Began “Peking opera”. In the Tang Dynasties,

of Peking opera make-up

      There is a traditional culture in China
call “pattern of the make-up” it has thousand years history from the Chinese
traditional art “Peking opera”. In the Tang Dynasties, with emperor Xuanzong
(721-755 A.D), who founded the Pear Garden (Liyuan, the early Peking opera),
the first known group in China. The group mostly worked for the Emperors’
personal pleasure, but later it was also performed for the commonalty. (Jonas
Daniel Vaughan, The Manners and Customs of the Chinese of the strait
Settlements, early 1850s).  

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      Drama actors on the stage outlined facial
mask are used to help enhance the character of the characters, appearance, status,
to achieve rich stage colour, beautify the stage effect. The main features of
“pattern of the make-up” have the three points: Firstly, the beauty and ugly
ingenious combination, it is characterized by the use of different colours of
oil paintings, showing a different personality, whether it is beauty or ugly

     Peking opera mask colours represent
different character, for example, red represents loyalty, black represents
integrity, but yellow represents the cruel, white represents the treacherous
person. (Aaron Christopher Yap, Singaporean, 1872s), Ancestors use colour to
express emotions, and combine these colours to draw the masks. As one of the
Chinese traditional culture, it has been widely recognized both at home and




characters and faces style of Peking opera

     There are four different characters of
Peking opera, respectively Sheng (male roles, pic 5), Dan (female roles,
pic 4),
Jing (roles with painted faces, pic 6) and Chou or Clown (a comic character) (Chinese
Opera: Image and stories, Peter Lovrick, Hongkong).

     Laosheng (middle age or old man), mostly
impersonation positive personality character, sometimes wear moustache with red
face make-up impersonation Guan Yu (Pic 1)
(From the Three kingdom). Xiaosheng (young man) and Wusheng (men with martial
skills). Jing (Wen Jing and Wu Jing), these are all have painted face.

     Wen Jing is a variety of colours outline
the makeup of the mask as a prominent sign of the face, showing the personality
temperament rough, wonderful, heroic figures. Wu Jing also has painted face but
different with no martiary skill (Wen), (Wu) is focusing
on the martial skills same with (Wusheng). However, the male clown (Chou) has (Wen
Chou) and (Wu chou). These characters are put the make-up between the nose and
eyes, likes funny and the make-up mostly is white colour also means treacherous
people. Wuchou is also focusing on the martial and little funny skills on the






make-up of Peking opera

     The Peking opera has different type’s make-up
and pattern, including Rubbing, Wiping and Hooking face. Rubbing face (Roulian)
(pic 1), is the oldest make-up of Peking opera, it focusing on different
personal character. Rubbing face, the basic form of rubbing face is the whole
face, hook method as” rubbing “, used to exaggerate the skin colour,
without using any skills or other forms, the entire makeup makes the character
look powerful, look heavy. The overall color of the main, red and black. Use
lines to accentuate people’s eyes, nose and eyebrows. Make character makeup
more distinctive. All colours are rubbed directly on the face with fingers. The
makeup is very real.

     For Wiping face(??)?pic 2?, the Wiping face is a more distinctive
way of making up Peking Opera, with white powder on the face to   cover
the original face, and then use a pen dipped colors The details of the nose and
face are sketched out one by one, for this color of make-up is usually a person
who is treacherous and does not dare to show his true face. They use white to
cover their original features.

     Furthermore, the Hooking face(pic 3) this
different between Rubbing and Wiping face. In contrast to the other two types of
make-up, the character needs to clear the face first, then use the pen to draw
the eyebrows directly on the face, eyes and nose for positioning, and then use
the to remove the excess hair to make up, and then use the tape to raise the
eye angle to make the eyes bigger, and finally wear the accessories. The color
of the outline is many, usually decorated with gold.

     Crooked face(pic 4) is a special makeup, it
using asymmetric approach highlights the characters, sometimes expresses the
characters ugly but kind-hearted but sometimes said in character and the
extremely cruel and merciless. Different faces are using same technique, the
direct use of a brush dipped in paint with the features of the face line, but
all the features are distorted asymmetric, more asymmetric said this character
is bad.























of Peking opera effect in China and foreign county

     In Peking opera, the difference in
color of face is that the character and personality of the characters that it
symbolizes are called dominant colors . The effects of each color is
different , the founders using red , blue , white , purple , gold , black and silver
, to express each role ‘ s feelings and characters , each color can highlight
the character of the actors, the good or bad , the good and evil.

     The make-up is rich in color, not just
because it looks good, it also expresses emotion, people use different faces to
express different personalities, red represents bravery, blue represents
selflessness and black represents integrity. They all express the same meaning
on different levels, bravery and integrity, but use different colors to express
these same characters. The white is meaning treachery; green is irritability and
yellow is stability.

     They reflect three completely different
characters; can see that these colors are very interesting, when people looking
at these faces, people can easily identify the character of the character from
the color of each face. The make-up combines a variety of colors, making
different effects and bringing different performances to the audience.









                                              Color in Peking opera

     There are many colors in Peking opera, whatever the color of clothes or on the make-up. People using different colors to creative character bad, good and special point.      There are nine different colors in Peking opera, the nine colors combine with each other, the new feature has emerged. Red, the color meaning warm and happy. In ancient times, people in China did wall painted red, red is believed to expel evil. In the traditional culture, Chinese red is the color of fire, people believed red is hope. Also, the red also represents love.      In Peking Opera, red stands for bravery
and narrow sense, just like Guan Yu(pic1) in the three Kingdoms, the makeup is
red. But on the other hand, red has ironic significance, representing the false
good people. Black , which represents calm and sophistication , represents
water in the north as well as in ancient China . In Kenya’s Marseilles person
mind, the black represents the overcast sky, rainy season arrives, therefore
symbolic prosperity and life. Also the black in the fashion world represents a
stable and dignified style. In Peking Opera, black refers to fortitude, bravery
and wisdom. Just like Bao Gong (pic 5) with black makeup, it is honest and
selfless, but sometimes black refers to ugly people or ghosts. White stands for
purity, peace and respect. White also brings cold and severe feelings. In
ancient China, white represented treacherous and sinister color. In western
culture. White symbolizes a white wedding dress and a pure heart, but some
people believe that white is a bad color, it represents death. White also has a
sense of science and technology, a very high feeling. In the Peking Opera,
white shows the character of the sinister and false, like Cao Cao(pic 6), in
the Three Kingdoms, and has succeeded in different means. Overall, Beijing opera types of facial makeup in operas
of color painting methods, basically divided into three categories: rub face, Wiping
face, Hooking face and crooked face. Types of facial makeup in operas initial
role is exaggerated her role with striking places and face the veins, using
exaggerated by the performance of dramatis personae of personality,
psychological and physiological characteristics, and using this to the entire
drama circumstances, but Later types of facial makeup in operas by Kan to
complex, from rough to the small, from shallow to deep, itself becoming a
nation of characteristics, to the facial expression means for the pictorial

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