Allmedical students who are eligible and consent to the study will be included inthe research study.
The research will be for the duration of 8-10 weeks keepingin mind not to disturb the academic curriculum of first year medical students. Variables and data collection:This will be in accordance to methods followed by NahlaKhamis Ibrahim et al. 19 I. Questionnaire:An anonymous, confidential and self-administered questionnaire will be used tocollect:Ø Personaland socio-demographic characteristics including gender, educational year,family income and parents’ education and job.Ø Riskfactors of Cardiovascular diseases as nutritional factors (frequency of eatingfoods rich in saturated fat or fast foods, frequency of eating vegetables and fruits/week),smoking habits, alcohol consumption, physical activity (regular practice ofphysical exercise, number of times/week and the duration of practice), time spendingin TV watching or using computer.Ø Personaland family history of cardiovascular diseases. II.
Measurements: After completing the questionnaire, measurementswill be taken as described by D’Agostino et al. 20. Measurementswill be taken by the principal investigator with the help of a trainedlaboratory technician and his guide. The measurements include:Ø Weightand height: Both will be obtained from a lightly clothed student.· The weight of theparticipants will be measured using a calibrated weighing scale to the nearest0.5 kg with the participant not wearing shoes.· The height will be takenusing a stadiometer to the nearest 0.5 cm with the participant standing uprightwith the heel, buttock and upper back along the same vertical plane.
Ø Bloodpressure (BP) measurement: It will be done while the student in the sittingposition after 4 minute of rest. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure isidentified at the beginning of the first and the fifth phase of the Korotkoffsounds using a mercury sphygmomanometer applying the appropriate cuff on theright arm 20. · Three consecutive readingsof blood pressure will be taken following a 4 min rest to allow theparticipants vitals return to their at-rest values. The blood pressure will beread to the nearest millimeter of mercury with the participant seated, and amean reading will be calculated from the 3 readings.· Hypertension is defined assystolic BP of 140 mmHg or more and/or diastolic of 90 mmHg or more, accordingto the7th Joint National Committee of High BP (JNC-7) 21.· Pre hypertension isdefined as a systolic BP of 130–139 and/or a diastolic BP of 85–89, accordingto the JNC-7 21.
Ø BodyMass Index (BMI): It will be calculated by dividing weight in kilograms by thesquare of height in meters. BMI is divided into normal (< 25), overweight(25 - < 30), and obese (?30).Ø The waist circumference of the participant will be recorded usinga non-stretch tape measure placed at a point midway between the lowest rib and iliaccrest on bear skin. Hip circumference will be measured at the level of thegreater trochanter using a non-stretch tape measure. The waist-hip ratio (WHR)will be then calculated.
Excessive body fat is defined as a waist-hip ratioabove 0.90 in males and 0.85 in females. Clearance from Institutional Ethics Committee (IEC) will beobtained. Written Informed Consent will be obtained from concerned subjects andauthority of institution. Privacy, confidentiality and anonymity will begranted. Scientific objectivity will be maintained with honesty andimpartiality.
Data Analysis:Descriptiveand analytical statistics will be conducted. Data will be entered and analyzedusing SPSS version 20. Mean and SD will be calculated for all parametricvariables and percentage for all non-parametric variables. Chi-square test willbe used for comparison between two categorical variables. Student t-test willused to assess statistical significant difference between males and females.
A “p< 0.05" will be considered statistically significant. In this way after aperiod of 8-10 weeks, results will be prepared in the form of graphs andtables. Aftermath:After the completion of the study, a lecture will be organized bythe Principal Investigator and his guide on the topic of Non-CommunicableDiseases (NCDs) with special emphasis given to Cardiovascular Diseases (CVDs).
A systematically developed instructional module with teaching aids likeaudio-visual aids will be used. Students will be emphasized on the importanceof Non-Communicable Diseases and the current spreading nature of such diseases.They will be introduced to the levels of prevention of such diseases withspecial preference to primordial and primary prevention of diseases.