CATEGORY the business of the organisation. Key





Core Competencies – Core competencies are those
competencies that any successful employee will need to rise through the
organisation.  These Competencies would generally relate in some way
to the business of the organisation.
Key Competencies – Key competencies contribute to
valued outcomes of the organisation, defining the abilities of individuals
to meet strategic demands, and are important not just for specialists but
for all individuals.
Critical Competencies
– Critical competencies are competencies without which the organisation
will be unable to achieve its goals and strategy.

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Competency Management plays a very vital role.while trying to put it in place,
it is important to have a clear line of difference between Skills and
Competencies as well as the different types of competencies needed in the
organisation.  It is also extremely important to categorise the
Competencies and then decide upon investment decisions in core HR initiatives,
such as Development, Workforce Planning, Career Management, etc. , since they are
based on initiatives that will deliver sound Return on Investment in near

attributes mostly required by the
employers are loyalty, commitment,
honesty and
integrity, enthusiasm, reliability, personal presentation, common sense,positive
selfesteem, A sense
of humour, a balanced
attitude to work
and home life,
an ability
to deal with
pressure, motivation and
adaptability.            How can
these attributes
the teaching process?


vs Competencies


Often , the terms Skills and Competencies
are used interchangeably.  In fact, with
many HR practitioners, Competencies seem to only relate to “Behavioural”
competencies as defined in a Competency Dictionary.  But this is not true.  Thus, we make an attempt at defining the
difference between Skills and Competencies, and providing some insight about
the different types of Competencies and the level of criticality of
Competencies in organisations.

An example of this in an IT context
is “Programming”.  To effectively write a
computer program one needs good analytical, logical, and interpretive ability
as well as the skill more importantly in a specific language.   But the ability to use that skill
effectively is analytical, logical and interpretive ability – which are termed
as  Competencies.


Basic differentiate between skill
& competency


Facts, information, and skills acquired through experience or
education; the theoretical or practical understanding of a subject. It includes professional knowledge,
institutional knowledge (e.g. knowledge to be an accountant, academic,
engineer, IT specialist etc.).  This is
the awareness or familiarity gained by experience of a fact or



Skills are needed to perform your
functional role and include technical skills, management skills i.e. to manage
resources and people (e.g. project management, time management, planning
processes, budget management and appraisal).



These are the attitudes and behaviour
patterns that triggers the way how people do their jobs. Competencies influence
how well people apply their knowledge, technical and management skills. NTU’s
competency framework reflects the culture and values we expect staff to
demonstrate in their roles.




 Abasicsetofskillsnecessaryforgetting,keepinganddoingwellonajob (Robinson,2000).

Skill can be defined as a present, observable competence
to perform a learned behavior regarding the relationship between mental
activity and bodily movements
(Maxine, 1997).

Overtoom(2000), defined employability skills as “transferable core skill groups that represent essential functional
and enabling knowledge, skills and
workplace… necessary for career success at all levels of employment and for all levels of education” These
definitions were extracted from a number of different sources, but they all
seem to say, more-or-less, the same thing:

Proficiency, facility, or
dexterity that is acquired or developed through training or experience.
The ability, coming from one’s
knowledge, practice, aptitude, etc., to do something well
An ability and capacity
acquired through deliberate, systematic, and sustained effort to smoothly
and adaptively carry out complex activities or job functions involving
ideas (cognitive skills), things (technical skills), and/or people
(interpersonal skills).
A skill is the learned capacity
to carry out pre-determined results
A learned ability to bring
about the result you want, with maximum certainty and efficiency
Proficiency, facility, or
dexterity that is acquired or developed through training or experience.

So, a Skill
is something Learned in order to be able to carry out one or more job


Skill is an
ability to perform a specific task and employability is about having the
capability to gain initial employment, maintain employment and obtain new
employment if required. Skills become an integral part of employability.

 Employability skills are “those basic skills
necessary for getting, keeping, and doing well on a job.” Robinson (2000)

skills as the skills that can be teachable (Lorraine, 2007) and transferable
(Yorke, 2006).

 Employability skills are referred to as
generic capabilities, transferable skills, basic  skill, essential  skills,  
work  skills,   soft  
skill,   core  skills,  
core competencies and enabling skills or even key skills (DEST 2007;
Yorke, 2006; Knight, P. and Yorke, M., 2002; Hiroyuki, 2004).

 Employability skills are about ‘defining a
theoretically ideal employee from an employer’s perspective (ALTC Report,

definition of employability skills The ILO defines employability as relating to
“portable competencies and qualifications that enhance an individual’s capacity
to make use of the education and training opportunities available in order to
secure and retain decent work, to progress within the enterprise and between
jobs, and to cope with changing technology and labour market conditions” (ILO,
2004, Para. I.2(d)). “Individuals are most employable when they have
broad-based education and training, basic and portable high-level skills,
including teamwork, problem solving, information and communications technology
(ICT) and communication and language skills… This combination of skills
enables them to adapt to changes in the world of work.” (ILO 2005, Para. 33,
Footnote 1)

skills of critical thinking: Analysis and synthesis, identify assumptions,
evaluate statements in terms of evidence, detect false logic or reasoning,
identify implicit values, define terms adequately, generalise appropriately.
Appraise your own and others work. It paves way for a scope for provide
constructive criticism.

problem solving and decision making:Appropriate quantitative/qualitative skills
for identifying, formulating and solving business problems. The ability to
create, analyse, evaluate and assess a range of options. Capacity to apply
ideas and knowledge to a range of situations.Independent thinking to develop
ideas and to find solutions to issues. Abstract reasoning – solve problems and
process information in a complex and intangible way.

communication, oral and in writing: Ability to interact in intellectual debate,
to discuss issues with peers/supervisors, and to express a viewpoint clearly
and concisely in words / in writing. Using a range of media for communication
(which are widely used in business, such as for business reporting).

Numeracy and
quantitative skills: Understand mathematical concepts. Data analysis,
Interpretation and extrapolation.The use of models for business problems and

self-management: Time management, planning, organisation and efficiency. The
ability to meet deadlines.Self-starting, individual initiative and
enterprise.Autonomy and independent learning.Being adaptable to changing

performance within a team environment: Team building, influencing and project
management skills. The ability to be a constructive team member, contributing
positively to a group’s success. The ability to make decisions, motivate and
manage people, and handle a range of tasks simultaneously.

skills: Effective listening, negotiating, persuasion and presentation. Ability
to relate well to others, and work successfully with them in a team or as their

Ability to
conduct research (in to business & management / economics issues) : Ability
to conduct research individually or as part of a team. Requiring familiarity
with and an evaluative approach to a range of business data, sources of
information and appropriate methodologies, which inform the overall learning

and criticality: Sensitivity to diversity (cultures, ethical dilemmas, business
and management issues). Principles of moral values and right conduct. Learning
to learn and developing a continuing appetite for learning. Reflective,
adaptive and collaborative learning.Self-awareness – an understanding of one’s
self (e.g. behaviours and reactions to others).

IT skills
:  Using technology to access
information, for analysing and interpreting data and/or research. Using
technology to present work in a suitable format and for communication.Use of
specialist software.Development of IT management systems.




Employability skills are all about
the ability of individuals to exhibit their skills to the prospective employers
and the ability to execute the tasks thereby achieving organizational goals and
objectives. Besides, it also talks about the ability to switch over to other
jobs comfortably. Employability skills refer to specific skills essential for
employment. These are the critical tools and traits required to perform tasks
at workplace. These skills are much sought after these days by employers. The
needs of employability skills differ from country to country and from sector to
sector and from time to time. However, certain qualities such as communication
skills, interpersonal skills, integrity, right attitude, problem solving,
decision making and team building skills can be taken as a few common skills of
employability skills. In simple Employability skills are the ‘ready for work’
skills vital to do the job!

Governments around the world have
drawn upon human capital theory (Becker 1975) in the formulation of policy in
respect of higher education. Human capital theory links economic success to the
education of the workforce. The development of employability in graduates has
thus become significant.


Graduate employability is being the
possession of understandings, skills and personal attributes necessary to
perform adequately in a graduate- level job. When considering higher
education’s potential for contributing to the economic well- being it is
helpful to distinguish between the formation of subject specific understandings
and skills and the promotion of generic achievements. Where the world of
employment has, by and large been satisfied with the disciplinary understanding
and skills developed as a consequence of participation in higher education, it
has been less happy with graduates’ generic attainments like literacy and
numeracy, self efficacy and meta-cognition.

Now days, the concept of generic
skills is widely used in higher education which refers a range of qualities and
capacities of a graduate in higher education context, i.e. capacities to
identify,  access  and 
manage  knowledge  and 
information;  personal  attributes 
such  as  imagination, 
creativity  and intellectual
rigour; and values such as ethical practice, persistence, integrity and tolerance.

 Competency and skills were interpreted with a
different approach. Skill concerns the execution of a single task, while
competence deals more with the execution of a whole series of different tasks
in a certain (occupational) domain, all of them performed well and in coherence
or integrated consistent core set of desirable attributes, such as
communication skills, interpersonal skills and team working, problem solving,
analytic, critical and  reflective
ability, willingness to learn and continue learning, flexibility and
adaptability, risk-taking and self-skills and these attributes are often
independent of the degree subject. Universities are incorporating
extracurricular activities into their study programme and changing their
subject to develop specific skills through specialist modules. We also need to
identify the skill set that will best serve the future labor market.


In order to enhance competitive
advantage for graduate employment, students need to develop employability
skills in addition to the acquisition of subject-specific knowledge and study
programmes need to identifying the way of improving that requirement. Personal
attributes mostly required by the employers are loyalty, commitment, honesty
and  integrity, enthusiasm, reliability,
personal presentation, common sense, positive self -esteem, A sense of humour,
a balanced attitude to work and home life, an ability to deal with pressure,
motivation and adaptability.

How can these attributes teach within
the teaching process?

Coopers and Lybrand (1998) define
’employability skills’ in terms of four key areas: 1). traditional intellectual
skills – e.g. critical evaluation, logical argument; 2). Key skills –
communication, IT, etc. 3). Personal attributes – motivation, self-reliance and
4).Knowledge of organisations and how they work.  There are several synonyms – core, key,
generic, personal transferable skills, common, work or employment related
skills – this is another of the reasons why it is difficult to conceptualise
what is meant by employability skills. 

As conceptualized
the required workplaceskills include technical skills, human skills, and conceptual skills.
Technical skills as thoseskills such as the content specific knowledgethe individualmusthave for “understandingof,and proficiencyin,
a specific kind of activity, particularly, oneinvolvingmethods, processes, procedures, or
techniques” (Katz, p. 91).
Human skills centered onthe leader?sabilityto worksuccessfullywith
individuals and teams while buildingcooperation amongteam
Forsuccess in human skills,an
individual musthaveastrongsenseofself-awareness
and theskillof workingcomfortablywith
The third skillrequired was
skills or theskills to work with ideas and
concepts, and the abilityto
bringtogetherand makemeaningofallthe various
and roles within an organization
orthe “sensingof theorganizations as
a whole”(Katz, p. 93).

DelaHarpeetal.(2000)suggestthatthereisconcernworld- widethat existingundergraduateprogrammesarenotproducinggraduateswiththekindoflife -long learningskillsandprofessionalskillswhichtheyneedinordertobesuccessfulintheircareers.


Dimensions ofBasic EmployabilitySkills


on theliterature,
the gap amongemployers,
educators,and students
has continued, and possiblywidened.Forthepurposes
ofthis study, then, itis important to
morefullydefinewhat constitutes basic


Basic Literacyand NumeracySkills:aredefinedinthe
SCANSreport as theabilityto read,
write, speak,
listen, and perform basicmathematical procedures.
Readingskills include the abilityto interpret
written information. Writingskills include the abilitytocommunicate
thoughts in letters andreports. Mathematical skills
the abilityto solve practical
problems through the useof avarietyof mathematical


Thinking Skills:include the
abilityto think creatively,
and solve problems (SCANS, 1991).


Leadership Skills:includethe
abilityto motivate
others to achieveorganizational
(Schermerhorn, 2008). Typical
of effectiveleadership are
responsibility, self-
esteem, and theethical
qualities of integrityand honesty.


Management Skills:includethe activities
of planning, organizing, leading,
and controlling
to meet
goals (Schermerhorn,


abilityto work
in teams,
help others to learn, provide
customer service, negotiateagreements, resolve
work inamulticultural organization
(SCANS, 1991).


Information Technology Skills:includethe abilityto select
and tools to acquire and evaluate
data (SCANS, 1991).


Systems Thinking
Skills:includethe abilityto
understand and operate
withinsocial, organizational, and technological systems. Designingand
to systems




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