Rights Reserved Page | 47 charge to encrypt data5. If the evidences areobtained and decrypted, it will be assumed to have a greater value to thecriminal investigators. Generally, it is classified into two forms ofcategories: (1) Crimes targeting computer devices or network directly.
Examplesof crimes targeting computer devices or network directly would include, 1Malicious and Malware code 2 Denial-of-service 3 Computing viruses (2)Prime target is independent of device or computer network. Examples of crimeswhose prime target is independent of device or computer network would include, · Cyber stalking · Fraud and identity theft · Phishing scams · Information warfare CURRENT OCCURING CRIME NEWS:Many of usare not aware of the terms used for crime like stalking, phishing, vishing, botnetworks, XSS etc. although we know nature of crime.
Stalking:Cyber stalking is one of the most common crime which are commenced on internetthe modern world. Cyber stalking is use of the Internet or other electronicmeans to stalk someone. This term is used interchangeably with onlineharassment and online abuse. Stalking generally involves harassing orthreatening behavior repeatedly such as following a person, appearing at aperson’s home or place of business, making harassing phone calls, leavingwritten messages or objects, or Vandalizing a person’s property. Cyber stalkersuse websites, chat rooms, discussion forums, open publishing websites (e.g.
blogs and Indy media) and email to stalk victim. Hacking: “Hacking” is a crime,which entails cracking systems and gaining unauthorized access to the datastored in them. Hacking could be done easily by using Trojan horse virus. Casesof hacking reported in 2011 was 157 and reported in 2012 was435 thereby %variation in increase in cases over 2011 is 177.1%. Phishing: Phishing is just one type of themany frauds on the Internet, trying to fool people into parting with theirmoney.
Phishing refers to the receipt of unsought emails by customers offinancial institutions, asked them to enter their username, password or otherpersonal information to access their account for some reason. Customers aredirected to a Website which could be fraud copy of the original institution’swebsite when they click on the links on the email to enter their information,and so they remain unaware that the fraud has occurred. The criminal then hasaccess to the customer’s online bank account and to the funds contained in thataccount number. Vishing: The name comes from “voice,” and”phishing,” Vishing is the act of using the telephone in an attempt to scam theuser. Which is, of course, the use of spoofed emails designed to trap targetsinto clicking malicious links that leads to a toll free number? Instead ofemail, vishing generally relies on automated phone calls, which instructtargets to provide account numbers for the purpose of financial reward. Howvishing scams work: Criminals set up an automated dialing system to text orcall people in a particular region or area code (or sometimes they use stolencustomer phone numbers from banks or credit unions). The victims receivemessages like: “There’s a problem with your account,” or “Your ATM card needsto be reactivated,” and are directed to a phone number or website asking forpersonal information.
Sometimes criminal quote some information about youraccount before asking you to enter information, so you could believe its anauthenticated source. Sometimes, if a victim logs onto one of the phonywebsites with a Smartphone, they could also end up downloading malicioussoftware that could give criminals access to anything on the phone. Squatting: Cyber squatting is the act of registering a famousdomain name and then selling it for a fortune. This is an issue that has notbeen tackled in IT act 2000. As , TheGap, Inc. has filed a cyber squatting case against TheGap.com under theAnticybersquatting Consumer Protection Act (ACPA).
The complaint alleges thatThe Gap.com redirects visitors to websites that are designed to deceiveconsumers into believing the sites belong to The Gap, Inc.” or are affiliatedwith or sponsored by” The Gap, Inc. ACPA- Anticybersquatting ConsumerProtection Act. 2.6 Botnetworks :A cyber crime called ‘Bot Networks’, where spamsters and otherperpetrators of cyber crimes remotely take control of computers without theusers realizing the fact that their system is being in use by some fake user 2.
7 CrossSite Scripting (XSS): Cross sitescripting Cross-site scripting (XSS) is a type of computer security threat inwhich malicious users insert some harmful code into the WebPages of trusted websites viewed by other users. 4..CYBERSECURITY TREND IN THE LAST DECADE:Fig 1: Incidents Reported by CERT-In 2004–2010(Source: CERT-In, 2012) Fig 2: Categories of the 2010incidents in India (Source: CERT-In, 2012)THREAT SCENARIO AT NATIONAL LEVEL:Figure 3attempts to describe through an illustrative causal loop diagram the threat tonational security from diverse dimensions. The challenge to a nation state isto initiate comprehensive steps to mitigate the ill effects of the causes ofthe threat. For example in Figure 3; trusted information sharing in legitimateforums, government funding for legitimate vulnerability discovery andinternational cooperation to counter cyber threats are three illustrative stepsattempting to counter the threat chain and are having a negative (-) sign onthe arrows emanating from them.
We need to identify a comprehensive andparsimonious set of steps that can be initiated at the national level toaddress the emerging threats.Fig 3: Illustrative Causal LoopDiagram for Cyber Threats to National Security