DESIGN In most countries, vessels over a certain

DESIGN
OF PRESSURE VESSEL FOR NITROGEN GAS STORAGE

 

1Mangesh
Nadkarni, 2Rohan Mehta, 3Ritesh Sarode, 4Suraj
Ghadge

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Department
of Mechanical Engineering

PCET’s
Nutan Maharashtra Institute of Engineering & Technology

 

Abstract- High
pressure rise is developed in the pressure vessel and pressure vessel has to
withstand severe forces. In the design of pressure vessel safety is the primary
consideration, due the potential impact of possible accident. There have a few
main factors to design the safe pressure vessel. This writing is focusing on
analyzing the safety parameter for allowable working pressure. Allowable
working pressures are calculated by using Pressure Vessel Design Manual by
Dennis Moss, third edition. The corruption of the vessel are probability occur
at maximum pressure which is the element that only can sustain that pressure.
Efforts are made in this paper to design the pressure vessel using ASME codes
& IS standards to legalize the design.

Keywords: Pressure
vessel, working pressure, high pressure, ASME codes, IS code

 

 

Introduction

A pressure vessel is a
container designed to hold gases or liquids At a pressure substantially
different from the ambient pressure.

Pressure
vessels can be dangerous, and              fatal accidents have occurred in
the history of their development and operation. Consequently, pressure vessel
design, manufacture, and operation are regulated by engineering authorities
backed by legislation. For these reasons, the definition of a pressure vessel
varies from country to country.

Design
involves parameters such as maximum safe operating pressure and temperature, safety factor, corrosion allowance and minimum design
temperature (for brittle fracture). Construction is tested using nondestructive testing, such as ultrasonic testing, radiography, and pressure tests. Hydrostatic tests use water,
but pneumatic tests use air or another gas. Hydrostatic testing is preferred,
because it is a safer method, as much less energy is released if a fracture
occurs during the test (water does not rapidly increase its volume when rapid
depressurization occurs, unlike gases like air, which fail explosively).

In
most countries, vessels over a certain size and pressure must be built to a
formal code. In the United States that code is the ASME Boiler and
Pressure Vessel Code (BPVC). These vessels also require an
authorized inspector to sign off on every new vessel constructed and each
vessel has a nameplate with pertinent information about the vessel, such as
maximum allowable working pressure, maximum temperature, minimum design metal
temperature, what company manufactured it, the date, its registration number
(through the National Board), and ASME’s
official stamp for pressure vessels . The nameplate makes the vessel traceable
and officially an ASME Code vessel.

Problem
Statement

 Vessel failures can be divided into
four major categories, which describe why a vessel failure happens. Failures
can also be grouped into types of failures, which describe how the failure
occurs. Each failure has a why and how to its history. It may have failed
through corrosion fatigue because the wrong material was selected. The designer
must be as familiar with categories and types of failure as with categories and
types of stress and loadings. Ultimately they are all related.

? Material- Wrong
selection of material; defects in material.

? Design- Wrong
design data; inaccurate or incorrect design methods; inadequate shop testing.

?
Fabrication- Poor quality control; improper or not sufficient fabrication
procedures such as welding.

 

Code
Selection

There
are many standards or codes used for vessel design but in this paper we have
selected two standards for our design namely ASME Section VIII Division 2 and
IS 2825.We will be designing the components as per these two standards and
compare them to find out which one is more safe and suitable for working of
vessel.

Methodology

·        
Studying Different components of
pressure vessel.

·        
Nitrogen gas production

·        
Design of pressure vessel
according to standards

Literature Review

1. Apurva R.
Pendbhaje,  Mahesh Gaikwad, Nitin
Deshmukh, Rajkumar Patil, “Design And
Analysis Of Pressure Vessel”

                            

This technical
paper presents design, and analysis of pressure vessel. High pressure rise is
developed in the pressure vessel and pressure vessel has to withstand severe
forces. In the design of pressure vessel safety is the primary consideration,
due the potential impact of possible accident. There have a few main factors to
design the safe pressure vessel. The corruption of the vessel are probability
occur at maximum pressure which is the element that only can sustain that
pressure. Pressure vessels are usually spherical or cylindrical with dome end.
The cylindrical vessels are generally preferred because of they present simple
manufacturing problem and make better use of the available space. The
selections of ASME VIIII div 2 are described. The standard of material use are
explains in this chapter. It is observed that all the pressure vessel
components are selected on basis of available ASME standards and the
manufactures also follow the ASME standards while manufacturing the components.
So that leaves the designer free from designing the components. This       aspect of Design greatly reduces the
Development Time for a new pressure vessel.

 

2. A. Dhanaraj1,
Dr. M. V. Mallikarjuna2, “Design &
Stress Analysis Of A Cylinder With Closed Ends Using Ansys”

 

The pressure vessels (i.e. cylinder or tanks) are used to store fluids
under pressure. The fluid being stored may undergo a change of state inside the
pressure vessel as in case of steam boilers or it may combine with other
reagents as in a chemical plant. The pressure vessels are designed with great
care because rupture of pressure vessels means an explosion which may cause
loss of life and property. The material of pressure vessels may be brittle such
that cast iron or ductile such as mild steel. Vessel failures can be grouped
into four major categories, which describe why a vessel failure occurs.
Failures can also be grouped into types of failures, which describe how the
failure occurs. – The design of pressure vessel is initialized with the
specification requirements in terms of standard technical specifications along
with numerous requirements that lay hidden from the market. The design of a
pressure vessel is more of a selection procedure, selection of its components
to be more precise rather designing each and every component. The pressure
vessel components are merely selected, but the selection is very critical, a
slight change in selection will lead to a different pressure vessel altogether
from what is aimed to be designed.

 

3. Shyam R. Gupta,
Chetan P. Vora, “A Review Paper on
Pressure Vessel Design And Analysis”

 

Pressure
vessels find wide applications in thermal and nuclear power plants, process and
chemical industries, in space and ocean depths, and fluid supply systems in
industries. The failure of pressure vessel may result in loss of life, health
hazards and damage of property. Due to practical requirements, pressure vessels
are often equipped with openings of various shapes, sizes and positions. From
above discussion it is cleared that study of the effect of change in size,
position, location of the opening in pressure vessel to study the stress
concentration is essential, the position and location of the opening on
cylinder is not studied in past by researcher and there is no code provision
for such design.

 

 

 

Designing Of Components

 

We
have designed the following components in accordance with ASME section VIII
division 1 and 2. The reason behind selecting both the ASME code is as follows:

 

ASME
BPV Code Sec. VIII Divisions

 

Division
1

•     
Rigorous analysis of local thermal and
fatigue stresses not required.

•     
Safety factor of 3.5 against tensile
failure and 1.25 for 100,000 hour creep rupture.

•     
Limited to design pressures below 3000
psi (but usually costs more than Div.2 above about 1500 psi).

 

 

Division
2

•     
Requires more analysis than Div.1, and
more inspection, but allows thinner walled vessels.

•     
Safety factor of 3.0 against tensile
failure.

•     
Limited to design temperatures less than
900°F
(outside creep range).

•     
More economical for high pressure vessels,
but fewer fabricators available.

 

Now,
Let us see the components we will be designing according to above ASME codes:

                              
I.           
Shell

                           
II.           
Heads

                        
III.           
Nozzles

                        
IV.           
Manhole

                           
V.           
Gaskets

                        
VI.           
Supports

 

Till
Now, We have successfully designed the two components i.e. Shell and Head.

 

Design
Of Shell

Thickness
of Shell (

where,

c
= Corrosion allowance = 3 mm

?
= Joint efficiency = 0.85

 Ro = Outer shell radius = 1320 mm

 P = Design pressure = 12 kgf/cm2

 P = 1.1767 N/mm2

ID
= Internal diameter of shell = Do –

                                            = 2640 – 2(10)

                                                 
         = 2620 mm

Design
Of Torispherical Head

Stress
intensification factor (W)

 W = 1.5405

Thickness
Of Torispherical
Head )

 Where,

 Rc = Crown radius = Do

 Ri = Knuckle radius = 0.1 Do

Conclusion

In
this paper we have designed the shell and head of the pressure vessel using
ASME Section VIII division 1 as well as division 2. We have found that our
design considerations are correct and can be used for working of the vessel. We
are designing the rest of the components and that results will be included in
our next paper.

References

1 PDHonline Course M398 (3 PDH)
ASME Section I & Section VIII Fundamentals.

2 Dennis
Moss, “Pressure vessel design manual”

3 B.S.Thakkar,
S.A.Thakkar; “DESIGN OF PRESSURE VESSEL USING ASME CODE, SECTION VIII,
DIVI-SION 1”; International Journal of Advanced Engineering Research and
Studies, Vol. I, Issue II, January-March, 2012.

4 A. Dhanaraj, Dr. M. V.
Mallikarjuna;

“Design & Stress Analysis of a Cylinder with Closed ends using ANSYS” International Journal of Engineering
Research and Applications Vol. 5, Issue 4, (Part -6) April 2015, pp. 32-38

4
ASME sec VIII, Div-1 & 2, Pressure vessel design code data hand book.

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