Assignment on AGRICULTURE OF BANGLADESH Submitted to: Asiquer Rahman Submitted by: Yakub Iqbal2449 Rasel Mahmud2464 Mahsinozzaman Shuva2450 Mustafizur Rahman2451 Nabila Munmun2447 Shammi Akter 2418 [pic] Submission Date: June 3, 2010 INTRODUCTION: Agriculture remains the most important sector of Bangladeshi economy, contributing 19. 6 percent to the national GDP and providing employment for 63 percent of the population. Agriculture in Bangladesh is heavily dependent on the weather, and the entire harvest can be wiped out in a matter of hours when cyclones hit the country.
According to the World Bank, the total arable land in Bangladesh is 61. 2 percent of the total land area (down from 68. 3 percent in 1980). Farms are usually very small due to heavily increasing population, unwieldy land ownership, and inheritance regulations. The 3 main crops—rice, jute, and tea—have dominated agricultural exports for decades, although the rice is grown almost entirely for domestic consumption, while jute and tea are the main export earners. In addition to these products, Bangladeshi farmers produce sugarcane, tobacco, cotton, and various fruits and vegetables (sweet potatoes, bananas, pineapples, etc. for the domestic market. Tropical rainforest is important for maintaining the ecological balance in Bangladesh, and forestry contributes 1. 9 percent to the GDP (1999-2000). The forest covers around 17 percent of the country’s territory, or 2. 5 million hectares (6. 18 million acres). The timber is used by the construction industry as a source of building materials, by the printing industry as a source of materials to produce paper, and in the agricultural sector as a source of firewood. Commercial logging is limited to around 6. million cubic feet, and the government plans to plant more trees within the next 15 years. Fishing is another important activity in the country, contributing 4. 9 percent to the GDP (1999-2000) and providing 6 percent of the total export income. The overall fish production was around 1. 6 million metric tons (1999-2000). Bangladesh mainly exports its shrimp to the international market. CROPS Bangladesh is an agricultural country. The land of this country is very fertile and produces great varieties of crop. Kinds: we may classify our crop into two-food crop and cash-crop. Food-Crop:
Rice: The floodplains of Bangladesh are one of the regions where the rice plant was first domesticated around 5th millennium B. C. Bangladesh is also the place where rice production systems of various eco-seasonal characteristics evolved over centuries of rice farming experience and have been sustained. Rice is the staple for the 140 million Bangladeshis who obtain more than 70% of their total calorie from rice. The per capita rice consumption in Bangladesh is higher than that in any other country where rice is the staple. Two-thirds of Bangladesh populations are engaged in livelihood ctivities related to rice. Most rice is grown by small-holder farmers who produce rice for family consumption and for marketing the marginal surplus. Fertile lands and hard-working farmers are the biggest assets of the rice production sector in Bangladesh. The farmers, although mostly land-poor, have shown that they can intelligently respond to the market stimulus as well as to opportunities offered by new technologies. By using modern production technologies, Bangladesh has recently achieved a nearly- self-sufficient status in rice.
But the challenges of maintaining self-sufficiency through the coming decades are formidable as population is still growing at a significant rate and rice production growth has to be achieved with increasingly fewer resources in land, water, chemicals, and labor. The multiplicity of technical, socio-economic, and institutional issues that are entailed in the production-processing-marketing-consumption chain of this vital crop demands that high priority be given to understanding them fully and addressing them adequately for achieving a sustainable rice production system through foreseeable future. Wheat:
Since the early 1970s, sustained government investment in irrigation facilities, rural infrastructure, agricultural research, and extension services has helped Bangladeshi farmers achieve dramatic increases in food production. Today Bangladesh is nearing self-sufficiency in rice, the major staple. Production of wheat, the second most important cereal, has also increased, although the country still imports significant quantities of wheat to meet rapidly growing domestic demand. While the government of Bangladesh continues to provide strong support to rice producers, its commitment to wheat farmers seems less firm.
Some policymakers have gone so far as to question whether support to wheat should be scaled back, citing studies showing that wheat production is unprofitable and represents an inefficient use of resources. But is wheat production in Bangladesh really unprofitable for farmers and inefficient for the country? Researchers from the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) and the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT) recently examined the arguments for and against wheat production in Bangladesh.
In Wheat Production in Bangladesh: Technological, Economic, and Policy Issues, Research Report 106, Michael L. Morris, Nuimuddin Chowdhury, and Craig Meisner used a combination of financial and economic analysis to compare production of two irrigated crops (wheat and boro rice) and three nonirrigated crops (wheat, oilseeds, and pulses) in five wheat-growing zones. Their goal was to determine the extent to which government policies and market failures may have driven a wedge between financial and economic profitability.
Whenever financial and economic profitability diverge, farmers experience distorted incentives, and policy reforms may be necessary to encourage them to act in ways that are consistent with efficiency objectives. Sugarcane: Sugar-cane is an important food-crop of our country. It is a grate source of glucose. People like the juice of sugar-cane very mush. Molasses and sugar are made from sugar-cane. The districts of Dhaka, Rajshahi, Mymenshingh, Rangpur, Dinajpur, Jassore, Kustia etc. produce sugar-cane in plenty. Other: Pea, Maize, potato, water-melon etc. are some other food crop of Bangladesh. Cash-Crop: Jute:
Jute, often called the “golden fibre” of Bengal, is the main export-earner for Bangladeshi agriculture, as Bangladesh remains the world’s second-largest producer of jute (after India) and the world’s largest exporter of fiber. Jute is traditionally used for the fiber of carpet backing, burlap bags, cheap paper, and various other purposes. Its importance for the Bangladeshi economy comes from the fact that almost 3 million farms are involved in jute production. In 1999 Bangladeshi export earnings from jute amounted to US$55 million, with the country producing 720,000 metric tons of jute, although this is about one-third of the jute roduction of the middle of the 1980s. The decline in jute production is attributed to declining world prices for this crop and to farmers switching to other crops. Cotton: Cotton is another important cash crop. It grows in plenty in the hills tracts of our country. But we need more cotton to meet our demand. So farmers are being encouraged by the government to grow more cotton. Tobacco: Tobacco grows all over the country. But in Rangpur it grows in plenty. The smokers like the tobacco of Rangpur very much. Tea:
Bangladesh also produces tea leaves, mainly for export, although the export of this product contributes only 1 percent of the country’s hard currency earnings. In 1998-99 the country produced 56,000 metric tons of tea leaves, but it could produce twice that amount. The main obstacle to increasing production is in falling prices for tea in the international market and in management and regulation problems in the industry in the country. History of Bangladesh Tea Industry dates back to 1840 when a pioneer tea garden was established on the slopes of the hills in Chittagong where the Chittagong Club now stands.
First commercial tea garden was established in 1857 at Mulnichera in Sylhet. During the partition in 1947, Bangladesh (the then East Pakistan) owned 103 tea estates, covering 26,734 hectares of tea plantation with annual production of 18. 36 M. Kg. with an yield of about 639 Kg. per ha. Home consumption was around 13. 64 M. Kg. upto 1955. After that home consumption went up rapidly and Government imposed 3% mandatory extension of tea area per year in 1961. Ten years later by 1970, tea area was extended to 42,658 hectares and production was incrased to 31. 38 M. Kg.
During liberation war in 1971, our tea industry suffered colossal damages which resulted in poor management, high vacancies, insufficient inputs, dilapidated factory machinery, inadequate maintenance etc. leading to lower yield and poor quality of tea. But the industry soon got a big push on behalf of the government through a massive development program (BTRP-1980-92) with the financial and technical assistance of the British ODA and EEC and production increased to 60. 14 million kg. with per/ha. yield of 1150kg. in 2005. # Land of Tea Estates: a. No. of Tea Estates163 . No. of Tea Factories114 c. Total Garden Area115,820. 33 ha. d. Total Nurseries1037. 83 ha. I. Seed Bari -325. 40 ha. II. Seed Nurseries -283. 66 ha. III. Clone Nurseries -428. 77 ha. FRUITS Bangladesh has so many different fruits which are not available on other country. Fruit, a structure formed from a mature or ripe ovary of any plant species after fertilization has occurred. The term ‘fruit’ is more conveniently used to refer to the part of the seed suitable for human consumption, eaten fresh, either ripe or young.
From the nomadic age to present-day civilized life fruits have been used as food. The earliest cultivated fruit appears to be the date palm. Other fruits like pomegranates, Egypt figs and olives had been popular fruits since 3500 BC. Fruits have pericarps developed from ovary walls and seeds developed from fertilized ovules. Generally the ovary alone grows into a fruit. But in some cases calyx and thalamus are involved to form false fruits like Dillenia, cashew nut and apple. Simple fruits developed from single ovary, is the character of fruits. Aggregate fruits are developed from numerous ovaries as in jackfruit and pineapple.
Bangladesh abounds with a large variety of tropical and sub-tropical fruits. The most widely cultivated fruits are mango, jackfruit, black berry, pineapple, banana, litchi, lemon, guava, custard apple, wood apple, elephant apple, golden apple, Indian berry, papaya, tamarind, melon, watermelon, cashew nut, pomegranate, palmyra, plum, rose apple, Indian olive, and Indian jujube. There are many minor edible fruits that are locally available in the wild and are also cultivated, such as latkan, monkey jack, uriam, rattan, river ebony, garcinia, water coconut etc.
May, June and July are specially treated as fruit festival months in Bangladesh when almost all the major and minor fruits are matured and available. A few fruits are available throughout the year. These are the papaya, sapodilla, coconut and banana. The common imported fruits are orange, apple, pomegranate, grape, date, and mandarin. Vegetables Farmers and officials of the Department of Agriculture Extension (DAE) are expecting a bumper production of winter vegetables in the northern region (NR) during the current Rabi season.
Following large-scale early farming of the vegetables under the changed climatic conditions and cropping patterns, all varieties of winter vegetable have now flooded the local markets with excellent yield rates under favorable climate so far, officials said. The DAE, Bangladesh Agriculture Research Institute, Bangladesh Agriculture Development Corporation and many NGOs have supplied adequate quality seeds, other agro-inputs and provided necessary technical assistance to the farmers.
Besides, different commercial banks, including Rajshahi Krishi Unnayan Bank and NGOs have disbursed agriculture loans and interest-free loans among the farmers to make the massive winter vegetables farming programme successful The farmers have still been continuing cultivation of winter vegetables after harvesting the early and short duration variety Aman paddies side by side with continuing harvest of the early variety vegetables The DAE officials are expecting a super bumper production of winter vegetables including potato during the current Rabi season following further reduction of prices of the non- urea fertilizers by the government.
Meanwhile, the vegetables traders and middlemen have already started exporting huge quantities of early variety vegetables to Dhaka and other parts of the country by trucks from different points in these districts daily. Under the programmed, a total of 50,852 hectares of land will be brought under cultivation to produce 8, 13,632 tones winter vegetables this season in eight districts under the Rangpur Agriculture Zone. Besides, more 83,680 hectares of land will be brought under the programmed to produce another 13, 38,880 tones winter vegetables from other eight districts under Rajshahi Agriculture Zone.
Big onion output target set to reduce import The Department of Agriculture Extension (DAE) has fixed a target for producing 4,69,679 tonnes of onion on 72,292 hectares of land in the northern region of the country during the current Rabi season. According to official sources, the DAE, the Bangladesh Agriculture Research Institute (BARI), the Bangladesh Agriculture Development Corporation (BADC) and a number of non-government organizations (NGOs) are working to make the onion-farming programmed a success.
Steps have been taken to provide adequate training, technical assistance and inputs, high quality imported and locally produced seeds, and agri-loans for the farmers under various programme, including the Northwest Crop Diversification Project (NCDP). Sources said, the special steps taken earlier this year to produce onion during the last summer season will help greatly in producing the spicy crop in the region.
Onion will be cultivated this year on 13,325 hectares of land in Rajshahi, 4,431 hectares in Naogaon, 3,467 hectares in Natore, 4,047 hectares in Chapainawabganj, 33,060 hectares in Pabna, 944 hectares in Sirajganj, 2,442 hectares in Bogra and 816 hectares in Joypurhat districts. This season, 1,896 hectares will be brought under onion farming in Rangpur, 1,152 hectares in Gaibandha, 730 hectares in Lalmonirhat, 1,416 hectares in Nilphamari, 775 hectares in Kurigram, 2,195 hectares in Dinajpur, 648 hectares in Thakurgaon and 948 hectares in Panchagarh.
Earlier, a huge amount of allocated agri-loan money for the purpose had remained idle with the banks, but due to recent steps taken by Bangladesh Bank, the loans are now being disbursed at larger scales among the farmers. They hoped that onion production in the region would continue to increase as the crop is being cultivated twice a year in place of only once during the winter in the past. Tomato cultivation gains popularity in N-region including
RAJSHAHI, Bangladesh, Dec 2 (BSS)- Tomato farming is gaining popularity in all the 16 districts under Rajshahi division particularly in the vast tract of Barind area and expected to earn at least Taka 35 crore from the production during the current season. Department of Agriculture Extension (DAE) sources said the cultivation was increased by five times during the last 15 to 20 years and the production has gone up at the same pace with the promotion of high yielding varieties and modern technologies at the farmers’ level.
Tomato, which is now considered as the second cash crop of the region, plays an important role in the economy. The wholesale traders from across the country particularly from Dhaka, Chittagong, Barisal, Sylhet, Shariatpur and Madaripur are started rushing to different markets of the region for purchasing the crop through middlemen. Soil and climatic condition of all the districts, especially Rajshahi, Natore, Chapainawabganj, Naogaon, Pabna, Bogra, Sirajganj, Joypurhat, Rangpur and Gaibandha are very suitable for tomato cultivation. It is now widely cultivated on the dry soil of the Barind area, the sources said.
Different public and private level commercial banks, especially Rajshahi Krishi Unnayan Bank (RAKUB) have been extending credit facilities to the farmers for making them interested in the cultivation while the DAE providing technological assistance to them for making the cultivation more profitable. The Bangladesh Agriculture Research Institute (BARI) has developed 10 high yielding and quality varieties and modern technologies. It has been executing special programmers to promote those among the growers through arranging farmers training in different areas.
The rates of production of the developed varieties are comparatively high and profitable than that of the domestic varieties. Sources said the farmers incurred losses every year due to shortage of storage facilities as thousands of tones of tomatoes are perished. If government and private entrepreneurs of the country come forward for marketing the tomatoes, it will create jobs for hundreds of people, including poor women. Forestry Forestry is a long-term production system. It has manifold contribution towards the welfare of mankind. The multiple use of forest resources have been recognized from the advent of civilization.
The Forestry sector contributes about 5% of the total GDP (Gross domestic product) of Bangladesh. This does not reflect the true contribution of this sector. The rural population uses fuelwood and other minor forest products practically free of cost. Forest also plays an important role in protecting watersheds, irrigation and hydraulic structure, also in keeping the rivers and ports navigable. It also plays key role in protecting the coastal areas from natural calamities. The role of forest in protecting the environment from pollution and its contribution towards bio-diversity is immense.
The participatory social forestry contributes towards rural poverty reduction significantly. In the last 3 years, out of total sale proceeds of timber and fuelwood about 308 (three hundred and eight) million taka has been distributed to 23561 participants. Social Forestry Rules have been framed to give the legal basis of benefit sharing system. Tree farming fund has been created from the 10% of the sale proceeds to create new resources on the same pieces of land involving the same participants, to ensure sustainability.
The TFF operating committee has been established involving local government and Local Community Organization (LCO). Apart from the sale proceeds, participants also get money from Forest Department for their labor input in the plantation activities. They also get periodic income from agriculture crops grown between the trees both in forest and marginal land. The participants also get thinning and pruning outputs in many places. Employment generation In 2001-2002, about 2% (two percent) of the total manpower of the country was engaged in the forestry sector.
Many people actually benefited directly from forestry-related activities e. g. in wood based industry, saw milling, furniture making, establishing private nursery, logging, extraction and in afforestation programs. Besides this in Sundarban millions of people are dependant on the the mangrove forest for their livelihood (e. g mawali, bawali, fisherman etc). Fuel wood Fuelwood is the major wood product required today, Bangladesh needs over 8. 0 million cubic meter fuelwood every year. Domestic cooking uses an estimated 63%, which is 5. 1 million cubic meter annually.
Industrial and commercial use is also significant, which is 2. 9 million cubic meter annually. According to Forestry Master Plan, village household supply about 75% of the fuelwood in the country where as government forestry program provides the rest 25%. Due to limited alternative sources of energy the rural people are mainly dependant on fuelwood for cooking and other household activities. The Government of Bangladesh took many initiatives to provide the consumer an additional supply of fuelwood for the future. ‘Major Forest Produces and Revenue Earned from 2003-04 to 2007-08’ (click to view) NWFP (Non Wood Forest Products)
Some of the important non-wood forest products are listed below : • Bamboo (Melocanna baccifera, Bambusa tulda etc. )Plays a very crucial role in our rural economy and is a singular essential material for construction of temporary house / shelter for the rural people, especially for the hilly tribal people. • Sungrass (Imperata spp. )The most common roofing / thatching material for temporary low -cost housing in the villages and forest terrain’s of Bangladesh. • Cane (Calamus viminalis,Calamus guruba)Used for domestic purposes by the rural people, but more so, for sophisticated furniture making & luxury souvenir articles. Pati Pata / Murta (Clinogynae dichotoma)This is an excellent material for floor-mats (Pati), which is extensively used by the poor villagers and also as a luxury item for the rich people. This is also exported by the cottage industries as a finished product. • Gol-Pata (Nypa fruticans)This is a very popular and essential thatching / roofing material for poor people, around Khulna, Bagerhat and Satkhira districts and fetches handsome revenue for the Forest Department. • Leaves, Bark & Fruits”Kurus pata” Holarrhena antidysenterica is very popular for medicinal use.
Horitaki (Terminalia chebula), Amlaki (Phyllanthus emblica), Bohera (Terminalia belerica) popularly called “Trifala” (Myrabolum) are used as medicine in the country. • HoneyUsed as food, drink, beverage and also as a medicine in the country. • Shells, Conch-Shells, oysters etcConsiderable quantity of shells, oysters, conchshells are collected by local inhabitants, as a means of livelihood in the coastal forest-belts, like Cox’s Bazar, Teknaf, Moheshkhali, Barisal, Patuakhali, Sundarbans etc. These are highly priced by tourists as souvenir articles and as such may be exported. Fish ResourcesIn rivers flowing inside forest areas like Sundarbans, Chittagong Hill Tracts and Sylhet (as well as in the coastal belts and offshore islands under the jurisdiction of Forest Department) considerable quantity of different types of fish (both sweet-water and saline fish) are harvested by local fishermen, for which the Forest Department earns revenue. Fishery Bangladesh is endowed with vast marine, coastal and inland waters having great fisheries potential: a 480 km long coastal line and approximately one million hectares of territorial waters extending 19 km up to the sea.
The nation’s economic zone extends 320 km out into the sea from the coast line. Total fish production in 2006-07 amounted to 24. 20lakh metric tons, and in 2007-08 it was amounted to 25. 92 lakh metric tons including shrimps (ponds, beels, baors and brackish water aquaculture). Its contribution to the national GDP was 4. 73% (2006-07 ) and 4. 64 % (2007-08 ) . The total earnings from the fish exporting is taka 3352. 88 crore from 73703. 77 metric ton fish. clearly inland open water capture fisheries are the most important part of the fisheries sector, accounting for 49% of total fish production.
So even small improvements in the average yield of inland open water capture fisheries could significantly affect national fish production and consumption. Present status in respect to the growth of the Fish and Shrimp Processing Industry vis-a-vis the availability of raw materials which are the living aquatic resources such as freshwater fish, marine fish, frogs, prawns, shrimps and other crustaceans, deserves a brief explanation in this context. Fishery Resources The Bangladesh Fisheries can broadly be divided into (i) Inland or Freshwater Fisheries and (ii) Marine Fisheries. Inland Fisheries
The inland fisheries of Bangladesh are considered to be extremely formidable in terms of natural water areas and its potential for shrimp and fish culture. Inland fisheries contributed to 74. 90% of the total fish catch of the country. Total fish production in 2007-08 it was amounted to 25. 92 lakh metric tons. Open Inland Water Fisheries It includes innumerable rivers and their tributaries, baors, haors and the estuaries. The main river systems in Bangladesh include the Meghna, the Padma, the Jamuna, the Brahmaputra and the Karnaphuli and their tributaries-the total water area of which is over, 1. 3 million ha. There are many ox-bow lakes locally called ‘Baors’ formed due to silting up of old rivers in the districts of Jessore, Jenaidah, Court Chandpur, Kustia and Faridpur with a total water area of about 5,488 ha. The natural depressions of land are used partially as agricultural lands in dry seasons and seasonally or perennially filled with water from adjacent rivers during rainy season. Most of these haors are located in the greater Sylhet, Mymensingh and Faridpur districts. Some of the haors are very big.
Hakaluki haor and Tangua haor in the greater Sylhet district have water areas of about 36,437 and 25,506 ha. respectively. The total water areas of the haors in Bangladesh are about 1,14,161 ha. The Kaptai Lake one of the largest man-made lakes, consists of 68,800 ha. Besides there are about 2. 83 million ha. of seasonal floodplain areas. The total open water areas of the country is about 4. 05 m ha. from which a total of 533,000 MT of fish was caught in 2006-07. This is a very low production which may be increased substantially with proper policy planning, serious efforts and implementation of strict onservation and management methods. Closed Water Fisheries It includes large-sized ponds called dighis, ponds and tanks. In most of the areas of the country, almost every homestead has one or more ponds or tanks used for bathing and cleaning as well as for fish culture. There are about 1. 29 million ponds covering over 1,46,890 ha. of water areas of which about 76,632 ha are under fish culture, 48,814 ha culturable and 25,450 ha. of derelict ponds. Of the total water areas of the ponds 52. 17% are now under fish culture, 30. 51% easily culturable but now idle and 17. 2% are derelict which can be turned into good fish ponds after proper renovation them. Out of the total number of 1. 29 million ponds about 46. 48% are under culture, 29. 90% culturable and rest 23. 62% are derelict ponds.. Marine Fisheries Bangladesh has a coastline of 480 km along the North and North-East part of the Bay of Bengal. It has an internal estuarine water area of 7,325 sq. nautical miles upto 10 fathom depth baseline, territorial waters of 2,640 sq. nautical miles from the baseline, EEZ of 41,040 sq. nautical miles and the continental shelf of 2,480 sq. autical miles. The total of marine water areas is about 48,365 sq. na. miles which is almost as big as the country itself. All these water areas have great potential for seawater fishes and shrimps. The coastal area has a great potential for seawater black tiger, white and brown shrimps. Based on different surveys and research works in the Bay of Bengal, it is estimated that the standing stock of fish is around 2,64,000 to 3,73,000 MT and that of shrimps around 9,000 MT. The marine catch increased from 95,000 MT in 1975–76 to 250480 MT in 2006-07 an increase of about 265%.
This has been possible due to Government’s encouragement for the introduction of a deep sea fleet of 70 trawlers (out of which 56 are in operation now) and over 6,000 mechanized boats in the Bay of Bengal. Yet, there remains much unexplored areas for development of off-shore pelagic fishing. The Shrimp Fisheries In the coastal areas of Satkhira and Khulna districts. People used to make dikes or embankments along the banks of estuarine rivers and allow sea waters carrying shrimp fry or juveniles to enter into it wherein shrimps used to grow under natural conditions without any supplementary feed.
As a result production output had always been very poor. Shrimp production in the area rotates with paddy cultivation in a systematic manner. During pre-liberation period (1971) there were only 2500 ha. of land under cultivation in the Khulna/Satkhira Region with a production of 20–50 kgs per ha. The Government of Bangladesh have taken up many schemes for the modernization of the shrimp culture in the country from the mid 1980’s as. The land under coastal shrimp culture increased from 51,812 ha in 1983–84 to 108280 ha in 1988–89 which remained almost static till 1992–93.
Total fish production in 2007-08 it was amounted to 25. 92 lakh metric tons. Conclusion: The farmers are the bacbone of the Agri-based country. Only agriculture can run the economy sector of the country. A mass extended agriculture is required for the large population to feed them up properly. The agriculture and farmer piays a vital and important role in the nationalneconomy and income. An promt example of jute and jute industry is considered as the great progress in the national economy by exporting the agriculture goods. So, the source of economy contributed by the sector of agriculture.