Balance of payments (BOP) accounts are an accounting record of all monetary transactions between a country and the rest of the world.  These transactions include payments for the country’s exports and imports of goods, services, and financial capital, as well as financial transfers. The BOP accounts summarize international transactions for a specific period, usually a year, and are prepared in a single currency, typically the domestic currency for the country concerned. Sources of funds for a nation, such as exports or the receipts of loans and investments, are recorded as positive or surplus items.
Uses of funds, such as for imports or to invest in foreign countries, are recorded as negative or deficit items. When all components of the BOP accounts are included they must sum to zero with no overall surplus or deficit. For example, if a country is importing more than it exports, its trade balance will be in deficit, but the shortfall will have to be counter-balanced in other ways – such as by funds earned from its foreign investments, by running down central bank reserves or by receiving loans from other countries
Balance of payment in Bangladesh (Annual Data) (In million US$) Items2008-09 July-June2009-10 July-June% Changes 3 over 2 1 2 3 4 Trade balance-4710-5152 Export f. o. b. (including EPZ)15581162364. 2 Of which : Readymade garments(RMG)12348124971. 21 Import f. o. b (including EPZ)-20291-213885. 41 Services-1616-1237 Receipts1832247134. 88 Payments-3448-37087. 54 Income-1484-1487 Receipts9552 Payments-1579-1539 Of which : Official interest payments-238-215 Current transfers1022611610 Official transfers72122 Private transfers101541148813. 4 Of which : Workers’ remittances96891098713. 4 Current Account Balance24163734 Capital account451442 Capital transfers451442 Financial account-825-755 Foreign direct investment (net)961636 Portfolio investment (net)-159-117 Other investment-1627-1274 MLT loans (excludes suppliers credit)12041601 MLT amortization payments-641-687 Other long term loans (net)-70-156 Other short term loans (net)-169231 Of which : Borrowing687972 Repayment-855-751 Other asset-650-903 Trade credit (net)-1277-1045 DMBs and NBDCs-24-315 Assets-129-410 Liabilities10595
Errors and omissions16-556 Overall Balance20582865 Reserve Assets-2058-2865 Bangladesh Bank-2058-2865 Assets*-1883-3616 Liabilities-175751 Memorandum Items : Gross reserves (before valuation adjustments)803211087 Valuation Adjustment During the Period**-561-337 Gross reserves (after valuation adjustments)747110750 In months of imports of goods and services3. 785. 14 ODs to ADs and Reserve held at OBUs-123456789-123456789 Source: Statistics Department Bangladesh Bank. * Estimated for the current year P : Provisional R: Revised .