Chapter TwoThe Review of The RelatedLiterature RFID, also known as radio frequency identification is theuse of radio waves to readand capture information stored on a tag attached to an object. RFID is a growing product used instorage facilities to track bulk storages. They are also common in shipping andother daily activities. There are many opportunities for RFID to be used in everyday life suchas in libraries, buses, toll roads, and commuter trains and in medical supplies.
Today RFID has surpassed the use of modern barcodes in the retail workforce andwill only continue to grow in popularity in the retail market. The main focus of this experiment willbe on the movement of “things,” involving shipping/receiving accuracy andefficiency using RFID readers and tags. RFID can reduce the errors in receivingvia the process known as electronic proof of delivery. With modern barcodescanners, mistakes are made when the quantity and/or type of product aremisidentified. Along with this RFID scanning is much more reliable and can readpackages at a much faster rate than barcodes. This study will test in a smallscale the fastest a RFID tag can be read by a scanner and later determine the minimum separation distance between two RFID cards thatallows both to be successfully read. It will simulate an assembly line and willhelp with the understanding in how fast the belt can be moving withoutinterferences of packages.
History of RFID Radaritself was first developed as a new technology in the 1920s with radiofrequency identification being developed soon after (Arizona). Radio frequencyidentification was first used in 1930 during World War ? (CNRFID). It was used in the airplane’s radarsignal to read an identification number of another vehicle in order to identifywhether they were allies or enemies. In the late 1960s Checkpoint andSensormatic were founded, both of these companies developed Electronic ArticleSurveillance (EAS) systems that used passive 1-bit RFID tags (Juho Partanen,2015). Electronic Article Surveillance is known as the first and most widespreadcommercial use of RFID and is still widely used today to prevent shoplifting(Juho Partanen, 2015).
In the 80s technologicaldevelopments lead to the creation of passive tags, meaning energy no longerneeded to be embedded into the tag causing the price of the tag to be drastically reduced(CNRFID). In the early 1990s IBM worked on RFID UHF technology;but it wasn’t until much later that UHF became mainstream and incorporated intoretail inventory management. In late 1990s AutoID Center at MIT was established.
They created a way to store the relevant information in a database, instead of inthe tag itself (Juho Partanen, 2015). This allowed for the tag to only focus onidentification. A decade later with emerging global standards in 2004, thefirst major organizations, such as Walmart, Tesco and the US Department ofDefense, issued mandates demanding that their suppliers had to become RFIDcompliant on all their shipments (Juho Partanen, 2015). However immaturity ofthe RFID value chain in the late 2000s, unhealthy venture capital financing andpatent disputes lead to a few years of hesitation and delays in the large scaleadoption of RFID (Juho Partanen, 2015).
Fortunately in the 2010s majorroll-outs by Macy’s, Hudson’s Bay Company, Marco Polo and a many more haveturned this technology into a essential especially in retail and industrialapplications (Juho Partanen, 2015). All these steps together allowed for increasedcompatibility, performance and reliability of UHF RFID systems as they areknown today.RFID vs BarScanners Barcodelabels have been standard in retail for over 30 years, however now othertechnologies such as radio frequency identification has greatly overtaken barscanners as the new king of retail. While both RFID and barcodes are suitablefor different applications; but RFID shows clear advantages overbarcodes. Advantages of RFID is that RFID tags can be read at a faster ratethan barcodes, RFID tags can work within much greater distancesthan barcodes, once they are set up it can be run with minimal humanparticipation, RFID tags don’t need to be positioned in a line of sightwith the scanner, and they are more reusable (Adaptalift, 2012). Howeverthere are several disadvantages that come along with using RFID tags regarding materials, reliability, cost, andimplementation.
RFID involves assembling and inserting acomputerized chip; which is more expensive, RFID readers struggle picking upinformation when passing through metal or liquid, Reader collision canoccur where two signals from different readers overlap and the tag is unable torespond to both, Tag collision can occur when numerous tags in the samearea respond at the same time, and RFID still has two separate chips(read only and readable/writable), which cannot be read by the same machine(Adaptalift, 2012). RFID Readers A RFID system consists of three majorcomponents: a reader or integrator, a RFID tag, and a program to encode anddecode the data from the reader into a mainframe (Preradovic, 2007). RFID readers can be grouped by the frequency band withinwhich they operate: low frequency, high frequency, and ultra-high frequency. Thereare two broad categories of systems, passive and active RFID. Radiowaves behave differently at each of these frequencies and there are advantagesand disadvantages associated with using each frequency band.
In activeRFID systems, tags have their own transmitter and power source. Usually, thepower source is a battery. Active tags broadcast their own signal to transmitthe information stored on their microchips. In passive RFID systems the readerand reader antenna send a radio signal to the tag. The RFID tag then uses thetransmitted signal to power on, and reflect energy back to the reader.
RFID Tags RFIDtags are separated into two categories, active or passive. Active tags have a transmitter and their own power source (RFIDJournal). While passive tags has no battery but draws power from the reader(RFID Journal). Each tag has its own uses.
Active tags are manly used inshipping containers and electronic assets. Active tags range at a cost from $20- $40 (Jovix). Passive tags have a very short range so they are mostly used in detectors.Tags also come in many different shapes and sizes. RFID Programs EveryRFID tag contains a unique ID which is the key to using RFID in programming (Bradley,2006) This ID sets apart different tags from one another when it is read by ascanner. RFID programs output the RFID tag onto a computer. That is why retail warehousesuse tags now because it is easier to keep track of where products are located.Summary Radio frequency identification is rapidly growing and has many possibleapplications in retail and in everyday life.
RFID is used in amusement parks, libraries,buses, toll roads, and commuter trains and in medical supplies and many more. RFIDhas shown clear advantage over barcodes being more reliable and much more efficientat scanning. RFID can work at much larger distances than barcodes, can scanmore at one time, and are much faster when scanning. RFID systems are made upof three major components:a reader or integrator, a RFID tag, and a program.
Overall RFID has surpassed the use ofmodern barcodes in retail and will only continue to become cheaper and morereliable in the years to come.Definitions of Terms1. Barcode – amachine-readable code in the form of numbers and a pattern of parallel lines ofvarying widths, printed on and identifying a product.2. Binary measurement – Itadmits only one answer among two possible: for or against. In this experimentthe two outcomes are yes or no for if the card was read or not.
3. Computer Chip – A small piece of semiconducting material on which an integrated circuitis embedded.4. EAS – (Electronic Article Surveillance) Asecurity system for preventing theft in retail stores that uses disposablelabel tags or reusable hard tags attached to the merchandise5. RFID – (Radio Frequency Identification) the use of radio waves to read andcapture information stored on a tag attached to an object.6. RFID tag – an IDsystem that uses small radio frequency identification devices foridentification and tracking purposes. Simple majority – A majority in which the highest number of votes cast for any one candidate, issue, or item exceeds the second-highest number, while not constituting an absolute majority.
8. UHF – (Ultra High Frequency) Radio frequencies in the range between300 megahertz (MHz) and 3 gigahertz (GHz)Citations and ReferencesKarmakar,N. C., Shrestha, S., & Bibile, M. (2017, January 01). Chipless RFID.
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