ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Thanks to God as we are given an opportunity tocompletely accomplished the technical report by His blessing. We are heartilythankful to our lecturer Dr.
Noorli Binti Khamis whose encouragement, guidanceand support from initial to the final level enable us to develop anunderstanding of the subject. Lastly, we offer our regards and blessings to allthose who supported us in any respect during completion of project. Very bigthanks especially our family, friends and lecturer whose morale support, thatbeen motivated us from the beginning until end. ABSTRACT The studies for zero emission (EC) isnecessary because of developing alternative methods to generate energy forvehicles due to limited fuel based energy, global warming and exhaust emissionlimits in the last century. EC incorporates internal composition engine,electric machines and power electronic equipment. Compared with petrol vehicles, they make less noiseand produce less atmospheric pollution. Statistics prove that their lifeis much longer and their maintenance is much less than that of any other formof mechanically propelled road vehicle.
In this report, an overviewof ECs is presented. In fact, we aim to introduce the ECs and present theirhistory, advantages, disadvantages, classification, vehicle types, energymanagement strategies and some other related information. The methodology usedin this paper is descriptive, library and analytical. The descriptive aspect ofthis paper is based on identification and definitions and its requiredmaterials and information have been complied using related scientific papers.
TABLE OF CONTENT CHAPTER TOPIC PAGE 1 2 REFERENCES APPENDICES A-Y ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ABSTRACT TABLE OF CONTENT LIST OF TABLES LIST OF FIGURES LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS AND SYMBOLS LIST OF APPENDICES INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background of Study 1.2 Objectives 1.3 Scope METHOD 2.1 Architecture of TFT Pixel 2.2 Phases of Components Assembly 3 4 5 6 7 15 16 LIST OF FIGURES NO TITLE PAGE 2.
1 2.2 3.1 4.1 LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS ANDSYMBOLS UTeM Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka EC Electric car CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 BACKGROUND Air pollutants is a matter in the air that can have animpact on human health and ecosystem. Air pollution contains substance likecarbon dioxide, sulphur oxides, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide,chlorofluorocarbons and many more.
Therefore, it has impact on human healthespecially on the cardio-respiratory system. People with early respiratoryconditions, such as asthma and allergies, are especially vulnerable to airpollutants. The effects on human health can include reduced lung function,heart disease, stroke, respiratory illnesses, and lung cancer. In economicterms, health impacts are hard to quantify, but studies suggest they may besubstantial. According to the news from The Star over the period between 2005and 2010, “outdoor air pollution caused 6,251 deaths in Malaysia in 2012,according to a recent report by the World Health Organization. The deaths weredue to heart disease (3,630), stroke (1773), lung cancer (670), pulmonarydisease (148) and lower respiratory disease (29).” According to department of environment, 70 percent sourceof air pollution is from motor vehicles are particularly harmful for humanhealth as the general population has a higher level of exposure to motorvehicle exhaust emissions than the emission from power plant that consists 24.
3percent. While industrial and others consists small amount of percentage whichis 2.8 and 2.9. Motor vehicles are a major contributor to these pollutants inurban air sheds, and their emissions are increasing as vehicle usage continuesto rise as a result of economic and population growth.In order reduce the problems of carbon monoxide from internalcombustion engines we saw a need for alternative fuelled vehicles that is electriccar which is electrical powered vehicle.
This electrical powered vehicle ismove by an electric dc motor, supported by rechargeable battery, on behalf ofgasoline engine. The dc controller gets its power from a rechargeable batteryand electric dc motor gets its power from a dc controller. This car looksnormal like other vehicle from outside.
Only the inner part of engine functionselectrically. Often, the only clue that can detect electric car is nearlysilent. 1.2 OBJECTIVE The purpose of this project is to explain how an electric poweredcar works by DC electric motor. 1.3 SCOPE Our research project will focus on the working principle of the electriccar and the functionality of the parts that using in electric car and alsoexplain about the capability of the DC electric motor that uses in electriccar. 1.
4 ORGANIZATION This project focuses on the workingprinciple of electric car that uses DC electric motor. First, a shortintroduction regarding the electric car is given by explaining the backgroundof the electric car. Next, the methodology of this project is explain detailed.This is followed by a thorough analysis of the function of each parts and theexplanation of how electric car works. Finally, conclusions and recommendationsare made.CHAPTER 2 METHODOLOGY 2.1 Introduction This chapter enlightens the method that use to carry out theresearch.
2.2 Data Collection Library research that reference of book’s regarding electric car wouldbe referred to. Articles that has been made in the past regarding the similaridea could also be used as a reference in order to open wider window on thesimilar matter and also internet research that help in most collection of dataregarding electric car.
2.3 Data analysis From the research, the operation of electric analysed and all thedata was recorded in tis report. The research was conducted in a week time andall the data was analysed within a week time. The design of the electric carwith part’s that would be cohesive with the internal compartments would bedecided on.
The types of compartment that would be needed, the type ofmaterials, the amount of the materials, the cost that would be involved. CHAPTER 3 RESULT AND DISCUSSON 3.1 INTRODUCTION This section explain how an electric car works by DC electric motor.How components and systems work hand in hand in order to function and todeliver the desired output, that is, the functionality of electric car. 3.2 PRESENTING THE RESULTS 3.2.1 Description of Partsand their Functions Potentiometer It is circular in shape andit is hooked to the accelerator pedal.
The potentiometer, also called thevariable resistor, provides the signal that tells the controller how much poweris it supposed to deliver. Batteries The batteries provide power for the controller. Three types ofbatteries: lead acid, lithium ion, and nickel-metal hydride batteries. Batteriesrange in voltage (power). DC Controller The controller received power from the batteries and supply it tothe motor. The controller can deliver zero power (when the car is stopped),full power (when the driver floors the accelerator pedal), or any power levelin between. If the battery pack contains twelve 12-volt batteries, wired inseries to create 144 volts, the controller takes in 144 volts direct current,and delivers it to the motor in a controlled way.
The controller reads thesetting of the accelerator pedal from the two potentiometers and regulates thepower accordingly. If the accelerator pedal is 25 percent of the way down, thecontroller pulses the power so it is on 25 percent of the time and off 75percent of the time. If the signals of both potentiometers are not equal, thecontroller will not operate.
Motor The motor receives power from the controller and turns atransmission. The transmission then turns the wheels, causing the vehicle torun. 3.3 DISCUSSION 3.
3.1 Theory of Operationfor Electric car When the driver steps on the pedal the potentiometeractivates and provides the signal that tells the controller how much power itis supposed to deliver. There are two potentiometers for safety. The controllerreads the setting of the accelerator pedal from the potentiometers, regulatesthe power accordingly, takes the power from the batteries and delivers it tothe motor.
The motor receives the power (voltage) from the controller and usesthis power to rotate the transmission. The transmission then turns the wheelsand causes the car to move forward or backward. If the driver floors theaccelerator pedal, the controller delivers the full battery voltage to themotor. If the driver takes his/her foot off the accelerator, the controllerdelivers zero volts to the motor. For any setting in between, the controllerchops the battery voltage, thousands of times per second to create an averagevoltage somewhere between 0 and full battery pack voltage. A simple DCcontroller connected to the batteries and the DC motor. If the driver floorsthe accelerator pedal, the controller delivers the full 96 volts from thebatteries to the motor. If the driver take his/her foot off the accelerator,the controller delivers zero volts to the motor.
For any setting in between,the controller “chops” the 96 volts thousands of times per second tocreate an average voltage somewhere between 0 and 96 volts. Electric Motor A typical motor will be inthe 20,000-watt to 30,000-watt range. A typical controller will be in the40,000-watt to 60,000-watt range (for example, a 96-volt controller willdeliver a maximum of 400 or 600 amps). DC motors have the nice feature that youcan overdrive them (up to a factor of 10-to-1) for shortperiods of time. That is, a 20,000-watt motor will accept 100,000 watts for ashort period of time and deliver 5 times its rated horsepower. CHAPTER 4 CONCLUSION ANDRECOMMENDATIONS 4.
1 CONCLUSION The electric vehicle called Electric car is working byan electric motor, powered by rechargeable battery packs, rather than agasoline engine. From the outside, the vehicle looks normal and does not appearto be electric car. In most of the cases, electric cars are formed byconverting a gasoline-powered car. Regularly, the only thing that signs thevehicle is electric is the fact that it is nearly silent. Under the hood, theelectric car has main three function. The functions are an electric motor, acontroller and a rechargeable battery.
The electric motor gets its power from adc controller and the controller gets its power from a rechargeable battery. Theelectric vehicle works on an electric and current principle. It uses a batterypack (batteries) to provide power for the electric motor. The motor then usesthe voltage as a power received from the batteries to rotate a transmission.
The transmission will turns the wheels. Four main parts that form the electricvehicle the potentiometer, batteries, direct current and motor. 4.2 RECOMMENDATIONS Futureresearch on electric car that operates from AC motor.
The controller takesin 300 volts DC from the battery pack. It converts it into a maximum of 240volts AC, three-phase, to send to the motor. It does this using very largetransistor that rapidly turn the batteries’ voltage on and off to create asine wave.
Researchon improving battery technologies to increase driving range and decreaserecharging time, weight, and cost. These factors will ultimately determine thefuture of ECs.