Chapter viral infection characterized by fever. It is

 

Chapter
1

THE
PROBLEM

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Background of the Study

            Mosquitoes are one of the biggest annoyances
of summer. To be fair, they do serve a purpose in the environment. Mosquito
larvae are a popular snack for fish and other aquatic creatures while adult
mosquitoes provide food for birds, bats, and spiders. Male mosquitoes don’t
bite the humans, but they rather feed off the flowers nectar. The female
mosquitoes are the ones that will require the meals of the blood of a human
beings and other animals in order to develop and lay their eggs.  The mosquito bites are the best an itchy
nuisance and, at worst, they can transmit any serious diseases like malaria, yellow
fever, dengue and etc. (Mercola 2017).

            The yellow fever mosquito, Aedes
aegypti, is one of the world’s most deadly animals. In addition to yellow
fever, it is the primary vector of Zika virus, dengue, and chikungunya. These
mosquitoes lay their eggs in small containers that hold water, including tree
holes, cups, bowls, discarded tires, flower pots, tin cans, clogged rain
gutters, and many other objects, which puts them in close contact with humans.
They prefer to bite during the day, but are most active two hours before sunrise
and two hours after sunset  (Levine 2013).

           

 

 

           

 

 

According to the
World Health Organization (WHO), there are an estimated 200,000 cases of yellow
fever each year, causing 30,000 deaths, with 90% occurring in Africa. The World
Health Organization (WHO) also estimates that about 390 million cases of dengue
cases that occur globally each year. Symptoms include high fever, severe
headache, severe eye pain, joint pain, nose bleeds, rash, and low white blood
cell counts. Otherwise, severe cases may lead to dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF)https://academic.oup.com/journals/pages/aedes_aegypti_zika_virus#aedes.(Retrieved
on  January 06, 2017).

           Based on National Organization of
Rare Disorders (NORD), dengue fever is an acute viral infection characterized
by fever. It is caused by an itchy bite from mosquitoes that are carrying the dengue
virus and also the primary form of the Dengue Fever that  is characterized by a skin rashes and a high
fever. Other symptoms may include shaking chills, diarrhea, and vomiting and
etc.                               

            Repellents
are made to make humans to be unattractive to a mosquito and that it will avoid
any areas or parts of the body that have been treated with the product that repel
mosquitoes. Repellents do not kill mosquitoes. The best repellents will provide
the protection from bites of a mosquito for a long period of time from just one
application. The University of Florida mosquito researchers have already tested
and evaluated the effectiveness of mosquito repellents based on the amount of
time of the product that will continue to repel mosquitoes after one
application to the skin (Rutledge and
Day 2012).

 

           

           

But not all Filipinos can afford the
expensive commercial brands of mosquito repellent. This enlightens the
researchers to devise an instrument that will kill mosquitoes. An Alternative Mosquito
Repellent using dried peelings of lanzones (Lansium domesticum) may be the
solution to the problem of the people living in slum and rural prone areas.

            The
researchers’ purpose is to decrease the rate of dengue and other related cases.
Using mosquito attractant that could also be a killer to reduce the number of
dengue carrying mosquito is the seen idea with the help of the dried peelings
of lanzones (Lansium domesticum) as the natural and alternative mosquito
repellent in the form of lotion.

            One
of the ways to is to put some lotion on the selected part of the body  to avoid mosquito bites that can caused any
disease to humans.  Researchers have been
conducting studies to discover alternative natural mosquito repellent. This
study will be a great help for the people especially the ones living in the
slum areas. The product of the study may reduce the rate of the dengue fever
and other illnesses carried by mosquitoes.

 

Objective
of the Study

            A
mosquito repellent made up from the natural repelling plants in the lotion that
will remove the health problems caused by the commercial mosquito repellent.
The researchers believe that this study will help to reduce the number of
casualties from dengue carried by mosquitoes. If this project is successful,
this can be profitable for business. Meanwhile, the use of natural resources
can solve usual

problems made by mosquitoes which is
timely or relevant in our country.

 

Statement
of the Problem

            This study tries to
find out the effectively of lanzones (Lansium domesticum) peelings as a
mosquito repellent in the form of lotion. Specifically, it will answer the
following questions:

1.    What
are the chemical constituents of lanzones (Lansium domesticum)?

2.    Is
it more applicable to use than the commercial one?

3.    Is
it possible to make a mosquito repellent made from lanzones (Lansium
domesticum)?

4.    Are
there be side effects in using mosquito repellent made from lanzones (Lansium
domesticum) peelings?

5.    Would
the lanzones (Lansium domesticum) mosquito repellent be better than commercial
mosquito repellent use today?

 

 

 

 

Significance
of the Study

            The Lanzones (Lansium domesticum) from the tropical
country of the Philippines is seasonal, and usually found in some areas. It
grows and solds in bunches that resembled like grapes, but the Lanzones fruit
is about twice the size. The researchers discover that the lanzones (Lansium
domesticum) also has a content that can be to make mosquito repellent as
alternative material that can be considered safer to the community and to those
asthmatic.

 

Scope
and Delimitation

            This study focuses only the on the use lanzones (Lansium
domesticum) peelings to produce a natural mosquito repellent that is harmless
to human health. It also tackles the safeness of human beings from mosquito
bites that can cause dengue.

 

Definition of Terms

            For greater understanding, some
terms are conceptually and operationally defined.

            Lanzones.
It is a fruit crop which is scientifically named Lansium domesticum (family
Meliaceae) or also known as langsat,. However, langsat is commonly used also to
refer to a particular type or form. (Lansium domesticum) is a complex plant
species having many variants, with wild and cultivated forms. As
operationalized in this study, the researchers will make use of this particular
fruit to produce mosquito repellent by means of lotion.

            Repellents.
This provides protection from bites for a long period of time from just one
application and can help reduce your risk of being bitten by insects and
therefore reduce risk of getting a disease carried by mosquitoes or ticks. As
operationalized in this study, the researchers will test the effectiveness of
the repellent made of lanzones.

            Dengue
fever. It is a disease caused by a family of viruses that are transmitted
by mosquitoes. Symptoms of dengue fever include severe joint and muscle pain,
swollen lymph nodes, headache, fever, exhaustion, and rash. As operationalized
in this study, the researchers believed that the repellent made of lanzones
will reduce the cases of mosquito bites.

 

Chapter 2

           Related
Study

           

            According
to the study of Grutas, A. et. al. which was entitled, a study on the mosquito
repellent coil effect of Lansium Domesticum (Lanzones) peel on mosquitoes,
there were 3 trials for each repellent and the results of the Lanzones
repellant were 37,38,33 respectively. Compared with the results of commercially
available “katol” of 36, 30, 35. Data gathered in this experiment
were analysed using the chi-square and T-test tool statistical analysis to see
whether the gathered data were significant. The chi-square values gathered in
exercises were 0.62, 0.26, and 0.99 while the p-value for the T-test was 0.09,
respectively.

            They
found out that the effect of Lanzones peel as repellent is comparable to
commercially available “katol” which is considered the most popular
and widely used insecticide vaporizers.

           

 

            Other
study conducted by Acapulco F. et. al. which was entitled ,the effectivity of
Lanzones (Lansium dometicum) peelings’ extract as mosquito repellant, the study
design was aimed to determine the effectiveness of lanzones (Lansium
domesticum) as mosquito repellent. Mosquitoes have always been a very hazardous
insect in our modern society. It has been linked with numerous diseases that
may ultimately lead to death. However, in the island of Camiguin, Philippines
local folks used the peelings of lanzones (Lansium domesticum) as a way of
driving away the said insect by drying it and using it as incense. This study
was conducted to determine the efficacy of the lanzones peelings’ extract as an
alternative source of mosquito repellent. The study was conducted in Cebu
Doctors’ University Zoology Laboratory. Naturally breed adult mosquitoes were
tested in a mosquito cage by the time they reached 4-5 days old and were lured
using extract from lanzones fruit peeling at the experimental group, lactic
acid as our positive control, and distilled water as the negative group.
Lanzones fruit were taxonomically and thoroughly washed before it was extracted
on the day of the experiment. Three (3) trials were made for each set-up and
results of the lanzones peelings’ extract were compared to the control of this
experiment.

  

              Results showed that the lanzones peelings’
extract had a mean protection percentage of 93.33% while the positive control
had a mean protection percentage of 96.19%. This means that the lanzones
peelings’ extract showed a 2.86% difference from that of the positive control
containing 25% Diethyltoulamide (DEET) which indicates a very promising result
as it showed no significant difference from the commercial insect repellent.
Since the average protection rate of the experimental set-up (93.33%) is much
closer to the value of

 

the positive control (96.19%) than of
the negative control (86.67%), researchers conclude that the extract is
positively effective as a repellent. Also, the positive control used in the
experiment, which is a commercial mosquito repellent containing 25% DEET,
showed a high percentage protection and is therefore an effective mosquito
repellent. Likewise, the negative control also showed a repellent
characteristic, though not that high compared to the extract.

   

             In the interest of forthcoming studies, the researchers
would like to endorse the following ideas: Use other species of mosquito aside
from Aedes aegypti as testing subject. Use other positive and negative control
in performing the experiment. More information in attracting different types of
mosquito. Isolation of volatile components of the extract that may contribute
to greater efficacy in repelling mosquitoes. Qualitatively identify chemicals
found in the extract that may harm humans and animals. Use readily,
standardized equipment or reagent in performing the experiment.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 3

 

            This chapter presents the research
methods used on the study. It also includes the description of the subjects of
the study, the research instruments, the data gathering procedure and the
statistical treatment of the data.

 

Research design

            The experimental research will be used
for this study. According to Fernandez and Ramos, experimental research
involves two groups: experimental group which receives the treatment under
investigation and is expected to gain something, and the controlled group which
receives the treatment, usually in an ordinary technique.

 

Subject of the Study

            The subject of the study is the
particular tropical fruit called lanzones (Lansium domesticum). The researchers
will try to produce mosquito repellent lotion by extracting the peelings of the
said fruit.

            The subject will be selected through
availability sampling. As explained by the book Practical Research 1 by Baraceros
2016, availability sampling is a method of sampling that involves the presence
of the subject to interact and use on the study.

Data Gathering Instrument

            In obtaining the relevant sets of data
and information for this study, the researcher will conduct the study through
direct observation between the controlled group and uncontrolled group.

 

 

 

Data Gathering Procedure

            Orderly sequence of research procedure
will carefully observe by the researchers to ensure objectivity and
completeness in securing all the first-hand information needed to deal with
research question. This sequential order will be  described in the foregoing discussion.

            The researchers will conduct this
experimental research in an orderly manner. At first, the researchers will
present the research title to their research subject teacher for they are to
assure if the propose title will be approved. Research adviser will be chosen
the researchers for them to guided and well-supervised upon conducting their
study.

            Afterwards, the researchers will
start to write the manuscript or the proposal for their research. Along with
that, the proponent will prepare a letter of permission signed by the principal
and will be presented to the focal persons that will help them to obtain
primary data.  All information will be
gathered and tabulated for further interpretation.

           

 

 

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