Antimicrobial an unavoidable manner to these antimicrobial agents.

Antimicrobial activities observed in
this study might be due to the presence of flavonoid Compounds. Extracts of
various medicinal plants containing phenolic and flavonoids possess
antimicrobial activity investigated the properties of Gallic, caffeic, vanillic
acid, rutin, and quercetin of different wine against pathogenic microorganisms. (Higdon et al., 1996). Escherichia coli were the most sensitive bacterium
and Flavo bacterium sp. was resistant against all phenolic compounds tested. The
flavonoid  revealed the presence of
kaempferol, myricetin, naringin, quercetin and rutin in P. macrocarpa fruit. .(cook et al.,1996). The presence of
these compounds might contribute to antimicrobial activity of P. macrocarpa
fruit since Cushnieand Lamb reported that kaempferol, myricetin, naringin,
quercetin and rutin have antimicrobial activity against human pathogenic
microorganisms with some mechanisms of action such as inhibition Of nucleic
acid synthesis, cytoplasmic membrane function and energy metabolisms.(Pandey et al., 2012).

Inflammation is a normal biological
process in response to tissue injury, microbial pathogen infection, and
chemical irritation. Inflammation is started by transfer of immune cells from
blood vessels and release of mediators at the site of injury.(Neussely et al.,2000). This process is
followed by call of inflammatory cells, release of ROS, RNS, and inflammatory
cytokines to release foreign pathogens, and repairing injured tissues. In
general, normal inflammation is rapid and self-limiting, but normal type
resolution and very long inflammation cause many lethal defects. Introdution of
antimicrobials has long paved the way for human health. However, future
effectiveness of antibiotics is somewhat doubtful, because microorganisms are developing
potential in an unavoidable manner to these antimicrobial agents. .(Nishida
et al (1985).

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Flavonoids are known to be produce by
plants in response to microbial infection; thus it should not be surprising
that they have been found in vitro to be effective antimicrobial substances
against a wide range of microorganisms. Flavonoid rich plant extracts from
different species have been reported to possess antibacterial activity.(Iqbal et al.,(2003) Several flavonoids
including apigenin, galangin, flavone and flavonols glycosides, isoflavones,
flavanones, and Chalcones have been shown to possess potent antibacterial
activity Antibacterial flavonoids might be having various cellular targets,
rather than one specific site of action.(Ohsugi
et al.,1985) One of their molecular actions is to form complex with
proteins through hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic effects, as well as by
covalent bond formation. Thus, their mode of antimicrobial action may be
related to their ability to inactivate microbial adhesins, enzymes, cell
envelope transport proteins, and so forth.(Dixon
et al (1983). Lipophilic flavonoids may also disrupt microbial membranes. Catechins, the most reduced form of
the C3 unit in flavonoid compounds, have been extensively researched due to
their antimicrobial activity. These compounds are reported for their in vitro
antibacterial activity against Vibrio cholerae, Streptococcus mutans, Shigella,
and other bacteria..(cook et al.,1996)

Flavonoids
are present in photosynthesising cells and are commonly found in fruit,
vegetables, nuts, seeds, stems, flowers, tea, wine, propolis and honey. For centuries,
preparations having these compounds as the principal physiologically active
constituents have been used to treat human diseases.(Berrel et al (1999) Increasingly, this class of natural products
is becoming the subject of anti-infective research, and many groups have separated
and identified the structures of flavonoids having antifungal, antiviral and
antibacterial activity.(Bolwel et
al.,(1995). Moreover, several groups have demonstrated synergy between
active flavonoids as well as between flavonoids and existing chemotherapeutics.
Reports of activity in the field of antibacterial flavonoid research having widely
clash, probably owing to inter- and intra-assay variation in susceptibility
testing.(simmonds et al.,2003)
However, several high-quality investigations have observe the relationship
between flavonoid structure and antibacterial activity and these are in close
agreement. In addition, numerous research groups have sought to clear the
antibacterial mechanisms of action of selected flavonoids.(cotelle et al.,(1996) The activity of quercetin, for example, has
been at least partially attributed to inhibition of DNA gyrase. It has also
been proposed that sophora flavone G and (-)-epigallocatechin gallate inhibit
cytoplasmic membrane function, and that licochalcones A and C inhibit energy
metabolism.(Abrosca et al.,(1988)
Other flavonoids whose mechanisms of action have been investigated include
robinetin, myricetin, apigenin, rutin, galangin,
2,4,2′-trihydroxy-5′-methylchalcone and lonchocarpol A. These compounds
represent novel leads, and future studies may allow the development of a
pharmacologically acceptable antimicrobial agent or class of agents.(feeny et al., (1998).

Natural
products of higher plants may contain a new source of antimicrobial agents with
possibly novel mechanisms of action. They are effective in the treatment of
infectious diseases while simultaneously contain many of the side effects that
are often associated with conventional antimicrobials.(Stewart et al.,(2000) A method using scanning electron microscope
(SEM) to study the morphology of the bacterial and fungal microbes and thus
determining antimicrobial activity.(Nishida
et al.,(1997).

 

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