CHAPTER No. 02
of organizational change.
Change is the management and is the integral part of
an organization (Szamosi and Duxbury 2002). Keeping in view the above citation
or observation, importance of the organizational change is absolutely clear.
But before I go to depth of the importance, I would like to clarify what is the
organizational change process? It is the process of optimization of performance
to its ideal state (Jones 2004). It is core objective of an organization to
make continuous improvement to adjust the changes (Weick, Quimm 1999). In my
point view, Lewin’s 3 states of changes is the best description of change
process. Lewin proposed a three steep process for successful organizational
change, Unfreezing, moving and freezing (George & Jones 2002).
Pin point of the change process which is responsible
for successful implimantation is employees so employees participation is very
important. Mintzberg and Waters (1985) emphasis on the participation of the
employees. Participation is the indicator of positive effects on the strategy
process. It is noticed that the involvement of employees change, in strategy
will reduce organizational resistance and create a higher level of
psychological commitment and also qualitatively better strategic decisions (Kim
and Mauborgne, 1998).
Why Employees Resist Change
Resistance to change is the phenomenon that effects
organizations through employees and important factors which can effect and influence
the success percentage of organizational changes, which could be new technology
with innovation, new policies and SOPs, and new organizational structural body.
Maurer (1996) observed that 2/3rd of organizations are failed to
successfully implement the change process, resistance was the little factor but
critically important contributor to that failure in the whole process.
According to Clark (1999), most employees may have been given limited
opportunity to be involved in the organizational change practice. It shows that
the involvement is related to resistance.
Ashforth and Mael (1998) described it as deliberate
acts of omission and commission. Shapiro, Lewicki, and Devine (1995) observed that
willingness to deceive authorities constitutes resistance to change. Block
(1993) discovered that the resistance may occur when people distrust or have
past compulsions, having different understandings of the situation. Graham
(1986) noted that some employee resistance to organizational change process is
motivated by their own internal fears.
Brower and Abolafia (1995) defined resistance as a
particular kind of action or inaction, while. Sagie, Elizur, and Greenbaum
(1985) used compliant behavior as evidence of reduced resistance.
Although the concept of resistance to change has been
well expressed, this concept has also limitations and juridictions. Jermier,
Knights, & Nord (1994) argued that the interests of managers should not be
privileged over the interests of workers when processing organizational change.
Most of the times, managers blame others for the failure of the initiative rather
than accepting of their role in its failure (Argyris, 1990). It is also shows
the resistance from the individual because someone is fully adjusted in present
state of structure so he feels fear. On the other hand differences in
participant responses to change usually reflect either misunderstandings about
the change or individual characteristics and attributes. Watson (1982) which
shows the hidden benefits of managers to be sustain the present system.
Now we will try to understand the reasons why employees
react negatively to change process:
loss – Right or wrong, people are afraid they will lose something,
a concern about job loss through a reduction in force or automation.
Money – a
concern about loss of money through a reduction in salary, pay, benefits,
or overtime or through increased expenses because of a move to another
location that is farther from their home.
satisfaction – a concern about ending up with jobs that no longer require
their abilities and skills, such as automation through computer-aided
design in engineering departments (e.g., a “button pusher”
instead of a “skilled craftsman”).
important contacts – a concern that a move to another location will no
longer allow contact with friends and important people, resulting in loss
of visibility and daily contacts.
Freedom – a
concern that a new boss will replace confidence and personal freedom with
closer supervision that provides less opportunity for decision-making.
– a concern that jobs will be reduced to menial tasks without
a concern about a loss of power and authority over other people because of
reorganization takes place or a new boss who decides to withdraw
working conditions – concern about being moved to a less desirable work
location, e.g., from a large private office to a small one or from an
office to a desk in a partitioned work area.
concern about loss of job title, responsibility, or authority that will
result in a loss of status and recognition from others, such as when
another layer of management is inserted between a subordinate and his or
This type of resistance is epitomized by a reaction such as ?What’s the
matter with the way things are now?” or “I don’t see any reason
why we should change.”
than good. This kind of resistance occurs when people feel the change is a
mistake that it will cause more problems. Although sometimes this reaction
is justified, it is particularly common when people at the lower levels of
an organization feel that top management makes changes without knowing
what’s going on “down on the line.”
Disrespect: Lack of respect is
that factor which creates a wide line which may cause of disrespect in
response as well as the can cause of exhausting. It is way of keeping
organization environment pleasant otherwise honesty in work also
Bad timing: Changing in the timing
is very important and crucial factor which is hard to accept. Employees
are also compelled by domestic problems and have a rigid timing in the
perception, so it is hard to change the timing.
Challenge to authority: Sometimes,
authority holder officer reject the change because he may be have personal
grudges or simply want to show his importance.
Secondary source information: There
are many of managers which are sensitive about learning of the change. They
wait until they hear it “from the horse’s mouth.” It is the
mindset of the managers, I think so they are compelled by their nature to
Why People Accept or Welcome Change
There are few factors which encourage someone to
accept the changes in his, Rothbard, Piderit, & Dutton (1998) point out
that only one reason is there that employees accept change keeping in mind that
top management will address their problems as well. Porter and Lawler (1968)
suggested that what is the level at which an individual try to accept change is
determined by expectations.
Harper (2001, P.10) urged those organizations which
implement change must encourage the employees which allow for the “sloughing of
yesterday” because it will force to thinking. Make available man and money for
things, creates willingness to act. (Deci & Ryan 185) investigated that
internalization can be supportive for person’s autonomy or accepting changes.
Cognitive evaluation theory (Journal of organizational behavior Vo.: 26, Issue
04, 2005, P. 331-362) deals with extrinsic and intrinsic motivations and says
intrinsic motivation urges individual to accept the change.
A solution has to be proposed that will reduce the
member’s inscure feelings and resistance to change (Schein, 1992)
Employees will accept the change when they will
clearly their secure future and benefits, the attitude of the employees will
Reasons for a positive reaction to change include:
Personal gain – When changes are
made, some people may gain such things as new job titles, more
responsibility, more money, and more authority. In short, they may stand
to gain any of the things the loss of which would lead to change
resistance. More security – a perception of greater security in a job,
perhaps because more of personal skills will be used, such as when there
is a change in an engineering department to computer-aided design and an
individual feels more effective working with computers than using a pen to
design on a drafting board.
More income – a hope for a salary
increase, more benefits, an incentive, or profit-sharing program, or more
More authority – a hope for
promotion to a position of greater authority, or a new boss who allows
more authority than was available under the previous boss.
More status/prestige – a hope for
a new title, a new office, or a special assignment that carries with it
status and prestige.
More responsibility – a hope for a
job change that provides new responsibility, or a new boss who assigned
more responsibility than the previous one did.
Better working conditions – a hope
for a new work schedule, new equipment, or other conditions that make the
job easier or more enjoyable.
Increased personal satisfaction –
a hope for a greater feeling of achievement because of a chance to use
their abilities more to eliminate some of the obstacles that had stood in
the way of personal performance.
Better personal contacts – an
expectation of being moved to a place with greater opportunity for contact
with and visibility to influential people.
A new challenge – the expectation
of more rewarding work.
Less time and effort –Another
reason why change may be welcome is if the change actually makes the job
easier and requires less time and effort.
example, work simplification programs carry the slogan “Work smarter, not
harder,” and changes that can actually deliver on this promise are often
welcomed. it can reduce the- physical effort required to do the job.
Respect for the source – If people
have a positive attitude toward the person or the department from which
the change comes, they will be more likely to accept and even welcome the
Effective communication – People
who are asked to do things instead of told to do them may react very
positively, as are those who perceive they have had some input effecting