Drug for drug production and trafficking. Countries such

cartels which are criminal organizations that supply drug trafficking
operations are many in South America. Latin Americas geographic zone is key for
drug production and trafficking. Countries such as Colombia, Bolivia and Peru
are the world’s main cocaine producers. Cartels such as the Santa Cruz cartel
in Bolivia have been extremely involved in the cocaine production that made
Bolivia one of the main producers. Mexico and the Caribbean cartels are
principal members for the transportation of drugs into United States and
Europe.  One the most famous drug cartels
known throughout the world in the past is the Medellin cartel which was founded
in Medellin, Columbia by Pablo Escobar in 1976. The cartel operated throughout
1970s to 1980s in Latin America, United States, Canada and Europe. The Medellin
cartel smuggled tons of cocaine weekly into different countries all over the
world making $60-$100 Million daily as profit. It supplied at least 96% of the
united states cocaine market and 90% of the global. The Sinaloa Cartel is
another international Drug Cartel, it was established in 1989 in Mexico and is
still operating currently it is headed by Joaquin “El Chapo” Guzman. The drug
cartels in Latin America that are major are the Mexican and Colombian cartels
that make a total of $18 to $39bn in drug missions per year. The Mexican cartel
currently is the largest and greatest crime organization threat to the United
States. The drug cartels themselves have different levels within the structure
of the organization, consisting of falcons, hitmen, lieutenants and drug lords.
The United States and the Latin America drug control have been trying to
abolish the drug cartels in Latin America. The U.S congress supported and
funded the Central American Regional Security Initiative with $800 million.  The U.S has also been funding Plan Colombia
which aims to eliminate illegal production in the country, the Guatemalan
authorities worked with the United Sates to interfere on the South American
cocaine routes used by the drug cartels which use Guatemala as a location. Some
Latin American and Caribbean countries have been involved with drug cartels and
the illegal drug trade, the president of Panama Manuel Noriega was a long-term
drug trafficker, the drugs brought some governments some power for instance in
Bolivia. Drug cartels often have issues with rival drug cartels either in the
same country or other cartels abroad. The Sinaloa cartel which is the most powerful
cartel currently is facing intense competition with its former armed wing the
Jalisco New Generation cartel. The Jalisco cartel was founded in 2010 but then
expanded rapidly and aggressively across Mexico and is going against the
Sinaloa cartel. Even though the members of the drug cartels are local citizens
themselves other citizens that are not involved in the cartels but have good
connections and relations feel more protected by the cartels rather than the
state. Drug cartels threaten the rule of law by offering an organized
alternative to the states monopoly on the use of force to govern people, the
cartels use their power in playing roles states should be playing. The drug
cartel members also find ways to have protection from corrupt government officials
and some militia who get bribed by the money the cartel members offer them in
exchange to protection and a helping hand in their drug trafficking missions.
The United nation does have a branch for drugs and crime known as the UNODC which
passed several resolutions regarding drugs. The issue of drug cartels in Latin
America is large and possible solutions and improvements about this issue could
be found hopefully during this conference. 



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