Charlie GoyalLoomisPeriod 3 Biology Honors29 January 2018Bio H Inquiry Lab – Homeostasis and ExerciseGroup Lab Report: https://docs.google.com/document/d/15LGBF8WoI_c-5ftXArOJhs0_CcLVNVTFBSILuriE-5s/edit#heading=h.h8iknlrhsvnz Background: Homeostasis is the process living organisms use to maintain a stable condition, internal equilibrium, necessary to survive 1. The human body maintains and regulates conditions of temperature, water, salt, calcium, oxygen and macromolecules: sugar, protein and fat. During exercise, body cells perform higher rates of cellular respiration, affecting body temperature, blood glucose and oxygen levels along with hydration are affected, requiring the automatic feedback of systems to maintain homeostasis. The equation for cellular respiration is C6H12O6 + 6O2 -> 6H2O + 6CO2, inputting glucose and oxygen, and producing water and carbon dioxide. During exercise, glucose is converted for immediate energy in exercise, using the hormones insulin and glucagon to keep glucose levels in the blood at a constant. In addition, the respiratory system works to maintain a constant supply of oxygen to working muscles, performing higher rates of cellular respiration. Breathing faster, supplies more oxygen and removes carbon dioxide, through diffusion between the lungs and blood through alveoli and capillaries. The circulatory, or cardiovascular, system responds to the exercise by increasing the circulation of blood to muscles, body cells, containing oxygen and nutrients. Hormones from the endocrine system signal the heart to beat at increased rates, and dilation of blood vessels increases blood pressure 2. In the integumentary system, dilation of the blood vessels in the dermis, allows for excess heat generated by the muscular system to dissipate through the skin. In addition, sweat is released, the cooling evaporation aiding in the maintenance of body temperature.Increased heart rate during exercise indicate the body systems’ work to maintain homeostasis in the body. In the experiment, human organisms performed exercise in the form of jumping jacks, while measuring the change to heart rate. The model indicates the increase in heart rate, due to faster circulation of blood in the body as needed to maintain homeostasis.Analysis:Error: A limitation on the accuracy of the data from the experiment is the reliability of the heart rate measurements. The apple watch sometimes took longer or shorter amounts of time to measure heart rate following the exercise, at which time the body would have enough time to recuperate and begin returning to resting heart rate. Sometimes the apple watch did not even measure a heartbeat at all, and to regenerate a higher pulse, the exercise would be repeated. In addition, the resting heart rate was taken in a different position from the post exercise heart rates, creating a slightly different setting. The accuracy of exercise is also in question, as in between trials, we did not check for the heart beat returning to resting heart rate, therefore beginning each trial at a different condition. Finally, withholding the accuracy of the data, more data, such as more trials and subjects as well as more exercise, would help to create a better depiction of the reaction of the heart. The point at which the experiment stopped, 20 jumping jacks, was not sufficient to raise the heart to extremely strenuous levels, showing what would happen when a moment’s is not all it takes to return to homeostasis. Additionally, the data set did not take into account the different reactions of varyingly active test subjects. Not only do organisms have a different resting heart rate, but healthier hearts and more physically active people respond differently to exercise than the unfit.CER: As the amount of jumping jacks performed increases, the rate the heart beats at increases, for in order to maintain homeostasis during exercise, the heart must circulate blood throughout the body more frequently. As shown in the experiment’s data, an increase of activity to 5 jumping jacks increased the average heart rate by 27.8% and an increase to 20 jumping jacks increased the average heart rate by 61.8%. Any increase in activity, such as 5 jumping jacks, raises the heart rate as the body begins to perform more cellular respiration in the working muscles. As the muscles use up more oxygen and glucose, while producing carbon dioxide, water and energy, the body systems are imbalanced. The circulatory system works to pump the heart and circulate the blood at higher rates, so as to bring essentials to the cells. Oxygen is deposited from the blood to the muscles, and carbon dioxide is removed into the bloodstream to be released through the respiratory system. Circulation of the blood not only regulates oxygen and carbon dioxide levels, but also regulates temperature. Muscles generate heat when working, raising body temperature to above the regular, requiring a release of heat through the integumentary system, skin. The heart pumps blood through blood vessels in the dermis to cool down the body, diverting blood flow from the muscles, and increasing the need for circulation 3. Heat leaves the blood through the dermis, as sweat is felt cooling by evaporation, returning body temperature to homeostasis. The more the muscles work, the higher the need for circulation of blood flow is to regulate body systems, especially oxygen blood levels and body temperature, for homeostasis, resulting in increasing heart rate during activity. Extension: During the experiment, a further question arose on whether the heart would continue to increase at constant rates during strenuous activity, gradually plateau or abruptly hit a point and stop? In addition, would the intensity of the activity have to change to bypass certain levels of heart rate? Also, how does the history of fitness in the subject affect their change in heart rate? Does it take more activity to raise their heart rate, or do they simply return to homeostasis in less time due to stronger muscles. Do the activities that are familiar increase the heart rate less than less strenuous, but new activities? Also, how does age and size affect heart rate increases during activity? What about resting heart rate? How does someone who has a high spiking, but quickly lowered heart rate differ from one who takes more to raise their heart rate?Works Cited”What Is Homeostasis?” Scientific American, Scientific American, a Division of Nature America, Inc., www.scientificamerican.com/article/what-is-homeostasis/. Fisk, Michelle. “How Does the Body Maintain Homeostasis in Response to Exercise?”LIVESTRONG.COM, Leaf Group, 11 Sept. 2017, www.livestrong.com/article/369714-how-does-the-body-maintain-homeostasis-in-response-to-exercise/. Sloan, Jim. “Why Does Our Heart Rate Increase During Exercise?” LIVESTRONG.COM, Leaf Group, 11 Sept. 2017, www.livestrong.com/article/133774-why-does-our-heart-rate-increase-during-exercise/.