ARCHIYECTURALSTYLESTraditional JapaneseJapanesearchitectural culture by shrines / temples, gods · houses, castle houses,private houses, tea ceremonies, etc. started in Jomon · Yayoi, inherited inancient times, medieval times, modern times and the Japanese archipelago, isunique in Japan, It is considered to be uniqueMostof the Japanese architecture were not native, they were mostly imported from China and other Asian culturesover the centuries, but they were still one of the most popular architecturesused in Asia.
Japanesearchitecture also known as (???? Nihonkenchiku) has been traditionally typified by wooden structures, a little offthe ground, with tiled or thatched roofs. Most of the doors used weresliding doors called *fusuma*.Japanese houses are small inurban areas and rural areas, and it is common for the distance to theneighboring house to be close. Nonetheless, the traditional design of Japanesehouses has a common idea of ??protecting privacy, protecting the house from thewind and rain, and feeling the outside air, regardless of the size or locationof the house, protecting privacy.In Japan there is generally nosidewalk on a road in a residential area. So as a boundary between public spacesuch as roads and private property, gates and fences are established. Building the boundary with theneighboring house with a fence and protecting privacy is the fence and wallsthat have surrounded the boundary of the site. Although it is a concrete blockthat is common in urban areas and countryside, for example in large houses inKyoto (city in japan), you can see wooden fences on a stone wall.
Japanesehouses are traditionally conscious of the north and south direction, with themain room facing the south, and designed so that sunlight enters throughout theday. The view from the window is also an absolutely necessary element, ideal if you can see the watersideof mountains, rivers and the ocean.The entrance hall with a stepis an entrance connecting the outside and the inside of the house. You have totake off your shoes here and change to a slippers and other wearing items (takeoff before you go up to tatami (type of mat used in houses)).
In addition tothe shoe box that puts on the shoes at the entrance, you may decorate it withitems such as ceramics, flowers, and paintings.During the Heian period heavymaterials like stone, mortar and clay couldn’t be used as building elements,and most of the buildings were being built with simple wooden walls, floors andpartitions. The Heian period is the last division of classical Japanesehistory, running from 794 to 1185.
The period is named after the capital cityof Heian-ky?, or modern Ky?to.In order to have a bath in thehouse, it is necessary to have as much space as possible, as well as fuel coststo keep the hot water around 38 – 42 degrees. The bath house still remains, butin modern times most of the households have a bathroom. It is attached to thehot water in the bathtub, washing and shedding the body outside the bathtub,using a non-fixed hand shower or hand taille. (In Japan, everyday baths are anindispensable habit). The wood used in the Japanesehouse where trees are cherished does not hide the important grain with paintpainted, even if it is colored. Every single tree is made into a roof beam, andhigh-grade wood such as unprocessed hinoki may be used for the entire floor.Tatami made is from woventatami mats is cool in summer and warm flooring in winter.
Although it costs,it will not rise with shoes, so it can be used for many years. A piece oftatami is a rectangle of a fixed size, sewn a black cloth on the rim, but evenin the case of using a gold cloth at home where you can spend money.A room is used as a beddingfor multipurpose purposes the traditional futon is folded and sunk in thedaytime so that one room is used as a living room, a bedroom, or a dining room.Thanks to space that can be changed flexibly and furniture that can be moved,even in small houses, families can live comfortably.Connecting inside and outsideas much as possible the connection with outside nature is the element that thedesign of Japanese houses places most emphasis on. A sliding door or slidingwindow that can be easily opened can be said to be one of the structures thatmake it possible.
The inner and outer aesthetics have had a great influence onmodernist architects in the world including California.Religious architecture inJapan is mainly Buddhist temples and shrine buildings, but there are Taoism andConfucian architecture in China, Confucian architecture in South Korea mayrather be the center. I will exhibit it to understand such a difference.
There are three kinds oftemple buildings in Japan from the ancient times brought from China Tang, theGreat Buddha like Mr. Tenjiku introduced from the then Chinese song in theKamakura period, and Zen Buddha (Tang Dan) there is a form (style).Towers used in Buddhistarchitecture are totally different in Japan, Korea and China. The five-storiedpagoda called the stratumer tower in Japan, the triple tower etc. have a centerpillar in the inner center, and the floor cannot rise. In China, there is afloor inside and a form that can go up to the upper layer is common. Inaddition, the form of the Treasure Tower used in the Buddhist temple is uniqueto Japan, not in Korea or China.?Oneof the most popular and known buildings is in a region known as “Kyoto”.
“Kyoto” has aspecial meaning for Japanese people. The aesthetic sense that has been polishedand refined in the long years of more than 1200 years is not limited to theworld of art but to every corner of the Japanese clothing and shelter, it is akind of world we have created a culture that does not exist. ?The Akasaka Guest House inTokyo is a palace of Western architecture that was completed in 1909 byJapanese people of various fields of the time at the time by completing alltheir strength. Meanwhile, the Kyoto guesthouse is completed in 2005 (2005)with the aim of welcoming important guests from abroad in the traditionalculture of Japan, deepening understanding and friendship to Japan.
The Kyoto guesthouse is a newcontemporary technology that assembles the technique of creating traditionalJapanese architecture. ?A garden shop. The Japanesegarden outlines the nature view and aesthetic sense of the Japanese people wholove the change of the four seasons and the Japanese nature with”relaxing” as much as possible and to reflect their appearance innature.
In the Kyoto guesthouse, it was important that the garden and thearchitecture became an integral space, and hospitality from overseas wasimportant from the heart. To that end, there are “edge” spaces thatconnect the garden and the interior with deep eaves, the spread of thehorizontal space where the view to the garden opens slowly, the flying rowarrangement where the garden is obscured and obscured, the interior Realizingthe quality of the space created only by Japanese architecture, such as space,was realized by “contemporary technology”, which was considered to be”the space of Japan” to be incorporated in Kyoto guesthouse.Naturally, the design departedfrom the idea of ??building the building in a flat shop and building a bigroof. Looking at the appearance picture, it looks like a tree structure, but infact the main structure is steel frame construction and reinforced concreteconstruction (part with steel frame).
“Wooden components” that realizetraditional wooden frame like canopy (dazzashi) and proportion of fine spacespeculiar to Japan are made of “iron structural material” of the bigswing size suitable for guest house It is assembled precisely inside andoutside. Also, the reinforced concrete structure earthquake resistant wall isarranged so that it does not understand.As for the outside appearanceof the Kyoto guesthouse, the appearance of the roof plays an important role sothat it can be said that it consists only of a garden and a roof. A compositematerial crimped nickel and stainless steel excellent in weather resistance wasused for a roofing material based on a reinforced concrete roof plate.
Thecolor of the surface is dark green color of nickel oxide itself, and the finishof the raw material has a color tone matching with the lush surroundingenvironment of the Kyoto Imperial Palace. Because this material is hard as aroofing material, we needed a skillful skill in construction.