Critically is developed through both physical and logical

Critically evaluate Piaget’s cognitive development theory answer with response to theories and empirical evidence
Piaget’s theory of cognitive development has expanded the understanding of cognitive development. Through a constructivist method, he theorised that children actively construct knowledge through both experience and daily communication with the environment (Sutherland, 1992). Additionally, (Sutherland 1992) clarifies that his theory focuses on developmental changes regarding thinking and argues that knowledge is developed through both physical and logical mathematical experience, Nevertheless, Piaget’s theory has been criticised carefully, from undervaluing children’s abilities to ignoring adolescent development (Lourenco & Machado, 1996). In this essay, Piaget’s cognitive development theory will be critically evaluated.
Such findings have led several researchers to argue that Piaget did not pay enough attention to the role of culture and social interaction in shaping cognitive development (Roff, 2003 cited in Slater and Bremner, 2017). The effect of schooling proposes that Piaget’s assumption that children is driven primarily by constructing their own knowledge by acting on the environment is too narrow. It is rather that teachers and adults guide children’s learning by helping them focus on crucial issues or aspects of a situation. They are scaffolding the child’s learning. Recent research has raised fundamental questions regarding the universality of Piaget’s stages. In Piaget’s conception once an individual has strengthened the skills and understanding of a stage, that individual will be functioning cognitively in that stage regardless of the problem or field of knowledge. although, many researchers (eg Siegler, 1981 Slater and Bremner, 2017). suggest that a child might use concrete-operational thinking on one tasks and use preoperational thinking on another task.
Researchers have also investigated the universality of Piaget’s stages by conducting a cross-cultural research. For example, both Egyptian and Saudi Arabian Bedouin children progress through the same order of stages (Ahmed, 2010 cited in Slater and Bremner, 2017). Although, cultural factors influence children’s progression through Piaget’s stages (Maynard, 2008 cited in Slater and Bremner, 2017). However, researchers have increasingly challenged Piaget’s notion that broad stages of development exist (Flavell et al., 2002 cited Slater and Bremner, 2017).
Piaget has frequently been described as the father of cognitive psychology (Shaffer, 1988), “everyone knows that Piaget was the most important figure the field has ever known, he transformed he field of developmental psychology” (Flavell, 1996 P.200). and another said that “once psychologists looked at development through Piaget’s eyes, they never saw children in quite the same way” (Miller, 1993, p.81).
Lourenco, O. & Machado, A. (1996) In Defence of Piaget’s Theory: A Reply to 10 Common Criticisms. Psychological Review. 103(1). 143-164
Shaffer, D.R. (1988) Developmental Psychology: Child & Adolescence. Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole
Slater, A. and Bremner, G. (2017) An Introduction to Developmental Psychology. (3rd ed.) West Sussex: Wiley & sons Ltd.
Sutherland, P. (1992) Cognitive Development Today: Piaget and His critics. Sage Publications Ltd. Chapter 2: The Piagetian Legacy. 7-28

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