Central Nervous System – the complex of nerve tissues that controls the activities of the body. In vertebrates it comprises the brain and spinal cord.Peripheral Nervous System – the nervous system outside the brain and spinal cord. Conveys messages from the brain and spinal cord to the rest of the body.Cerebrum – the principal and most anterior part of the brain in vertebrates, located in the front area of the skull and consisting of two hemispheres, left and right, separated by a fissure. It is responsible for the integration of complex sensory and neural functions and the initiation and coordination of voluntary activity in the body.Brainstem – the central trunk of the mammalian brain, consisting of the medulla oblongata, pons, and midbrain, and continuing downward to form the spinal cord. The brainstem is controls the flow of messages between the brain and the rest of the body, it also controls basic body functions such as breathing, swallowing, heart rate, blood pressure, consciousness and if one is awake or asleep.Midbrain – a small central part of the brainstem, developing from the middle of the primitive or embryonic brain. It is also incharge of basic vision and hearing functions.Pons – the part of the brainstem that links the medulla oblongata and the thalamus. It controls breathing and sends communications between different parts of the brain.Medulla Oblongata – the continuation of the spinal cord within the skull, forming the lowest part of the brainstem and containing control centers for the heart and lungs. The function of the medulla is to control respiration and circulation.Cerebellum – the part of the brain at the back of the skull in vertebrates. Its function is to coordinate and regulate muscular activity.Afferent Neurons – the pathways that carry sensory information from the body to the central nervous system.Efferent Neurons – the pathways that carry information from the central nervous system to the muscles and organs in the body.Forebrain – the anterior part of the brain, including the cerebral hemispheres, the thalamus, and the hypothalamus.Hindbrain – the lower part of the brainstem, comprising the cerebellum, pons, and medulla oblongata.Cranial Nerves – the twelve pairs of nerves that arise directly from the brain, not from the spinal cord, and pass through separate apertures in the skull. These allow us to perform our daily routine comfortably and efficiently.Spinal Nerves – any of a series of paired nerves that originate in the nerve roots of the spinal cord and emerge from the vertebrae on both sides of the spinal column, each branching out to innervate a specific region of the neck,trunk, or limbs.Occipital Lobe – the rearmost lobe in each cerebral hemisphere of the brain. It is the visual processing center of the brain.Frontal Lobe – each of the paired lobes of the brain lying immediately behind the forehead, including areas concerned with behavior, learning, personality, and voluntary movement.Parietal Lobe – either of the paired lobes of the brain at the top of the head, including areas concerned with the reception and correlation of sensory information.Temporal Lobe – each of the paired lobes of the brain lying beneath the temples, including areas concerned with the understanding of speech.Axon – the long thread-like part of a nerve cell along which impulses are conducted from the cell body to other cells.Corpus Callosum – a broad band of nerve fibers joining the two hemispheres of the brain. It allows for communication between the two hemispheres.Dendrite – a short branched extension of a nerve cell, along which impulses received from other cells at synapses are transmitted to the cell body.Motor Neuron – a nerve cell forming part of a pathway along which impulses pass from the brain or spinal cord to a muscle or gland.Myelin Sheath – a wrapping of myelin around certain nerve axons, serving as an electrical insulator that speeds nerve impulses to muscles and other effectors.Sensory Neuron – a nerve cell that conducts impulses from a sense organ to the central nervous system.Sulci – a groove or fissure, especially a fissure between two convolutions of the brain.Synapse – a junction between two nerve cells, consisting of a minute gap across which impulses pass by diffusion of a neurotransmitter.