All described by D’Agostino et al. [20]. Measurements

medical students who are eligible and consent to the study will be included in
the research study. The research will be for the duration of 8-10 weeks keeping
in mind not to disturb the academic curriculum of first year medical students.



Variables and data collection:
This will be in accordance to methods followed by Nahla
Khamis Ibrahim et al. 19


An anonymous, confidential and self-administered questionnaire will be used to

Ø  Personal
and socio-demographic characteristics including gender, educational year,
family income and parents’ education and job.

Ø  Risk
factors of Cardiovascular diseases as nutritional factors (frequency of eating
foods rich in saturated fat or fast foods, frequency of eating vegetables and fruits/week),
smoking habits, alcohol consumption, physical activity (regular practice of
physical exercise, number of times/week and the duration of practice), time spending
in TV watching or using computer.

Ø  Personal
and family history of cardiovascular diseases.


Measurements: After completing the questionnaire, measurements
will be taken as described by D’Agostino et al. 20. Measurements
will be taken by the principal investigator with the help of a trained
laboratory technician and his guide. The measurements include:

Ø  Weight
and height: Both will be obtained from a lightly clothed student.

The weight of the
participants will be measured using a calibrated weighing scale to the nearest
0.5 kg with the participant not wearing shoes.

The height will be taken
using a stadiometer to the nearest 0.5 cm with the participant standing upright
with the heel, buttock and upper back along the same vertical plane.

Ø  Blood
pressure (BP) measurement: It will be done while the student in the sitting
position after 4 minute of rest. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure is
identified at the beginning of the first and the fifth phase of the Korotkoff
sounds using a mercury sphygmomanometer applying the appropriate cuff on the
right arm 20.

Three consecutive readings
of blood pressure will be taken following a 4 min rest to allow the
participants vitals return to their at-rest values. The blood pressure will be
read to the nearest millimeter of mercury with the participant seated, and a
mean reading will be calculated from the 3 readings.

Hypertension is defined as
systolic BP of 140 mmHg or more and/or diastolic of 90 mmHg or more, according
to the7th Joint National Committee of High BP (JNC-7) 21.

Pre hypertension is
defined as a systolic BP of 130–139 and/or a diastolic BP of 85–89, according
to the JNC-7 21.

Ø  Body
Mass Index (BMI): It will be calculated by dividing weight in kilograms by the
square of height in meters. BMI is divided into normal (< 25), overweight (25 - < 30), and obese (? 30). Ø  The waist circumference of the participant will be recorded using a non-stretch tape measure placed at a point midway between the lowest rib and iliac crest on bear skin. Hip circumference will be measured at the level of the greater trochanter using a non-stretch tape measure. The waist-hip ratio (WHR) will be then calculated. Excessive body fat is defined as a waist-hip ratio above 0.90 in males and 0.85 in females.   Clearance from Institutional Ethics Committee (IEC) will be obtained. Written Informed Consent will be obtained from concerned subjects and authority of institution. Privacy, confidentiality and anonymity will be granted. Scientific objectivity will be maintained with honesty and impartiality.   Data Analysis: Descriptive and analytical statistics will be conducted. Data will be entered and analyzed using SPSS version 20. Mean and SD will be calculated for all parametric variables and percentage for all non-parametric variables. Chi-square test will be used for comparison between two categorical variables. Student t-test will used to assess statistical significant difference between males and females. A "p < 0.05" will be considered statistically significant. In this way after a period of 8-10 weeks, results will be prepared in the form of graphs and tables.   Aftermath: After the completion of the study, a lecture will be organized by the Principal Investigator and his guide on the topic of Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs) with special emphasis given to Cardiovascular Diseases (CVDs). A systematically developed instructional module with teaching aids like audio-visual aids will be used. Students will be emphasized on the importance of Non-Communicable Diseases and the current spreading nature of such diseases. They will be introduced to the levels of prevention of such diseases with special preference to primordial and primary prevention of diseases.