As calves are reared in sheds instead

explained in the introduction of this topic, deforestation is the clearance of
woodlands for urban use, human settlement, agriculture use etc. Deforestation can
actually occur due to natural, unavoidable factors and also due to human

according to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC),
deforestation occurs mainly to give way to agricultural use of the land. Farmers
normally tend to clear forest in order to provide themselves with more space to
grow various plants and species that can bring them profit. Some breeders also
clear the green land to rear animals in large sheds. For example, pigs,
chickens and calves are reared in sheds instead of out in the open. The process
of clearing forest here is usually done by small farmers. In order to fulfil
their requirement of more income, they tend to cut down trees and burn them via
a process called slash-and-burn agriculture. The slash-and-burn method is a
slower method when compared to burning. In this method, the ashes that are
produced due to the burning of the trees will provide some nutrients for the
crops. It also ensures that the cleared land is free of weed. This process will
be repeated by farmers after certain amount of years, when the soil becomes less
nutritious and when weed starts to reappear.

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            Besides agriculture, forest also
provides us with wood, which is essential in the making of paper and furniture.
Some woods such as teak wood is long-lasting and has high market value. Due to
this, people tend to cut down trees and recreate objects from the primary source,
the tree trunks. Illegal logging occurs across the world and this also occurs
in some of the world’s famous forests, such as Amazon, in Indonesia and in
Congo. Illegal logging also depresses the worldwide timber price. In Indonesia,
Korindo used to be well known for the usage of illegal timber. In May 2003, the
government of Indonesia confirmed that Korindo was obtaining illegal timber
from an orang-utan refuge. In March, the following year, Greenpeace took
necessary actions against a cargo that was caught transporting timber from
Korindo to a few countries, namely, France, Belgium, Netherlands and the UK.

            Other than that, deforestation also
occurs due to fires that are lit either naturally due to the heat or by human
action. Natural fire is very difficult to be avoided but some communities find
this the best, least expensive way to clear an area. It is said to be least
expensive because the only main equipment needed is a matchstick. Forest catch
fire easily. Therefore, when one tree is on fire, the other trees will also
catch fire immediately, causing a widespread. However, this method causes a lot
of harm as the fire cannot be controlled and this results in the deforestation
of a large surface area, which will cause the forest habitants to lose their
respective habitats. This method is known to destroy millions of acres of forest
across the globe per annum which is equivalent to losing the same amount of
green land by agriculture and logging combined. Regardless of how much this
method saves money, it is a rather dangerous method as it changes the structure
of forests, causes a lot of smoke to be emitted into the atmosphere, leading to
haze and it destroys the home to thousands of organisms, not forgetting,
further encouraging the extinct of endangered species. No doubt, it also reduces
the soil fertility and endangers the ecosystem as well as the biological

            Deforestation is not only limited to
those reasons but it is also used in military as defence techniques in wars.
The idea of deforestation in war zones is to deprive the enemy of sources of
food, water and basic necessities. It is also used to cause difficulty in breathing
in the enemy, in order to supress their ability to fight back. For instance,
this technique was used during the Malayan Emergency by the British military in
Malaya and was also applied by the United States military in Vietnam, during
the Vietnam War as a tactic against their respective enemies.

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