ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS thankful to our lecturer Dr.Noorli Binti Khamis

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

 

 

Thanks to God as we are given an opportunity to
completely accomplished the technical report by His blessing. We are heartily
thankful to our lecturer Dr.Noorli Binti Khamis whose encouragement, guidance
and support from initial to the final level enable us to develop an
understanding of the subject. Lastly, we offer our regards and blessings to all
those who supported us in any respect during completion of project. Very big
thanks especially our family, friends and lecturer whose morale support, that
been motivated us from the beginning until end.

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ABSTRACT

 

 

The studies for zero emission (EC) is
necessary because of developing alternative methods to generate energy for
vehicles due to limited fuel based energy, global warming and exhaust emission
limits in the last century. EC incorporates internal composition engine,
electric machines and power electronic equipment.  Compared with petrol vehicles, they make less noise
and produce less atmospheric pollution. Statistics prove that their life
is much longer and their maintenance is much less than that of any other form
of mechanically propelled road vehicle. In this report, an overview
of ECs is presented. In fact, we aim to introduce the ECs and present their
history, advantages, disadvantages, classification, vehicle types, energy
management strategies and some other related information. The methodology used
in this paper is descriptive, library and analytical. The descriptive aspect of
this paper is based on identification and definitions and its required
materials and information have been complied using related scientific papers.

 

 

 

                                   

 

TABLE OF CONTENT

 

CHAPTER

TOPIC

PAGE

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
1
 
 
 
 
2
 
 
 
 
REFERENCES
APPENDICES A-Y

 
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
ABSTRACT
TABLE OF CONTENT
LIST OF TABLES
LIST OF FIGURES
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS AND
SYMBOLS
 
LIST OF APPENDICES
 
INTRODUCTION
1.1     
Background of Study
1.2     
Objectives
1.3     
Scope
 
METHOD
2.1   
 Architecture of TFT Pixel
2.2   Phases of Components Assembly
 
 
 

 
3
4
5
6
7
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
15
     16

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

LIST OF FIGURES

 

NO

TITLE

 

PAGE

 
2.1
 
 
2.2
 
3.1
 
4.1
 

 
 

 

 
 
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS AND
SYMBOLS

 

UTeM

Universiti
Teknikal Malaysia Melaka

EC

Electric car

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER 1

 

 

INTRODUCTION

 

1.1  BACKGROUND

 

Air pollutants is a matter in the air that can have an
impact on human health and ecosystem. Air pollution contains substance like
carbon dioxide, sulphur oxides, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide,
chlorofluorocarbons and many more. Therefore, it has impact on human health
especially on the cardio-respiratory system. People with early respiratory
conditions, such as asthma and allergies, are especially vulnerable to air
pollutants. The effects on human health can include reduced lung function,
heart disease, stroke, respiratory illnesses, and lung cancer. In economic
terms, health impacts are hard to quantify, but studies suggest they may be
substantial. According to the news from The Star over the period between 2005
and 2010, “outdoor air pollution caused 6,251 deaths in Malaysia in 2012,
according to a recent report by the World Health Organization. The deaths were
due to heart disease (3,630), stroke (1773), lung cancer (670), pulmonary
disease (148) and lower respiratory disease (29).”

            According to department of environment, 70 percent source
of air pollution is from motor vehicles are particularly harmful for human
health as the general population has a higher level of exposure to motor
vehicle exhaust emissions than the emission from power plant that consists 24.3
percent. While industrial and others consists small amount of percentage which
is 2.8 and 2.9. Motor vehicles are a major contributor to these pollutants in
urban air sheds, and their emissions are increasing as vehicle usage continues
to rise as a result of economic and population growth.

In order reduce the problems of carbon monoxide from internal
combustion engines we saw a need for alternative fuelled vehicles that is electric
car which is electrical powered vehicle. This electrical powered vehicle is
move by an electric dc motor, supported by rechargeable battery, on behalf of
gasoline engine. The dc controller gets its power from a rechargeable battery
and electric dc motor gets its power from a dc controller. This car looks
normal like other vehicle from outside. Only the inner part of engine functions
electrically. Often, the only clue that can detect electric car is nearly
silent.

 

 

1.2 OBJECTIVE

 

The purpose of this project is to explain how an electric powered
car works by DC electric motor.

 

1.3 SCOPE

 

Our research project will focus on the working principle of the electric
car and the functionality of the parts that using in electric car and also
explain about the capability of the DC electric motor that uses in electric
car.

 

1.4      ORGANIZATION

 

This project focuses on the working
principle of electric car that uses DC electric motor. First, a short
introduction regarding the electric car is given by explaining the background
of the electric car. Next, the methodology of this project is explain detailed.
This is followed by a thorough analysis of the function of each parts and the
explanation of how electric car works. Finally, conclusions and recommendations
are made.

CHAPTER 2

 

 

METHODOLOGY

 

2.1 Introduction

 

This chapter enlightens the method that use to carry out the
research.

 

2.2 Data Collection

 

Library research that reference of book’s regarding electric car would
be referred to. Articles that has been made in the past regarding the similar
idea could also be used as a reference in order to open wider window on the
similar matter and also internet research that help in most collection of data
regarding electric car.  

 

2.3 Data analysis

 

From the research, the operation of electric analysed and all the
data was recorded in tis report. The research was conducted in a week time and
all the data was analysed within a week time. The design of the electric car
with part’s that would be cohesive with the internal compartments would be
decided on. The types of compartment that would be needed, the type of
materials, the amount of the materials, the cost that would be involved.

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER 3

 

 

RESULT AND DISCUSSON

 

3.1 INTRODUCTION

 

This section explain how an electric car works by DC electric motor.
How components and systems work hand in hand in order to function and to
deliver the desired output, that is, the functionality of electric car.

 

 

3.2 PRESENTING THE RESULTS

                        

3.2.1 Description of Parts
and their Functions

 

Potentiometer

 

 It is circular in shape and
it is hooked to the accelerator pedal. The potentiometer, also called the
variable resistor, provides the signal that tells the controller how much power
is it supposed to deliver.

 

Batteries

 

The batteries provide power for the controller. Three types of
batteries: lead acid, lithium ion, and nickel-metal hydride batteries. Batteries
range in voltage (power).

 

 

DC Controller

 

The controller received power from the batteries and supply it to
the motor. The controller can deliver zero power (when the car is stopped),
full power (when the driver floors the accelerator pedal), or any power level
in between. If the battery pack contains twelve 12-volt batteries, wired in
series to create 144 volts, the controller takes in 144 volts direct current,
and delivers it to the motor in a controlled way. The controller reads the
setting of the accelerator pedal from the two potentiometers and regulates the
power accordingly. If the accelerator pedal is 25 percent of the way down, the
controller pulses the power so it is on 25 percent of the time and off 75
percent of the time. If the signals of both potentiometers are not equal, the
controller will not operate.

 

Motor

 

The motor receives power from the controller and turns a
transmission. The transmission then turns the wheels, causing the vehicle to
run.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3.3 DISCUSSION

 

3.3.1 Theory of Operation
for Electric car

 

            When the driver steps on the pedal the potentiometer
activates and provides the signal that tells the controller how much power it
is supposed to deliver. There are two potentiometers for safety. The controller
reads the setting of the accelerator pedal from the potentiometers, regulates
the power accordingly, takes the power from the batteries and delivers it to
the motor. The motor receives the power (voltage) from the controller and uses
this power to rotate the transmission. The transmission then turns the wheels
and causes the car to move forward or backward. If the driver floors the
accelerator pedal, the controller delivers the full battery voltage to the
motor. If the driver takes his/her foot off the accelerator, the controller
delivers zero volts to the motor. For any setting in between, the controller
chops the battery voltage, thousands of times per second to create an average
voltage somewhere between 0 and full battery pack voltage.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A simple DC
controller connected to the batteries and the DC motor. If the driver floors
the accelerator pedal, the controller delivers the full 96 volts from the
batteries to the motor. If the driver take his/her foot off the accelerator,
the controller delivers zero volts to the motor. For any setting in between,
the controller “chops” the 96 volts thousands of times per second to
create an average voltage somewhere between 0 and 96 volts.

 

Electric Motor

 

A typical motor will be in
the 20,000-watt to 30,000-watt range. A typical controller will be in the
40,000-watt to 60,000-watt range (for example, a 96-volt controller will
deliver a maximum of 400 or 600 amps). DC motors have the nice feature that you
can overdrive them (up to a factor of 10-to-1) for short
periods of time. That is, a 20,000-watt motor will accept 100,000 watts for a
short period of time and deliver 5 times its rated horsepower.

 

 

CHAPTER 4

 

 

CONCLUSION AND
RECOMMENDATIONS

 

4.1 CONCLUSION

 

The electric vehicle called Electric car is working by
an electric motor, powered by rechargeable battery packs, rather than a
gasoline engine. From the outside, the vehicle looks normal and does not appear
to be electric car. In most of the cases, electric cars are formed by
converting a gasoline-powered car. Regularly, the only thing that signs the
vehicle is electric is the fact that it is nearly silent. Under the hood, the
electric car has main three function. The functions are an electric motor, a
controller and a rechargeable battery. The electric motor gets its power from a
dc controller and the controller gets its power from a rechargeable battery. The
electric vehicle works on an electric and current principle. It uses a battery
pack (batteries) to provide power for the electric motor. The motor then uses
the voltage as a power received from the batteries to rotate a transmission.
The transmission will turns the wheels. Four main parts that form the electric
vehicle the potentiometer, batteries, direct current and motor.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

4.2  RECOMMENDATIONS

 

Future
research on electric car that operates from AC motor. The controller takes
in 300 volts DC from the battery pack. It converts it into a maximum of 240
volts AC, three-phase, to send to the motor. It does this using very large
transistor that rapidly turn the batteries’ voltage on and off to create a
sine wave. Research
on improving battery technologies to increase driving range and decrease
recharging time, weight, and cost. These factors will ultimately determine the
future of ECs.

 

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