Attention two children in a classroom suffered from

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a behavioral
disorder that usually affect children and teens. This disorder can continue to
adulthood in some certain case. Patient with ADHD often hyperactivity and
unable to control their behavior. There is also another name for ADHD, which
is, Hyperkinetic Disorder (HD), that had been used by the World Health
Organization (WHO) because of it similar signs and symptoms of ADHD (The Editor
of Encyclopedia Britannica, 2017). The most common disorders had been used in
medicine researchers is ADHD or HD (Polanczyk, Biederman, Lima, Horta, and
Rohde, 2007). According to National Institute of Mental Health NIMH (2007),
estimated about three to seven percent, or more than two million school-age
children have this behavioral disorder. This means that at least one or two
children in a classroom suffered from ADHD throughout the United States.

          The exact cause of ADHD
is not fully confirmed by Scientists, yet, a combination of factor might contribute
to the ADHD. Several factors like genes, cigarette smoking, alcohol use, drug
use during pregnancy, low birth weight and brain injuries which contribute to
ADHD (NIMH, 2007). For example, smoking by a mother during pregnancy is
associated with an increased risk of hyperactivity and inattention in the
offspring of that pregnancy (Barkley, 2000). According to Barkley (2000),
well-founded scientific research on the cause of ADHD has focused on disorders
in the brain – either brain injuries or abnormal brain development. This is
because the imperfection in the brain that causes the constant motion and other
behavior that people find so intolerable in a patient who has ADHD (Barkley,
1995). However, this ADHD is not caused by parental failure to discipline or
control the child. It is not sign of some sort of inherent “badness” in the
child (Barkley, 2013).

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          Symptoms and behavior
that commonly found among patient with ADHD can be categorized into three
types, which are inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. The symptom of inattention is difficulty in staying focus.
Because patient with ADHD are easily distracted and they experience
difficulties concentrating on any assignment (Rock, 2009). Then, the
symptom of hyperactivity having trouble sitting still for even a short time. Children with ADHD may squirm, fidget, or run around at the
wrong times (Healthwise Staff, 2017). Besides, according to Healthwise
Staff (2017), teens and adults often feel restless and
fidgety. They are not able to enjoy reading or other quiet activities. The symptom of impulsivity is acting before thinking. It
is also stated by Healthwise staff (2017), patient with
ADHD may talk too loud, laugh too loud, or become angrier than the situation
calls for. For example, children with ADHD may
not be able to wait for their turn or to share. This makes it hard for them to
play with other children. Furthermore, ADHD is found to be more common
in males than females (Boyles, 2004). This can explain as boys are usually
clinic-referred due to oppositional, aggressive, and conduct behavior. However,
females with ADHD syndrome are difficult to pay attention because of
internalizing behaviors such as anxiety, social withdrawal, and depression
(Jamison, 2000). Other conditions, such as learning difficulties, and
behavioral disorder are common in patient with ADHD.

          Currently, there are no
exact cure for ADHD patients. However, some treatments are available to help
reduce symptoms and improve functioning. Example of treatments include
medication, psychotherapy, education or training, or a combination of treatments
(National Institute of Mental Health, 2016). These treatments have been demonstrated
to have short-term effects. In addition, behavior treatments such as parent training,
child-focus training and school-based intervention can be provided to ADHD
children (“Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder”, n.d.). Centers for
Disease Control and Prevention (2017) declaimed that parent training in
behavior treatment has shown to strengthen the relationship between parent and
ADHD children, which indirectly decrease children’s problem behavior. However,
ADHD patient always talk in high voice pitch without being able to control
their voice pitch that used is not suitable in some surrounding. They may
create an uncomfortable situation for other people. Therefore, by using the
external technology, can help the ADHD patient to control voice pitch
immediately without influence to others. 



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