ABSTRACT: measures help ensure the confidentiality, availability, and


security is the activity of protecting information and information systems
(networks, computers, data bases, data centres and applications) with
appropriate procedural and technological security measures. Firewalls,
antivirus software, and other technological solutions for safeguarding personal
data and computer networks are essential but not sufficient to ensure security.
As our nation rapidly building its Cyber Infrastructure, it is equally important
that we educate our population to work properly with this infrastructure.
Cyber-Ethics, Cyber-Safety, and Cyber-Security issues need to be integrated in
the educational process beginning at an early age. Security counter measures
help ensure the confidentiality, availability, and integrity of information
systems by preventing or mitigating asset losses from Cyber security attacks.
Recently cyber security has emerged as an established discipline for computer
systems and infrastructures with a focus on protection of valuable information
stored on those systems from adversaries who want to obtain, corrupt, damage,
destroy or prohibit access to it.. Cyber Security plays an important role in
the development of information technology as well as Internet services. Our
attention is usually drawn on “Cyber Security” when we hear about “Cyber
Crimes”. Our first thought on “National Cyber Security” therefore starts on how
good is our infrastructure for handling “Cyber Crimes”. This paper focus on importance
of cyber security  and how it affects our

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In India we
went straight from no telephones to the latest in mobile technology? says
Cherian Samuel of the Institute for Defence studies and Analysis,(IDSA)in New
Delhi and the same with internet connected computers.They came in on all of a
sudden and no one was taught even the basic fact about cyber security?. India
stands fifth in worldwide ranking of countries affected by cybercrime.Although
it should be emphasised that these figures are extrapolations. Much of its
vulnerability is explain by widespread computer illiteracy and easily pirated
machines. Internet is one of the fastest-growing areas of technical
infrastructure development. In today’s business environment, disruptive
technologies such as cloud computing, social computing, and next-generation
mobile computing are fundamentally changing how organizations utilize
information technology for sharing information and conducting commerce online.
Today more than 80% of total commercial transactions are done online, so this
field required a high quality of security for transparent and best
transactions. The scope of Cyber Security extends not only to the security of
IT systems within the enterprise, but also to the broader digital networks upon
which they rely including cyber space itself and critical infrastructures.
Cyber security plays an important role in the development of information
technology, as well as Internet services. Enhancing cyber security and
protecting critical information infrastructures are essential to each nation’s
security and economic well-being1. Society has become dependent on cyber
systems across the full range of human activities, including commerce, finance,
health care, energy, entertainment, communications, and national defense .
Recent research findings also show that the level of public concern for privacy
and personal information has increased since 2006 ,Internet users are worried
that they give away too much personal information and want to be forgotten when
there is no legitimate grounds for retaining their personal information. Cyber
security depends on the care that people take and thedecisions they make when
they set up, maintain, and usecomputers and the Internet. Cyber-security covers
physicalprotection (both hardware and software) of personalinformation and
technology resources from unauthorizedaccess gained viatechnological
means.Albert Einstein was quoted as saying ?Problems cannot besolved with the
same level of awareness that created them.?The problem of End-User mistakes
cannot be solved byadding more technology; it has to be solved with a joint
effortand partnership between the Information Technology community of interest
as well as the general business community along with the critical support of
top management.



crime, cybercrime, electronic crime or hi-tech crime basically a criminal
activity where a network or computer is the target, source, or place of the
crime 1,5,9. Network crime encloses a wide range of illegally potential
active activities. Whenever a person tries to steal information, or cause
damage to computer network, this is assumed to be entirely virtual in which the
particular information exists in digital form but the damage caused is real,
which ceases the machine and has no physical consequence. A computer may act as
a source of evidence, even though not directly or completely used for the criminal
purposes, it acts as an excellent device for keeping the record and has given
the in Tiwari et al., International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer
Science and Software Engineering 6(4), April – 2016, pp. 46-52 © 2016, IJARCSSE
All Rights Reserved Page | 47 charge to encrypt data5. If the evidences are
obtained and decrypted, it will be assumed to have a greater value to the
criminal investigators. Generally, it is classified into two forms of
categories: (1) Crimes targeting computer devices or network directly. Examples
of crimes targeting computer devices or network directly would include, 1
Malicious and Malware code 2 Denial-of-service 3 Computing viruses (2)
Prime target is independent of device or computer network. Examples of crimes
whose prime target is independent of device or computer network would include,

· Cyber stalking

· Fraud and identity theft

· Phishing scams

· Information warfare



Many of us
are not aware of the terms used for crime like stalking, phishing, vishing, bot
networks, XSS etc. although we know nature of crime.

Cyber stalking is one of the most common crime which are commenced on internet
the modern world. Cyber stalking is use of the Internet or other electronic
means to stalk someone. This term is used interchangeably with online
harassment and online abuse. Stalking generally involves harassing or
threatening behavior repeatedly such as following a person, appearing at a
person’s home or place of business, making harassing phone calls, leaving
written messages or objects, or Vandalizing a person’s property. Cyber stalkers
use websites, chat rooms, discussion forums, open publishing websites (e.g.
blogs and Indy media) and email to stalk victim.


Hacking: “Hacking” is a crime,
which entails cracking systems and gaining unauthorized access to the data
stored in them. Hacking could be done easily by using Trojan horse virus. Cases
of hacking reported in 2011 was 157 and reported in 2012 was435 thereby %
variation in increase in cases over 2011 is 177.1%.


Phishing: Phishing is just one type of the
many frauds on the Internet, trying to fool people into parting with their
money. Phishing refers to the receipt of unsought emails by customers of
financial institutions, asked them to enter their username, password or other
personal information to access their account for some reason. Customers are
directed to a Website which could be fraud copy of the original institution’s
website when they click on the links on the email to enter their information,
and so they remain unaware that the fraud has occurred. The criminal then has
access to the customer’s online bank account and to the funds contained in that
account number.


Vishing: The name comes from “voice,” and
“phishing,” Vishing is the act of using the telephone in an attempt to scam the
user. Which is, of course, the use of spoofed emails designed to trap targets
into clicking malicious links that leads to a toll free number? Instead of
email, vishing generally relies on automated phone calls, which instruct
targets to provide account numbers for the purpose of financial reward. How
vishing scams work: Criminals set up an automated dialing system to text or
call people in a particular region or area code (or sometimes they use stolen
customer phone numbers from banks or credit unions). The victims receive
messages like: “There’s a problem with your account,” or “Your ATM card needs
to be reactivated,” and are directed to a phone number or website asking for
personal information. Sometimes criminal quote some information about your
account before asking you to enter information, so you could believe its an
authenticated source. Sometimes, if a victim logs onto one of the phony
websites with a Smartphone, they could also end up downloading malicious
software that could give criminals access to anything on the phone.

 Squatting: Cyber squatting is the act of registering a famous
domain name and then selling it for a fortune. This is an issue that has not
been tackled in IT act 2000.

As , The
Gap, Inc. has filed a cyber squatting case against TheGap.com under the
Anticybersquatting Consumer Protection Act (ACPA). The complaint alleges that
The Gap.com redirects visitors to websites that are designed to deceive
consumers into believing the sites belong to The Gap, Inc.” or are affiliated
with or sponsored by” The Gap, Inc. ACPA- Anticybersquatting Consumer
Protection Act.


2.6 Bot
networks :A cyber crime called ‘Bot Networks’, where spamsters and other
perpetrators of cyber crimes remotely take control of computers without the
users realizing the fact that their system is being in use by some fake user


2.7 Cross
Site Scripting (XSS):  Cross site
scripting Cross-site scripting (XSS) is a type of computer security threat in
which malicious users insert some harmful code into the WebPages of trusted web
sites viewed by other users.



Fig 1:  Incidents Reported by CERT-In 2004–2010
(Source: CERT-In, 2012)


Fig 2: Categories of the 2010
incidents in India (Source: CERT-In, 2012)


Figure 3
attempts to describe through an illustrative causal loop diagram the threat to
national security from diverse dimensions. The challenge to a nation state is
to initiate comprehensive steps to mitigate the ill effects of the causes of
the threat. For example in Figure 3; trusted information sharing in legitimate
forums, government funding for legitimate vulnerability discovery and
international cooperation to counter cyber threats are three illustrative steps
attempting to counter the threat chain and are having a negative (-) sign on
the arrows emanating from them. We need to identify a comprehensive and
parsimonious set of steps that can be initiated at the national level to
address the emerging threats.

Fig 3: Illustrative Causal Loop
Diagram for Cyber Threats to National Security



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