architectural culture by shrines / temples, gods · houses, castle houses,
private houses, tea ceremonies, etc. started in Jomon · Yayoi, inherited in
ancient times, medieval times, modern times and the Japanese archipelago, is
unique in Japan, It is considered to be unique
of the Japanese architecture were not native, they were mostly imported from China and other Asian cultures
over the centuries, but they were still one of the most popular architectures
used in Asia.
architecture also known as (???? Nihon
kenchiku) has been traditionally typified by wooden structures, a little off
the ground, with tiled or thatched roofs. Most of the doors used were
sliding doors called *fusuma*.
Japanese houses are small in
urban areas and rural areas, and it is common for the distance to the
neighboring house to be close. Nonetheless, the traditional design of Japanese
houses has a common idea of ??protecting privacy, protecting the house from the
wind and rain, and feeling the outside air, regardless of the size or location
of the house, protecting privacy.
In Japan there is generally no
sidewalk on a road in a residential area. So as a boundary between public space
such as roads and private property, gates and fences are established.
Building the boundary with the
neighboring house with a fence and protecting privacy is the fence and walls
that have surrounded the boundary of the site. Although it is a concrete block
that is common in urban areas and countryside, for example in large houses in
Kyoto (city in japan), you can see wooden fences on a stone wall. Japanese
houses are traditionally conscious of the north and south direction, with the
main room facing the south, and designed so that sunlight enters throughout the
day. The view from the window is also an absolutely necessary element, ideal if you can see the waterside
of mountains, rivers and the ocean.
The entrance hall with a step
is an entrance connecting the outside and the inside of the house. You have to
take off your shoes here and change to a slippers and other wearing items (take
off before you go up to tatami (type of mat used in houses)). In addition to
the shoe box that puts on the shoes at the entrance, you may decorate it with
items such as ceramics, flowers, and paintings.
During the Heian period heavy
materials like stone, mortar and clay couldn’t be used as building elements,
and most of the buildings were being built with simple wooden walls, floors and
partitions. The Heian period is the last division of classical Japanese
history, running from 794 to 1185. The period is named after the capital city
of Heian-ky?, or modern Ky?to.
In order to have a bath in the
house, it is necessary to have as much space as possible, as well as fuel costs
to keep the hot water around 38 – 42 degrees. The bath house still remains, but
in modern times most of the households have a bathroom. It is attached to the
hot water in the bathtub, washing and shedding the body outside the bathtub,
using a non-fixed hand shower or hand taille. (In Japan, everyday baths are an
The wood used in the Japanese
house where trees are cherished does not hide the important grain with paint
painted, even if it is colored. Every single tree is made into a roof beam, and
high-grade wood such as unprocessed hinoki may be used for the entire floor.
Tatami made is from woven
tatami mats is cool in summer and warm flooring in winter. Although it costs,
it will not rise with shoes, so it can be used for many years. A piece of
tatami is a rectangle of a fixed size, sewn a black cloth on the rim, but even
in the case of using a gold cloth at home where you can spend money.
A room is used as a bedding
for multipurpose purposes the traditional futon is folded and sunk in the
daytime so that one room is used as a living room, a bedroom, or a dining room.
Thanks to space that can be changed flexibly and furniture that can be moved,
even in small houses, families can live comfortably.
Connecting inside and outside
as much as possible the connection with outside nature is the element that the
design of Japanese houses places most emphasis on. A sliding door or sliding
window that can be easily opened can be said to be one of the structures that
make it possible. The inner and outer aesthetics have had a great influence on
modernist architects in the world including California.
Religious architecture in
Japan is mainly Buddhist temples and shrine buildings, but there are Taoism and
Confucian architecture in China, Confucian architecture in South Korea may
rather be the center. I will exhibit it to understand such a difference.
There are three kinds of
temple buildings in Japan from the ancient times brought from China Tang, the
Great Buddha like Mr. Tenjiku introduced from the then Chinese song in the
Kamakura period, and Zen Buddha (Tang Dan) there is a form (style).
Towers used in Buddhist
architecture are totally different in Japan, Korea and China. The five-storied
pagoda called the stratumer tower in Japan, the triple tower etc. have a center
pillar in the inner center, and the floor cannot rise. In China, there is a
floor inside and a form that can go up to the upper layer is common. In
addition, the form of the Treasure Tower used in the Buddhist temple is unique
to Japan, not in Korea or China.
of the most popular and known buildings is in a region known as “Kyoto”.
“Kyoto” has a
special meaning for Japanese people. The aesthetic sense that has been polished
and refined in the long years of more than 1200 years is not limited to the
world of art but to every corner of the Japanese clothing and shelter, it is a
kind of world we have created a culture that does not exist.
?The Akasaka Guest House in
Tokyo is a palace of Western architecture that was completed in 1909 by
Japanese people of various fields of the time at the time by completing all
their strength. Meanwhile, the Kyoto guesthouse is completed in 2005 (2005)
with the aim of welcoming important guests from abroad in the traditional
culture of Japan, deepening understanding and friendship to Japan.
The Kyoto guesthouse is a new
contemporary technology that assembles the technique of creating traditional
?A garden shop. The Japanese
garden outlines the nature view and aesthetic sense of the Japanese people who
love the change of the four seasons and the Japanese nature with
“relaxing” as much as possible and to reflect their appearance in
nature. In the Kyoto guesthouse, it was important that the garden and the
architecture became an integral space, and hospitality from overseas was
important from the heart. To that end, there are “edge” spaces that
connect the garden and the interior with deep eaves, the spread of the
horizontal space where the view to the garden opens slowly, the flying row
arrangement where the garden is obscured and obscured, the interior Realizing
the quality of the space created only by Japanese architecture, such as space,
was realized by “contemporary technology”, which was considered to be
“the space of Japan” to be incorporated in Kyoto guesthouse.
Naturally, the design departed
from the idea of ??building the building in a flat shop and building a big
roof. Looking at the appearance picture, it looks like a tree structure, but in
fact the main structure is steel frame construction and reinforced concrete
construction (part with steel frame). “Wooden components” that realize
traditional wooden frame like canopy (dazzashi) and proportion of fine spaces
peculiar to Japan are made of “iron structural material” of the big
swing size suitable for guest house It is assembled precisely inside and
outside. Also, the reinforced concrete structure earthquake resistant wall is
arranged so that it does not understand.
As for the outside appearance
of the Kyoto guesthouse, the appearance of the roof plays an important role so
that it can be said that it consists only of a garden and a roof. A composite
material crimped nickel and stainless steel excellent in weather resistance was
used for a roofing material based on a reinforced concrete roof plate. The
color of the surface is dark green color of nickel oxide itself, and the finish
of the raw material has a color tone matching with the lush surrounding
environment of the Kyoto Imperial Palace. Because this material is hard as a
roofing material, we needed a skillful skill in construction.