Chapter misidentified. Along with this RFID scanning is

Chapter Two

The Review of The Related

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            RFID, also known as radio frequency identification is the
use of radio waves to read
and capture information stored on a tag attached to an object. RFID is a growing product used in
storage facilities to track bulk storages. They are also common in shipping and
other daily activities. There are many opportunities for RFID to be used in everyday life such
as in libraries, buses, toll roads, and commuter trains and in medical supplies.
Today RFID has surpassed the use of modern barcodes in the retail workforce and
will only continue to grow in popularity in the retail market.

            The main focus of this experiment will
be on the movement of “things,” involving shipping/receiving accuracy and
efficiency using RFID readers and tags. RFID can reduce the errors in receiving
via the process known as electronic proof of delivery. With modern barcode
scanners, mistakes are made when the quantity and/or type of product are
misidentified. Along with this RFID scanning is much more reliable and can read
packages at a much faster rate than barcodes. This study will test in a small
scale the fastest a RFID tag can be read by a scanner and later determine the minimum separation distance between two RFID cards that
allows both to be successfully read. It will simulate an assembly line and will
help with the understanding in how fast the belt can be moving without
interferences of packages.

History of RFID

itself was first developed as a new technology in the 1920s with radio
frequency identification being developed soon after (Arizona). Radio frequency
identification was first used in 1930 during World War ? (CNRFID). It was used in the airplane’s radar
signal to read an identification number of another vehicle in order to identify
whether they were allies or enemies. In the late 1960s Checkpoint and
Sensormatic were founded, both of these companies developed Electronic Article
Surveillance (EAS) systems that used passive 1-bit RFID tags (Juho Partanen,
2015). Electronic Article Surveillance is known as the first and most widespread
commercial use of RFID and is still widely used today to prevent shoplifting
(Juho Partanen, 2015). In the 80s technological
developments lead to the creation of passive tags, meaning energy no longer
needed to be embedded into the tag causing the price of the tag to be drastically reduced
(CNRFID). In the early 1990s IBM worked on RFID UHF technology;
but it wasn’t until much later that UHF became mainstream and incorporated into
retail inventory management. In late 1990s AutoID Center at MIT was established.
They created a way to store the relevant information in a database, instead of in
the tag itself (Juho Partanen, 2015). This allowed for the tag to only focus on
identification. A decade later with emerging global standards in 2004, the
first major organizations, such as Walmart, Tesco and the US Department of
Defense, issued mandates demanding that their suppliers had to become RFID
compliant on all their shipments (Juho Partanen, 2015). However immaturity of
the RFID value chain in the late 2000s, unhealthy venture capital financing and
patent disputes lead to a few years of hesitation and delays in the large scale
adoption of RFID (Juho Partanen, 2015). Fortunately in the 2010s major
roll-outs by Macy’s, Hudson’s Bay Company, Marco Polo and a many more have
turned this technology into a essential especially in retail and industrial
applications (Juho Partanen, 2015). All these steps together allowed for increased
compatibility, performance and reliability of UHF RFID systems as they are
known today.

RFID vs Bar

labels have been standard in retail for over 30 years, however now other
technologies such as radio frequency identification has greatly overtaken bar
scanners as the new king of retail. While both RFID and barcodes are suitable
for different applications; but RFID shows clear advantages over
barcodes. Advantages of RFID is that RFID tags can be read at a faster rate
than barcodes, RFID tags can work within much greater distances
than barcodes, once they are set up it can be run with minimal human
participation, RFID tags don’t need to be positioned in a line of sight
with the scanner, and they are more reusable (Adaptalift, 2012). However
there are several disadvantages that come along with using RFID tags regarding materials, reliability, cost, and
implementation. RFID involves assembling and inserting a
computerized chip; which is more expensive, RFID readers struggle picking up
information when passing through metal or liquid, Reader collision can
occur where two signals from different readers overlap and the tag is unable to
respond to both, Tag collision can occur when numerous tags in the same
area respond at the same time, and RFID still has two separate chips
(read only and readable/writable), which cannot be read by the same machine
(Adaptalift, 2012).

RFID Readers

            A RFID system consists of three major
components: a reader or integrator, a RFID tag, and a program to encode and
decode the data from the reader into a mainframe (Preradovic, 2007). RFID readers can be grouped by the frequency band within
which they operate: low frequency, high frequency, and ultra-high frequency. There
are two broad categories of systems, passive and active RFID. Radio
waves behave differently at each of these frequencies and there are advantages
and disadvantages associated with using each frequency band. In active
RFID systems, tags have their own transmitter and power source. Usually, the
power source is a battery. Active tags broadcast their own signal to transmit
the information stored on their microchips. In passive RFID systems the reader
and reader antenna send a radio signal to the tag. The RFID tag then uses the
transmitted signal to power on, and reflect energy back to the reader.



tags are separated into two categories, active or passive. Active tags have a transmitter and their own power source (RFID
Journal). While passive tags has no battery but draws power from the reader
(RFID Journal). Each tag has its own uses. Active tags are manly used in
shipping containers and electronic assets. Active tags range at a cost from $20
– $40 (Jovix). Passive tags have a very short range so they are mostly used in detectors.
Tags also come in many different shapes and sizes.

RFID Programs

RFID tag contains a unique ID which is the key to using RFID in programming (Bradley,
2006) This ID sets apart different tags from one another when it is read by a
scanner. RFID programs output the RFID tag onto a computer. That is why retail warehouses
use tags now because it is easier to keep track of where products are located.


            Radio frequency identification is rapidly growing and has many possible
applications in retail and in everyday life. RFID is used in amusement parks, libraries,
buses, toll roads, and commuter trains and in medical supplies and many more. RFID
has shown clear advantage over barcodes being more reliable and much more efficient
at scanning. RFID can work at much larger distances than barcodes, can scan
more at one time, and are much faster when scanning. RFID systems are made up
of three major components:
a reader or integrator, a RFID tag, and a program. Overall RFID has surpassed the use of
modern barcodes in retail and will only continue to become cheaper and more
reliable in the years to come.

Definitions of Terms

Barcode – a
machine-readable code in the form of numbers and a pattern of parallel lines of
varying widths, printed on and identifying a product.

Binary measurement – It
admits only one answer among two possible: for or against. In this experiment
the two outcomes are yes or no for if the card was read or not.

Computer Chip – A small piece of semiconducting material on which an integrated circuit
is embedded.

 EAS – (Electronic Article Surveillance) A
security system for preventing theft in retail stores that uses disposable
label tags or reusable hard tags attached to the merchandise

RFID – (Radio Frequency Identification) the use of radio waves to read and
capture information stored on a tag attached to an object.

RFID tag – an ID
system that uses small radio frequency identification devices for
identification and tracking purposes.

Simple majority – A
majority in which the highest number of votes cast for any one candidate,
issue, or item exceeds the second-highest number, while not constituting
an absolute majority.

UHF – (Ultra High Frequency)  Radio frequencies in the range between
300 megahertz (MHz) and 3 gigahertz (GHz)

Citations and References

N. C., Shrestha, S., & Bibile, M. (2017, January 01). Chipless RFID.
Retrieved October 16, 2017, from


& Materials Handling Blog. (n.d.). Retrieved January 07, 2018, from


K. (2016, August 09). What’s the difference between RFID & barcode
technologies? Retrieved January 07, 2018, from


J. (2017, July 24). RFID vs. Barcodes: What are the advantages of RFID over
Barcodes? | RFIDinsider. Retrieved January 07, 2018, from

RFID vs. Barcodes: What are the advantages?


J. (2015, February). History of RFID. Retrieved January 6, 2018, from


S., Calcaterra, G., Gray, M., Nair, R., & Robertson, E. (n.d.). RFID
Tagging: Final Report. Retrieved January 5, 2018, from


B. (2017, January 01). RFID in transportation and logistics. Retrieved October
16, 2017, from


Card Reader, USBTechnical
datasheet for RFID Card Reader, USB (#28340). (2016, May 24). Retreived
October 16, 2017, from


Sekerak, M. (1989,
June 8). Benefitting from radio-frequency systems. Machine Design, 61(11),
127+. Retrieved from


Benefits of
implementing RFID in Supply Chain Management. (n.d.). Retrieved October 16,
2017, from


            Types of RFID Systems. (n.d.). Retrieved
January 08, 2018, from


R. (2017, May 9). RFID Automates Invoice Data for Bulk Storage Facility.
Retrieved October 04, 2017, from


RFID Readers.” Microwave Journal. Accessed November 21, 2017.


R. (n.d.). RFID Frequently Asked Question. Retrieved January 08, 2018, from


vs. Passive RFID. (n.d.). Retrieved January 08, 2018, from


B. L. (2006, August 29). RFID Programming Made Simple and Cheap. Retrieved
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