Abstract Leukemia” n.d.) There is usually a


Cancer is a disease in which normal
body cells start to divide uncontrollably (“What is Cancer” n.d.) Every cell
has a job in the body, when cells divide rapidly this crowds other cells and
makes it difficult for the noncancerous cells to fulfill their duties. This
causes problems wherever the cancer originated from. Cancer can also spread,
the cells move to a different place in the body and divide there. The process
of cancer spreading in known as metastasis. (“What is Cancer” n.d.)

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There are many different types of
cancer, some include: breast cancer, bladder cancer, brain tumors, ovarian
cancer, oral cancer, skin cancer, and Leukemia. The list goes on. There are
also different strands to different cancers, for an example we will use
Leukimia. (“What is Cancer” n.d.) Leukemia is cancer in the blood. It is caused
by there being a rise in the amount of white blood cells in your body. (“What
is Leukemia” n.d.) There is usually a set ratio of red blood cells to platelets
to white blood cells. When there are too many white blood cells they crowd out
the other two. Also the white blood cells don’t work correctly. (“What is
Leukemia” n.d.) On top of there being so many cancers, there are even different
types of different cancers. For example there are four main types of Leukemia:
Acute Myeloid, Chronic Myeloid, Acute Lymphocytic, and Chronic Lymphocytic.
Because there are so many types of cancer, no one type of treatment works for
all of them. (“What is Leukemia” n.d.)

Keywords: Cancer, treatment, Chemo,
Targeting, Stem cells, apoptosis







One type of cancer treatment is
chemotherapy. Chemotherapy is a cancer treatment that includes taking
medication. The goal of it is to stop the rapid progression of cancer growth.
It slows the cell division. (“Learn About Managing Your Chemotherapy” n.d.) Chemotherapy
is know as a systematic treatment. It affects more than just the the cancerous
cells. It also affects the surrounding cells. It often kills those cells, which
is the reason why when someone is doing chemo they have no hair. The chemo
kills their hair cells and causes the hair to fall out. (“Learn About Managing
Your Chemotherapy” n.d.)  There are six
different ways for chemotherapy to be given: injection, oral, IV, topical,
intra-arterial, and intraperitoneal. It can be injected three way. (“Learn
About Managing Your Chemotherapy” n.d.) One, is subcutaneous. This means that
the chemo is given through a shot and goes just under the skin. The second is
intravenous. The chemo is entered directly through the vein. The third way is
intramuscular. Here it enters and goes directly into the muscle. (“Learn About
Managing Your Chemotherapy” n.d.)  It
goes into the body orally by the person taking a pill or drinking a liquid.
Just like in any IV, the chemotherapy medication is administered into the body
by dripping it through a tube and into a vein. In topical chemotherapy, the
chemo medicine is made into a cream and is rubbed into skin. During
intra-arterial chemotherapy, chemo medication is delivered to an artery that is
attached to the tumor. And during intraperitoneal chemotherapy, the chemo is
administered directly to the peritoneal cavity.(“Learn About Managing Your
Chemotherapy” n.d.)   Because
chemotherapy affects more than just the cancerous cells, it is not the most
effective treatment for cancer. It often does a lot of harm to other parts of
the body. Despite it not being the most effective, it is the most common
treatment that is used.



Targeting to

type of cancer treatment is targeting of cancer stem cells. Cancer stem cells
are cells that never die, that initiate the start of cancer. (Mimeault &
Batra, 2009) These cells are self-renewal cells that have a capacity to be
pluripotent. (Chen, Huang & Chen,2013) Pluripotent means the ability to
give rise to many different types of other cells. Cancer stem cells have been
seen in many different types of cancer. (Mimeault & Batra, 2008)
Chemotherapy and some other types of treatments, not only damage the cancerous
cells but also damage the surrounding cells which in turn can damage tissues.  (Chen, et al 2013) They also make recurrence
a big possibility. This is because they can not efficiently eliminate only
cancer stem cells. Cancer stem cells are actually more likely to resist  treatments ,chemotherapy for example,  than other non cancerous cells. (Chen, et al
2013) The goal of targeting cancer stem cells is to eliminate the environment
or  niche on which they survive. There
are many different designs that are being tested to make this process possible.


Gene Therapy

therapy is a type of therapy that replaces a gene that is not working correctly
with a gene that is properly functioning and healthy. (Das, et al, 2015)
(Mimeault & Batra, 2014)There are many diseases that scientists have been
trying to use this type of treatment with. Cancer is one of the main targets
for gene therapy though. Some of the ways to implement gene therapy are:
showing a gene to the cancer that initiates apoptosis or makes it easier to
treat it with radiation, strengthen the immunogenicity of the cancer so the
cell can recognize it, blocking the oncogene by using an RNA/DNA approach, and
inserting a tumor suppressor gene to make up for its loss.  (Das, et al, 2015) Mutating the gene so that
the cancerous cell will undergo apoptosis is among the most common types of
gene therapy having to do with cancer. (Das, et al, 2015) Gene therapy is still
an ongoing clinical trial and has very few success stories. The promise of the
future is what will make this the most effective cancer treatment. Researchers
are still learning about defected genes and the best ways to carry out gene
therapy. (Das, et al, 2015)


          In conclusion, cancer is a disease
that occurs when cells in the body start to divide uncontrollably. (“What is
Cancer” n.d.)There are many different types of cancer and even types of
different cancers within those different cancers. (“What is Cancer” n.d.)  Because there are so many different types
cancer, not one cure can cure all of them. The most common treatment for cancer
is chemotherapy, but it is not the most effective. (“Learn About Managing Your
Chemotherapy”,n.d.) It kills cancer cells, but also may harm other parts of the
body. Also not all bodies accept it. (“Learn About Managing Your
Chemotherapy”,n.d.) Targeting of cancer stem cells is another type of cancer
treatment. It focusses more on the cancer stem cells, instead of the region
when the cancer is. (Chen, et al 2013) This makes it healthier for the body
tissues. (Chen, et al 2013)  The most
effective cure for cancer is still being studied and tested. Itis gene therapy.
Gene therapy is a treatment that trades out the gene that isn’t working for the
cancerous gene for a healthy functioning gene. (Das, et al, 2015)

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