Chapter1THEPROBLEMBackground of the Study Mosquitoes are one of the biggest annoyancesof summer. To be fair, they do serve a purpose in the environment. Mosquitolarvae are a popular snack for fish and other aquatic creatures while adultmosquitoes provide food for birds, bats, and spiders. Male mosquitoes don’tbite the humans, but they rather feed off the flowers nectar. The femalemosquitoes are the ones that will require the meals of the blood of a humanbeings and other animals in order to develop and lay their eggs. The mosquito bites are the best an itchynuisance and, at worst, they can transmit any serious diseases like malaria, yellowfever, dengue and etc. (Mercola 2017). The yellow fever mosquito, Aedesaegypti, is one of the world’s most deadly animals.
In addition to yellowfever, it is the primary vector of Zika virus, dengue, and chikungunya. Thesemosquitoes lay their eggs in small containers that hold water, including treeholes, cups, bowls, discarded tires, flower pots, tin cans, clogged raingutters, and many other objects, which puts them in close contact with humans.They prefer to bite during the day, but are most active two hours before sunriseand two hours after sunset (Levine 2013). According to theWorld Health Organization (WHO), there are an estimated 200,000 cases of yellowfever each year, causing 30,000 deaths, with 90% occurring in Africa. The WorldHealth Organization (WHO) also estimates that about 390 million cases of denguecases that occur globally each year.
Symptoms include high fever, severeheadache, severe eye pain, joint pain, nose bleeds, rash, and low white bloodcell counts. Otherwise, severe cases may lead to dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF)https://academic.oup.com/journals/pages/aedes_aegypti_zika_virus#aedes.
(Retrievedon January 06, 2017). Based on National Organization ofRare Disorders (NORD), dengue fever is an acute viral infection characterizedby fever. It is caused by an itchy bite from mosquitoes that are carrying the denguevirus and also the primary form of the Dengue Fever that is characterized by a skin rashes and a highfever. Other symptoms may include shaking chills, diarrhea, and vomiting andetc. Repellentsare made to make humans to be unattractive to a mosquito and that it will avoidany areas or parts of the body that have been treated with the product that repelmosquitoes. Repellents do not kill mosquitoes.
The best repellents will providethe protection from bites of a mosquito for a long period of time from just oneapplication. The University of Florida mosquito researchers have already testedand evaluated the effectiveness of mosquito repellents based on the amount oftime of the product that will continue to repel mosquitoes after oneapplication to the skin (Rutledge andDay 2012). But not all Filipinos can afford theexpensive commercial brands of mosquito repellent. This enlightens theresearchers to devise an instrument that will kill mosquitoes. An Alternative MosquitoRepellent using dried peelings of lanzones (Lansium domesticum) may be thesolution to the problem of the people living in slum and rural prone areas.
Theresearchers’ purpose is to decrease the rate of dengue and other related cases.Using mosquito attractant that could also be a killer to reduce the number ofdengue carrying mosquito is the seen idea with the help of the dried peelingsof lanzones (Lansium domesticum) as the natural and alternative mosquitorepellent in the form of lotion. Oneof the ways to is to put some lotion on the selected part of the body to avoid mosquito bites that can caused anydisease to humans. Researchers have beenconducting studies to discover alternative natural mosquito repellent.
Thisstudy will be a great help for the people especially the ones living in theslum areas. The product of the study may reduce the rate of the dengue feverand other illnesses carried by mosquitoes. Objectiveof the Study Amosquito repellent made up from the natural repelling plants in the lotion thatwill remove the health problems caused by the commercial mosquito repellent.The researchers believe that this study will help to reduce the number ofcasualties from dengue carried by mosquitoes.
If this project is successful,this can be profitable for business. Meanwhile, the use of natural resourcescan solve usual problems made by mosquitoes which istimely or relevant in our country. Statementof the Problem This study tries tofind out the effectively of lanzones (Lansium domesticum) peelings as amosquito repellent in the form of lotion. Specifically, it will answer thefollowing questions:1. Whatare the chemical constituents of lanzones (Lansium domesticum)?2. Isit more applicable to use than the commercial one?3. Isit possible to make a mosquito repellent made from lanzones (Lansiumdomesticum)?4.
Arethere be side effects in using mosquito repellent made from lanzones (Lansiumdomesticum) peelings?5. Wouldthe lanzones (Lansium domesticum) mosquito repellent be better than commercialmosquito repellent use today? Significanceof the Study The Lanzones (Lansium domesticum) from the tropicalcountry of the Philippines is seasonal, and usually found in some areas. Itgrows and solds in bunches that resembled like grapes, but the Lanzones fruitis about twice the size. The researchers discover that the lanzones (Lansiumdomesticum) also has a content that can be to make mosquito repellent asalternative material that can be considered safer to the community and to thoseasthmatic. Scopeand Delimitation This study focuses only the on the use lanzones (Lansiumdomesticum) peelings to produce a natural mosquito repellent that is harmlessto human health. It also tackles the safeness of human beings from mosquitobites that can cause dengue.
Definition of Terms For greater understanding, someterms are conceptually and operationally defined. Lanzones.It is a fruit crop which is scientifically named Lansium domesticum (familyMeliaceae) or also known as langsat,.
However, langsat is commonly used also torefer to a particular type or form. (Lansium domesticum) is a complex plantspecies having many variants, with wild and cultivated forms. Asoperationalized in this study, the researchers will make use of this particularfruit to produce mosquito repellent by means of lotion. Repellents.This provides protection from bites for a long period of time from just oneapplication and can help reduce your risk of being bitten by insects andtherefore reduce risk of getting a disease carried by mosquitoes or ticks. Asoperationalized in this study, the researchers will test the effectiveness ofthe repellent made of lanzones. Denguefever. It is a disease caused by a family of viruses that are transmittedby mosquitoes.
Symptoms of dengue fever include severe joint and muscle pain,swollen lymph nodes, headache, fever, exhaustion, and rash. As operationalizedin this study, the researchers believed that the repellent made of lanzoneswill reduce the cases of mosquito bites. Chapter 2 RelatedStudy Accordingto the study of Grutas, A. et. al. which was entitled, a study on the mosquitorepellent coil effect of Lansium Domesticum (Lanzones) peel on mosquitoes,there were 3 trials for each repellent and the results of the Lanzonesrepellant were 37,38,33 respectively.
Compared with the results of commerciallyavailable “katol” of 36, 30, 35. Data gathered in this experimentwere analysed using the chi-square and T-test tool statistical analysis to seewhether the gathered data were significant. The chi-square values gathered inexercises were 0.62, 0.26, and 0.
99 while the p-value for the T-test was 0.09,respectively. Theyfound out that the effect of Lanzones peel as repellent is comparable tocommercially available “katol” which is considered the most popularand widely used insecticide vaporizers. Otherstudy conducted by Acapulco F. et. al.
which was entitled ,the effectivity ofLanzones (Lansium dometicum) peelings’ extract as mosquito repellant, the studydesign was aimed to determine the effectiveness of lanzones (Lansiumdomesticum) as mosquito repellent. Mosquitoes have always been a very hazardousinsect in our modern society. It has been linked with numerous diseases thatmay ultimately lead to death. However, in the island of Camiguin, Philippineslocal folks used the peelings of lanzones (Lansium domesticum) as a way ofdriving away the said insect by drying it and using it as incense.
This studywas conducted to determine the efficacy of the lanzones peelings’ extract as analternative source of mosquito repellent. The study was conducted in CebuDoctors’ University Zoology Laboratory. Naturally breed adult mosquitoes weretested in a mosquito cage by the time they reached 4-5 days old and were luredusing extract from lanzones fruit peeling at the experimental group, lacticacid as our positive control, and distilled water as the negative group.Lanzones fruit were taxonomically and thoroughly washed before it was extractedon the day of the experiment. Three (3) trials were made for each set-up andresults of the lanzones peelings’ extract were compared to the control of thisexperiment.
Results showed that the lanzones peelings’extract had a mean protection percentage of 93.33% while the positive controlhad a mean protection percentage of 96.19%. This means that the lanzonespeelings’ extract showed a 2.86% difference from that of the positive controlcontaining 25% Diethyltoulamide (DEET) which indicates a very promising resultas it showed no significant difference from the commercial insect repellent.Since the average protection rate of the experimental set-up (93.33%) is muchcloser to the value of the positive control (96.
19%) than ofthe negative control (86.67%), researchers conclude that the extract ispositively effective as a repellent. Also, the positive control used in theexperiment, which is a commercial mosquito repellent containing 25% DEET,showed a high percentage protection and is therefore an effective mosquitorepellent. Likewise, the negative control also showed a repellentcharacteristic, though not that high compared to the extract.
In the interest of forthcoming studies, the researcherswould like to endorse the following ideas: Use other species of mosquito asidefrom Aedes aegypti as testing subject. Use other positive and negative controlin performing the experiment. More information in attracting different types ofmosquito. Isolation of volatile components of the extract that may contributeto greater efficacy in repelling mosquitoes. Qualitatively identify chemicalsfound in the extract that may harm humans and animals. Use readily,standardized equipment or reagent in performing the experiment. Chapter 3 This chapter presents the researchmethods used on the study. It also includes the description of the subjects ofthe study, the research instruments, the data gathering procedure and thestatistical treatment of the data.
Research design The experimental research will be usedfor this study. According to Fernandez and Ramos, experimental researchinvolves two groups: experimental group which receives the treatment underinvestigation and is expected to gain something, and the controlled group whichreceives the treatment, usually in an ordinary technique. Subject of the Study The subject of the study is theparticular tropical fruit called lanzones (Lansium domesticum).
The researcherswill try to produce mosquito repellent lotion by extracting the peelings of thesaid fruit. The subject will be selected throughavailability sampling. As explained by the book Practical Research 1 by Baraceros2016, availability sampling is a method of sampling that involves the presenceof the subject to interact and use on the study.Data Gathering Instrument In obtaining the relevant sets of dataand information for this study, the researcher will conduct the study throughdirect observation between the controlled group and uncontrolled group. Data Gathering Procedure Orderly sequence of research procedurewill carefully observe by the researchers to ensure objectivity andcompleteness in securing all the first-hand information needed to deal withresearch question. This sequential order will be described in the foregoing discussion.
The researchers will conduct thisexperimental research in an orderly manner. At first, the researchers willpresent the research title to their research subject teacher for they are toassure if the propose title will be approved. Research adviser will be chosenthe researchers for them to guided and well-supervised upon conducting theirstudy. Afterwards, the researchers willstart to write the manuscript or the proposal for their research. Along withthat, the proponent will prepare a letter of permission signed by the principaland will be presented to the focal persons that will help them to obtainprimary data. All information will begathered and tabulated for further interpretation.