All described by D’Agostino et al. [20]. Measurements

medical students who are eligible and consent to the study will be included in
the research study. The research will be for the duration of 8-10 weeks keeping
in mind not to disturb the academic curriculum of first year medical students.



Variables and data collection:
This will be in accordance to methods followed by Nahla
Khamis Ibrahim et al. 19

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An anonymous, confidential and self-administered questionnaire will be used to

Ø  Personal
and socio-demographic characteristics including gender, educational year,
family income and parents’ education and job.

Ø  Risk
factors of Cardiovascular diseases as nutritional factors (frequency of eating
foods rich in saturated fat or fast foods, frequency of eating vegetables and fruits/week),
smoking habits, alcohol consumption, physical activity (regular practice of
physical exercise, number of times/week and the duration of practice), time spending
in TV watching or using computer.

Ø  Personal
and family history of cardiovascular diseases.


Measurements: After completing the questionnaire, measurements
will be taken as described by D’Agostino et al. 20. Measurements
will be taken by the principal investigator with the help of a trained
laboratory technician and his guide. The measurements include:

Ø  Weight
and height: Both will be obtained from a lightly clothed student.

The weight of the
participants will be measured using a calibrated weighing scale to the nearest
0.5 kg with the participant not wearing shoes.

The height will be taken
using a stadiometer to the nearest 0.5 cm with the participant standing upright
with the heel, buttock and upper back along the same vertical plane.

Ø  Blood
pressure (BP) measurement: It will be done while the student in the sitting
position after 4 minute of rest. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure is
identified at the beginning of the first and the fifth phase of the Korotkoff
sounds using a mercury sphygmomanometer applying the appropriate cuff on the
right arm 20.

Three consecutive readings
of blood pressure will be taken following a 4 min rest to allow the
participants vitals return to their at-rest values. The blood pressure will be
read to the nearest millimeter of mercury with the participant seated, and a
mean reading will be calculated from the 3 readings.

Hypertension is defined as
systolic BP of 140 mmHg or more and/or diastolic of 90 mmHg or more, according
to the7th Joint National Committee of High BP (JNC-7) 21.

Pre hypertension is
defined as a systolic BP of 130–139 and/or a diastolic BP of 85–89, according
to the JNC-7 21.

Ø  Body
Mass Index (BMI): It will be calculated by dividing weight in kilograms by the
square of height in meters. BMI is divided into normal (



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