CYP Core 3.1Understand Child And Young Person Development
1.Understand The Expected Pattern Of Development For Children And Young People From Birth – 19 Years.
1.1.Explain The Sequence And Rate Of Each Aspect Of Development From Birth – 19 Years.
Whilst there are many different forms of development which can be analysed individually, it also has to be noted that this topic should be approached holistically. There are many areas of overlap between them and quite often if there is a delay on one there can be delay on others. Nevertheless, the main fields of development are physical, emotional, cognitive, communication, and social/behavioral/moral.
Physical: this development usually happens by itself as the child gets older and their body grows, but they will often require support or encouragement to try something new. 0-3 years: First year is arguably when the child experiences the most rapid development as they go from having zero control over their bodies (mainly reflex actions such as sucking, breathing, grasping) to having some mobility such as crawling and rolling. In their second year they will usually begin to walk, use their hands in a more coordinated manner to point at things and hold objects up. They will tend to get more experimental in their actions, attempting to climb up stairs or play with a ball. In their third year the children will be better at using their fingers to control things. They will play with drawing pencils, pick up cups and food independently, and acquire the confidence to walk and run around.
3-7 years: their motor skills become more developed as they will be able to perform more precise actions such as drawing, cutting writing. They would’ve acquired enough stamina to be able to run, hop, play a ball game, and use bigger toys found in playground. 7-12 years: Fine motor skills have developed to the point where more specilised hobbies can be acquired. Children might practice sewing, playing and instrument, sports, dancing. Some girls might show early stages of puberty at the age of 10 or 11. 12-16 years: Many girls would’ve completed the process of puberty whilst boys would be just starting. Within each gender each individual can start earlier or later and due to this there is a great variety of physical skills, strength, and height between various people in this age category. However, towards the end once most people have undergone puberty, boys would be on average taller and stronger than their female counterpart. 16-19 years: Most girls would’ve reached their physical maturity by this point however boys will continue to grow and change until their mid-twenties.
Communication: involves the ability to convey information but also to understand what others are trying to tell you. Has strong links to cognitive development as at later stages the ability to communicate hinges on the ability to visualise what the other person might be talking about. 0-3 years: For the first year, the child will not be able to express themselves with words but it is still necessary to communicate with the child as they learn and attempt to mimic words. Most children will make an attempt to speak at around 12 months, words will be poorly pronounced and used in isolation. Between first and second year they will attempt to put words together, and their vocabulary will consist of about 200 words. By 3 the children will start using negatives and plurals. Whilst their communication ability will grow rapidly it is expected that they will continue to make grammatical mistakes. 3-7 years: They will begin to use certain familiar phrases with confidence. They will be more accustomed to using past and future tense. Children at this point of development also have a habit of asking many questions. 7-12+ years: By this point the child would be a fluent speaker of their language and undergo a process of refining their skills by expanding their vocabulary. They will also begin to talk and discuss about various things in a more abstract sense.
Cognitive: 0-3 years: Babies enjoy repetitive actions with repetitive outcomes. With time, they will develop the concept of permanence, where an object still exists even if not directly observed. Appreciation for difference in color could be developed. Babies would be able to remember certain items and what they are used for, and when needed point to them. 3-7 years: Child will begin to have some basic numeracy, and perhaps the ability to write and read at a very basic level. At some points, the child will request permission to perform certain actions. 7-11 years: They become more fluent in their language, which in turn allows them to take in and transform information into their own thoughts and opinions. They acquire a degree of independent thought as they develop their own preferences and personality. 12-16 years: At this point they have developed very strong preferences for specific type of subjects and activities that they get involved with. They will attempt to avoid fields that they aren’t that good or experienced at, primarily due to very strong desire to feel good about themselves and finding a place they belong. 16-19 years: As the adolescent becomes more career orientated they might decide to reduce the number of things they participate in, in order to hone a specific set of skills.
Social, emotional, behavioural and moral: Mainly how a child feels about themselves and how they relate to others around them and their general position in the society. 0-3 years: They will slowly develop a sense of identity. They will want to feel a sense of security and will usually achieve this by making strong feelings of attachment towards their parents and perhaps to other care givers such as teachers. Main expression of frustration will be through tantrums as they can’t express their needs yet. 3-7 years: Children will continue to develop their sense of self, and will learn about the concept of roles through play and games with other children. It also helps if this is coupled with an adult given role such as a class helper as it can solidify the concept of responsibility. Children are very curious at this age and that is why it is essential to teach about social boundaries at this age and why they are necessary. 7-12 years: Children have developed their own social circles and become more aware of what others think of them. That is why its necessary to provide praise to children and at the same time to provide them with tasks that challenge them but upon accomplishment increases their self-confidence. 12-16 years: Young people can be confused about their previously established roles. As puberty has made them more physically adult like their brain is still undergoing a transitional phase. While they crave independence from their parents they still display childish traits. As they are expected to act more like adults and have more expectations that they need to meet, they are still treated as children. This disparity can be confusing and irritating for them. All of this culminates in that, that their self-esteem is very vulnerable, and they still need an adult’s guiding hand. 16-19 years: Even as adults different people have different levels of psychological maturity and experience and hence would at times need advice and help from those senior to them.
1.2.Explain The Difference Between Sequence Of Development And Rate Of Development And Why The Difference Is Important.
Sequence of development is the order of skills or milestones that usually come after one another in a rigid order. For example, a child has to understand words and only then can they attempt to speak, or a child has to learn how to support themselves before they can learn how to walk. Rate of development on the other hand is how quickly a child transitions between different parts of the sequence or how long they spend at a specific stage of development relative to their peers. This difference is important as the sequence of development allows you to decide what kind of play and activities are better for a child meanwhile the rate of development allows you to discern whether the child is ahead of his group and hence ready for more of a challenge or perhaps behind the rest of the group in which case it will allow you to either give a gentle encouragement or to realise that the child’s rate is atypical and requires further investigation.
2.Understand The Factors That Influence Children And Young People’s Development And How These Affect Practice.
2.1.Explain How Children And Young People’s Development Is Influenced By A Range Of Personal Factors.
Even in a loving and supporting environment a child might lag behind his peers as a result of personal factors. For example, genetics has been shown to play a very large role in how people grow and develop. Children might have certain dispositions or more likely to have a certain health condition triggered. Genetics plays an important role in how some physical characteristics such as height or hair color is expressed. If a child stands out from the group because of their height they might be picked on which in turn can stunt their communicational development. A child’s environment before and at birth can affect them for life. If the mother who is about to conceive a child, smokes, does drugs or experiences a strong trauma it can affect the child she is carrying. If at birth, the child has gone without oxygen for a long duration it can stunt their mental growth. Some children are born with existing medical conditions or develop them soon after birth eg. Asthma. This will often affect their physical development but also potentially communicative or cognitive as they avoid certain activities due to difficulties. Some children are born with disabilities, sensory impairment or learning difficulties. These often initially impact only one form of development but soon spread to others as the child shies away from or is simply incapable of participating in certain activities. For example, a blind person would struggle to play football which in turn means they miss out on an opportunity to practice their social and leadership skills.
2.2.Explain How Children And Young People’s Development Is Influenced By A Range Of External Factors.
External factors or environmental factors can affect what is essentially a healthy child in negative ways. If a child is born into poverty it can affect every type of development. A poor household might not be able to afford high quality food which can make the child miserable affecting their mental development but also cheap food is often processed and high in saturated fats and sodium which can also affect physical development. Poor housing might have poor heating which can affect the health of the child. This housing might also be situated in an area with poor schooling and away from public facilities such as libraries. This might stunt the cognitive development of the child. Children from poor families might not be able to have the disposable income to visit parks, swimming pools or other leisure facilities. Play time is very important for a growing child and hence having these opportunities restricted means that their development is also restricted. Parents tend to be the biggest influence on a child’s development. Some parents who are in poverty might be bad influences on their children. Some are drug or alcohol abusers, whilst others might’ve lost motivation a long time ago and hence can’t be good role models or instill good values into their children. It could also convince the child that their future looks bleak and that they shouldn’t set their goals too high. All of this adds up to a child that might never push itself to grow as a person and lack social skills. However not all problems arise from the economic welfare of a household. Sometimes there is a disturbance in the family. Someone passed away or the parents undergo divorce. This can leave some permanent mental scars on a child. It always has short term affects but can have an influence that lasts a lifetime. Some children withdraw for long periods of time which makes them fall behind their peers by a big enough margin that they can’t reconnect with them. This mental trauma can affect communicative skills and sometimes even results in stutters or other forms of ticks. One important factor for healthy development is a feeling of belonging. Some communities and schools are better at creating this feeling than others through various social events or programs they run. So, this demonstrates another example of a postcode lottery where the location of where you live can affect your development. Last but not least it has to be recognised that sometimes it is the child’s decisions that lead their development. If a child caves into peer pressure and starts experimenting with drugs, alcohol, or cigarettes whilst they are still growing it can severely stunt their physical and cognitive development.
2.3.Explain How Theories Of Development And Frameworks To Support Development Influence Current Practice.
Piaget’s constructivism states that children build up “schemas” of the world around them, which they hold as concrete truths. When they find evidence that contradicts their world view, they rebuild their schema to take that into account. This has influenced “child-centered” teaching approach which encourages children to have a more hands on experience of the world through play and activities which should accelerate the process of discovery and reconstruction of schemas. Classical conditioning such as the one used in the Pavlov’s Dog experiment isn’t used on children due to ethical issues but it can be used to understand certain abnormal behaviours such as why someone might have a strong fear of a specific animal. However, Skinner’s Operant conditioning is different. It comes in three forms positive, negative reinforces and punishers. He believed that children experimented with their actions and over time stick to specific actions which they’ve learned to illicit positive reactions or rewards. He also found that rewards should come straight away after a good action for stronger association and that they shouldn’t come always but randomly instead. This way the child will continue to behave well in hopes that eventually they’ll get a reward rather than thinking that they have a constant stream of rewards whenever they want them. This has led to a practice of rewarding good actions with small portions of sweets or stickers, which in a child’s mind reinforces the association of good action with rewards and eventually it turns into a habit. Bandura’s social learning proposes that children are better at learning through imitation than any other method. What this means for the practice is that adults are encouraged to spend more time with children where they behave in a good and “refined” way, in hopes that a child would imitate them. Maslow’s theory of motivation and personality sets out a pyramid of needs where some basic requirements need to be achieved before the next hierarchy of needs can be considered. Physiological is a precursor for safety which in turn is needed for belonging and love which lead to self-esteem which is the final step to achieving self-actualisation. This has shown us that in order to allow a child to develop their cognitive skills their basic needs such as food, good shelter, safety, and warmth need to be guaranteed first. Hence putting high emphasis on how comfortable the learning environment is for the child. All of these theories can be combined into a single framework. One such framework is the social pedagogy which is primarily a humanistic construct to support development. It takes a holistic approach and doesn’t have one specific predefined structure. It just tries to center everything around the child and help them as much as possible through health, school, family, leisure activities, spiritual, and community help.
3.Understand How To Monitor Children And Young People’s Development And Interventions That Should Take Place If This Is Not Following The Expected Pattern.
3.1.Explain How To Monitor Children And Young People’s Development Using Different Methods.
One way is to use assessment frameworks such as Early Years Foundation Stage Profile or for children with learning disabilities the alternative P-scales. There are also formal and informal observations, some of which should be done at a distance while others should be done whilst interacting directly with the child. Standard measurements are very important and record physical measurements such as height and head diameter and reasoning or cognitive aptitude tests. These tests allow to spot any issues before they turn serious but also allow for comparison against all the children in the country rather than against a small class of peers. This means that a child that seems to be underperforming could actually be above the national average. Lastly other people intentionally or subconsciously monitor the child, hence it’s good to ask other carers, child’s parents, and even the child itself at times, for more details. Especially when parents might know more about the child than anyone else.
3.2.Explain The Reasons Why Children And Young People’s Development May Not Follow The Expected Pattern.
There are several reasons why some children might be disadvantaged early on in their life’s which in turn can hinder their development. Disability will often result in many physical activities being inaccessible, which in turn could prevent many socialising opportunities. Some children might be facing emotional hardships or lacking in self-confidence would be afraid to try out new activities or to meet new people resulting in slower social skills development. Sometimes genetics plays a key role in the usual pattern not being followed. They might have difficulty in developing new skills or perhaps they are shorter or taller than most which can affect their physical development as well as how they are perceived by their peers. Unfortunately, cultural reasons sometimes play a role in how a child develops. In some cultures, the boys receive preferential treatment relative to their female counterparts which could result in a child that isn’t getting enough attention from their parents which could hinder social or cognitive development. If the parents have divorced at some point, the child might’ve had to choose which parent to stay with. In this situation, the amount of experience that a child can receive is essentially halved, hurting their cognitive prospects. If the family is poor than trips to the park or swimming pool will be considered relatively less important to other things which can lead to slower physical development.
3.3.Explain How Disability May Affect Development.
Whilst some disabilities do in fact affect development, for example speech impairment will make communication difficult, it has been noticed that the medical model has done a lot of harm to these vulnerable individuals. Social model has been adopted and has improved conditions for these children. Before it was seen that a disabled person isn’t good at certain activities and therefore they were denied any opportunities to try that activity. That hindered their development both physically and socially and even cognitively. However now we recognise that these stereotypes are just self-fulfilling expectations and instead we need to have a positive outlook and seek potential instead. Now we are looking for ways to include SEN kids into everyday activities whilst also encouraging them to be as independent as possible.
3.4.Explain How Different Types Of Interventions Can Promote Positive Outcomes For Children And Young People Where Development Is Not Following The Expected Pattern.
Assistive technology could help children with poor fine motor skills to type using voice activated technology. Children that can’t walk will find it easier to move around using a motorised wheelchair. Language therapists can aid with speech impairments such as lisps, aiding communicational development. Youth justice teams can aid youths that display antisocial behaviour in hopes of preventing them from turning into youth offenders which can have lifelong consequences. Usually depending on the child’s needs, they could have a whole team of specialists behind them. Psychiatrists, physiotherapists, extra learning support teams, social workers, SENCO, and educational psychologists could be utilised where needed and information is shared. Thanks to this, positive outcomes are more likely to happen as the child will be working with a specialist that will better understand their problem and would be able to advise teachers about their progress, how it should be measured, and what the next targets should be.
4.Understand The Importance Of Early Intervention To Support The Speech, Language And Communication Needs Of Children And Young People.
4.1.Analyse The Importance Of Early Identification Of Speech, Language And Communication Delays And Disorders And The Potential Risks Of Late Recognition.
Language is key to formalizing thought, processing new information, and to control your behaviour. Language is key in communication with others, and so if there is a speech or language delay or disorder the child can feel alone, isolated, and vulnerable. This could either lead to them withdrawing from discussion, aggravating their speech issue even further or it could lead to feelings of frustration and anger. They might struggle to convey their feelings or thoughts which could lead to confusion or conflict with others. Poor handle on speech and language would also lead to reduced literacy which is a key requirement for our society, which is why it’s an issue that needs to be spotted straight away. Thoughts and memories are usually stored as word associations in our head, and so if a child has a poor grip on the language they will struggle to remember what they’ve been taught and would struggle with abstract thought further down the road.
4.2.Explain How Multi-Agency Teams Work Together To Support Speech, Language And Communication.
It usually starts with a trip to the GP who would attempt to rule out any possible disorders and attempt to narrow things down. The GP will then make a referral to other specialists. Once the specific disorder or ailment has been determined a team of specialists comes together to work out what strategy should be followed. The SENCO will coordinate the other professional and encourage communication between agencies. They’ll organise meetings, make sure that the appointments are up to date, and all the paper work is handled properly. Speech therapist would have some lessons with the child but would also advise the teachers and parents on how best to aid the child in lessons and play. Other support staff members can be used where needed for example the educational psychologist when the speech impairment doesn’t seem to be improving.
4.3.Explain How Play And Activities Are Used To Support The Development Of Speech, Language And Communication.
Play and activities could be used to target one specific communication skill or to improve communication as a whole. Children with poor communication skills might not be so good at picking up non-verbal signals, so it is important to find ways of making yourself clearer. For example, by using gestures such as thumbs up to show that something is good, pointing to something when you are talking about it to make it clear, exaggerated facial expressions which are easier to pick up on, and using more distinct body language such as completely facing the person you are addressing. Children aren’t good at learning in a vacuum, but fare much better when learning in the context or alongside something else. For example, instead of trying to teach a set of words through endless repetition it is better to do it through a fun nursery rhyme or by reading a book. Some books can have pictures or make noises when a specific button is pressed which could make it easier to associate a specific sound with a specific animal for example. Children also enjoy role play so it might make them come out of their shell and be more responsive. Another form of roleplay could be the use of puppets which could be used to encourage to make a specific mouth shape or allow the child to convey their thoughts through the puppet. Whilst it might be difficult for the child to feel accepted it is necessary to include them in all play. That’s why its nice to find games or activities that involve everyone and allows everyone to share their ideas with one another. For example designing a tree house that all of them would enjoy.
5.Understand The Potential Effects Of Transitions On Children And Young People’s Development.
5.1.Explain How Different Types Of Transitions Can Affect Children And Young People’s Development.
There are four main types of transitions that children and young people undergo. Emotional transitions such as changes to a family structure or bereavement. It will affect their emotional development as they might fear to make lasting relationships with adults due to feelings of betrayal following a divorce for example, or they might be afraid of making friends in case they lose them as well. Sometimes however it has an opposite effect where the child starts acting more immature and aloof as a form of escapism or rebellion. Physical transitions such as moving home, class, or schools. These can potentially traumatise a child as they feel that they’ve lost all their friends and moved to a new unfamiliar environment. But physical transitions could be something small like asking a child to change which activity or toy they are playing with. If a child frequently rejects that offer it could be a sign that they are afraid of trying new things which hints at slower development as they can’t play with other things or don’t feel familiar with them. Physiological transitions such as puberty. Many children are not familiar with what they are to expect and don’t feel comfortable asking anyone about it. This could result in feelings of fear, shame, or humiliation which could lead to long lasting emotional scars. Also, puberty by its nature accelerates physical development but also comes with increased clumsiness due to rapidly growing bones. Intellectual transition can be something like moving from preschool to primary. For most children, this tends to go well but for some it can be a scary time of life as they go from one environment to another, perhaps not knowing anyone at the new place, having lost part of their identity. This could lead to some communication development issues especially for children who take a long time to warm up to others.
5.2.Evaluate The Effect On Children And Young People Of Having Positive Relationships During Periods Of Transition.
It is vital to have key people in the child’s life during periods of transition. The child needs to feel safe and hence needs to have atleast one person who they trust and consider reliable. The child needs to feel that their voice is heard and that someone is the to help when needed. That key person is there to provide that assurance and feeling of security. This way the child feels validated, respected and loved which are needed for healthy development. Also, the key person monitors the child so that if there are early signs of hindered development, the problem can be swiftly dealt with before it has any sizeable or long lasting effect on the child. That’s why the effect on children is only positive when they have a positive relationship during the taxing periods of transition.
References, Citations, Quotes ; Annotations
Used Throughout This CYP 3.1 Assignment.
Suporting Teaching and Learning in Schools (Primary) – Louise Burnham
Children and Young People’s Workforce, Early Learning and Childcare – Penny TassoniSpecific References.
—> Please include and cross reference any websites or pictures, using the Harvard referencing system.