DESIGNOF PRESSURE VESSEL FOR NITROGEN GAS STORAGE 1MangeshNadkarni, 2Rohan Mehta, 3Ritesh Sarode, 4SurajGhadgeDepartmentof Mechanical EngineeringPCET’sNutan Maharashtra Institute of Engineering & Technology Abstract- Highpressure rise is developed in the pressure vessel and pressure vessel has towithstand severe forces. In the design of pressure vessel safety is the primaryconsideration, due the potential impact of possible accident. There have a fewmain factors to design the safe pressure vessel. This writing is focusing onanalyzing the safety parameter for allowable working pressure. Allowableworking pressures are calculated by using Pressure Vessel Design Manual byDennis Moss, third edition.
The corruption of the vessel are probability occurat maximum pressure which is the element that only can sustain that pressure.Efforts are made in this paper to design the pressure vessel using ASME codes& IS standards to legalize the design.Keywords: Pressurevessel, working pressure, high pressure, ASME codes, IS code IntroductionA pressure vessel is acontainer designed to hold gases or liquids At a pressure substantiallydifferent from the ambient pressure.
Pressurevessels can be dangerous, and fatal accidents have occurred inthe history of their development and operation. Consequently, pressure vesseldesign, manufacture, and operation are regulated by engineering authoritiesbacked by legislation. For these reasons, the definition of a pressure vesselvaries from country to country.Designinvolves parameters such as maximum safe operating pressure and temperature, safety factor, corrosion allowance and minimum designtemperature (for brittle fracture).
Construction is tested using nondestructive testing, such as ultrasonic testing, radiography, and pressure tests. Hydrostatic tests use water,but pneumatic tests use air or another gas. Hydrostatic testing is preferred,because it is a safer method, as much less energy is released if a fractureoccurs during the test (water does not rapidly increase its volume when rapiddepressurization occurs, unlike gases like air, which fail explosively).
Inmost countries, vessels over a certain size and pressure must be built to aformal code. In the United States that code is the ASME Boiler andPressure Vessel Code (BPVC). These vessels also require anauthorized inspector to sign off on every new vessel constructed and eachvessel has a nameplate with pertinent information about the vessel, such asmaximum allowable working pressure, maximum temperature, minimum design metaltemperature, what company manufactured it, the date, its registration number(through the National Board), and ASME’sofficial stamp for pressure vessels .
The nameplate makes the vessel traceableand officially an ASME Code vessel.ProblemStatement Vessel failures can be divided intofour major categories, which describe why a vessel failure happens. Failurescan also be grouped into types of failures, which describe how the failureoccurs.
Each failure has a why and how to its history. It may have failedthrough corrosion fatigue because the wrong material was selected. The designermust be as familiar with categories and types of failure as with categories andtypes of stress and loadings. Ultimately they are all related.? Material- Wrongselection of material; defects in material. ? Design- Wrongdesign data; inaccurate or incorrect design methods; inadequate shop testing.
?Fabrication- Poor quality control; improper or not sufficient fabricationprocedures such as welding. CodeSelectionThereare many standards or codes used for vessel design but in this paper we haveselected two standards for our design namely ASME Section VIII Division 2 andIS 2825.We will be designing the components as per these two standards andcompare them to find out which one is more safe and suitable for working ofvessel.
Methodology· Studying Different components ofpressure vessel.· Nitrogen gas production· Design of pressure vesselaccording to standardsLiterature Review1. Apurva R.Pendbhaje, Mahesh Gaikwad, NitinDeshmukh, Rajkumar Patil, “Design AndAnalysis Of Pressure Vessel” This technicalpaper presents design, and analysis of pressure vessel. High pressure rise isdeveloped in the pressure vessel and pressure vessel has to withstand severeforces. In the design of pressure vessel safety is the primary consideration,due the potential impact of possible accident. There have a few main factors todesign the safe pressure vessel. The corruption of the vessel are probabilityoccur at maximum pressure which is the element that only can sustain thatpressure.
Pressure vessels are usually spherical or cylindrical with dome end.The cylindrical vessels are generally preferred because of they present simplemanufacturing problem and make better use of the available space. Theselections of ASME VIIII div 2 are described. The standard of material use areexplains in this chapter. It is observed that all the pressure vesselcomponents are selected on basis of available ASME standards and themanufactures also follow the ASME standards while manufacturing the components.So that leaves the designer free from designing the components.
This aspect of Design greatly reduces theDevelopment Time for a new pressure vessel. 2. A. Dhanaraj1,Dr. M.
V. Mallikarjuna2, “Design &Stress Analysis Of A Cylinder With Closed Ends Using Ansys” The pressure vessels (i.e.
cylinder or tanks) are used to store fluidsunder pressure. The fluid being stored may undergo a change of state inside thepressure vessel as in case of steam boilers or it may combine with otherreagents as in a chemical plant. The pressure vessels are designed with greatcare because rupture of pressure vessels means an explosion which may causeloss of life and property. The material of pressure vessels may be brittle suchthat cast iron or ductile such as mild steel. Vessel failures can be groupedinto four major categories, which describe why a vessel failure occurs.
Failures can also be grouped into types of failures, which describe how thefailure occurs. – The design of pressure vessel is initialized with thespecification requirements in terms of standard technical specifications alongwith numerous requirements that lay hidden from the market. The design of apressure vessel is more of a selection procedure, selection of its componentsto be more precise rather designing each and every component.
The pressurevessel components are merely selected, but the selection is very critical, aslight change in selection will lead to a different pressure vessel altogetherfrom what is aimed to be designed. 3. Shyam R. Gupta,Chetan P. Vora, “A Review Paper onPressure Vessel Design And Analysis” Pressurevessels find wide applications in thermal and nuclear power plants, process andchemical industries, in space and ocean depths, and fluid supply systems inindustries.
The failure of pressure vessel may result in loss of life, healthhazards and damage of property. Due to practical requirements, pressure vesselsare often equipped with openings of various shapes, sizes and positions. Fromabove discussion it is cleared that study of the effect of change in size,position, location of the opening in pressure vessel to study the stressconcentration is essential, the position and location of the opening oncylinder is not studied in past by researcher and there is no code provisionfor such design. Designing Of Components Wehave designed the following components in accordance with ASME section VIIIdivision 1 and 2. The reason behind selecting both the ASME code is as follows: ASMEBPV Code Sec. VIII Divisions Division1• Rigorous analysis of local thermal andfatigue stresses not required.
• Safety factor of 3.5 against tensilefailure and 1.25 for 100,000 hour creep rupture.
• Limited to design pressures below 3000psi (but usually costs more than Div.2 above about 1500 psi). Division2• Requires more analysis than Div.1, andmore inspection, but allows thinner walled vessels.• Safety factor of 3.0 against tensilefailure. • Limited to design temperatures less than900°F(outside creep range).• More economical for high pressure vessels,but fewer fabricators available.
Now,Let us see the components we will be designing according to above ASME codes: I. Shell II. Heads III. Nozzles IV.
Manhole V. Gaskets VI. Supports TillNow, We have successfully designed the two components i.e. Shell and Head. DesignOf ShellThicknessof Shell (where,c= Corrosion allowance = 3 mm?= Joint efficiency = 0.
85 Ro = Outer shell radius = 1320 mm P = Design pressure = 12 kgf/cm2 P = 1.1767 N/mm2ID= Internal diameter of shell = Do – = 2640 – 2(10) = 2620 mmDesignOf Torispherical HeadStressintensification factor (W) W = 1.5405ThicknessOf TorisphericalHead ) Where, Rc = Crown radius = Do Ri = Knuckle radius = 0.1 DoConclusionInthis paper we have designed the shell and head of the pressure vessel usingASME Section VIII division 1 as well as division 2. We have found that ourdesign considerations are correct and can be used for working of the vessel. Weare designing the rest of the components and that results will be included inour next paper.References1 PDHonline Course M398 (3 PDH)ASME Section I & Section VIII Fundamentals.2 DennisMoss, “Pressure vessel design manual” 3 B.
S.Thakkar,S.A.Thakkar; “DESIGN OF PRESSURE VESSEL USING ASME CODE, SECTION VIII,DIVI-SION 1”; International Journal of Advanced Engineering Research andStudies, Vol. I, Issue II, January-March, 2012.4 A. Dhanaraj, Dr.
M. V.Mallikarjuna;”Design & Stress Analysis of a Cylinder with Closed ends using ANSYS” International Journal of EngineeringResearch and Applications Vol. 5, Issue 4, (Part -6) April 2015, pp. 32-384ASME sec VIII, Div-1 & 2, Pressure vessel design code data hand book.