During the problem which we face in business

During 1990’s
in New York seven regional transportation agencies were combined to develop a
system called electronic toll collection (ETC) also known as E-Z pass. In this
paper I have discussed about the problem definition process. Additionally, a
complete report of different targets of the task forced and how similar or
different these might be across other agencies. Further according to the
commuters preferences for the services they have define problem effectively.













The problem definition
works as a tool which open a problem up and present it in a way that can be
examined from a numerous different ways which also helps to define the wider
context of issues involved in it. Problem definition means the process to
identify or define the problem in such a way that market researcher can relate
with the problems they face while decision making which might make good use of
your time(Chapman, 1989). Here in the given case of E-Z pass the
problems have been presented in the form of questions that define the given
information and how the given information can be implemented or acquired.Overall
we can say that problem definition converts the problem which we face in business
into a research problem. Without identifying the main problem you cannot move
on with your research questions. Some of the steps of problem definition process

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Determine the decision
maker’s objectives

Know about the problem

Identify the exact
problem’s rather than the indicators

Define the unit of

Prepare research
questions and objectives

talking about this case here the main problem is to identify the ideal pattern
of service quality to all the commuters within different agencies and also how
they might be similar or different from other agencies. While New York and New
Jersey were investigating Texas and Louisiana had already implemented it
successfully to eliminate traffic in interregional roadway(Gifford, Yermack , & Owens, 2015). In this case we can
see the list of six questions that was identified by task force where we saw
the problems. As they have understood and identified the problem we can say
that the problem is to know about the commuter’s first choice for the services
for that they have specified well defined research questions. Therefore, looking
at this in my view the problem has been defined adequately.


Exploratory research
is basically a research into a hypothetical or theoretical idea. Exploratory
research focuses more on the discovery of ideas and insights. It is mainly used
by the company for defining issues, to find potential areas of growth, alternative
courses of action and so on( SMstudy, 2016). For this project I would like to
recommend an exploratory research design rather than descriptive research because
an exploratory research would make it easy to identify the consumer’s choices
for different attributes that are ultimately showed in the six search

exploratory research can help to know more about the consumer’s preferences.
Similarly, we can clearly see in the given case that task force are only interested
to know more about commuter’s preferences more than other things so that they
can know how the service can be configured ideally so, for that exploratory
research design would be the best for this project.


One of the first steps
in the research process is to develop a good research question because if you
have prepared all the necessaryquestion than it will guide you and make it easy
to research about the project. The research question should be clear, feasible
and focused on the issue and conditions that could be improved which is worth
the investigation by the researcher(Cabraal, 2013). Accordingly for this project in my
view following questions should be tested like how many accounts are necessary
and what statements will be received? How and where does one pay for E-Z pass?
Is the tag transferable to other vehicles or not? The reason why these
questions should be tested is because many people who want to use E-Z pass
wishes to know how many accounts they should have to create and from where the statements
will be received after using E-Z pass. Commuters are concerned about how will
they know if it is debited from their accounts so, I think this questions
should be tested. Similarly, they also want to know how and where they can pay
for E-Z pass. As commuters have to pay certain amount for the facility so they
should know how and where to go to pay so for this in my view this question is
also important to be tested. Moreover, E-Z pass researchersshould test if the
tag is transferable or not to other vehicles because these days many people who
live in one house have two cars for example husband and wife both have cars and
if the tags are not transferable than they should have two tags for each car
which means they have to create two accounts for each car. This test can show
that each car and person should have their own account and tags because it
couldn’t be transferred to other vehicles even if you are from the same family.
So, all the transportation agencies of New York and New Jersey might have all
the data of their consumers which will help them to make sure that each car
have its own tag.


Dummy table is a tool
which let management know exactly what kind of results will come by research.
Dummy tables are hypothesis and the result presented in table are also
hypothesis(Curran & Takata, 2000). Without dummy
tables a research project should never be undertaken. Dummy table are the real
ways which helps you to visualize the world. In this case using a dummy table
researchers can know what might the results can be from the research they are
going to do. Using dummy table in any research would help to predict a specific
outcome so here are some of the things which should be included like:


Gender: Including
gender section in dummy table we can segregate how many male, female or other
genders are traveling on daily basis using the roadway.

Occupations: We can
know which occupations commuters are more roving in interregional roadway. For
examples: If doctors are travelling more or businessman are travelling more
from that way for their work.

Paying capability: We
can identify how much a person can pay for it and we can keep an accurate price
for it according to the people who travel from that roadway most of the time.

Toll tickets: We can
ask how many people has been using toll tickets and how many are not aware of
it. If theyare already using toll tickets while they travel from one place to
another or for some other uses. If they use toll tickets than ask them more
about it if they are satisfied with it and if it have made their life easy or if they wanted more improvements in it because this types of
information could help the researchers to identify the problems.






has been seen that in 1990s a task force was formed among the area of New York
and New Jersey’s transportation agencies to investigate the feasibility of
system called electronic toll collection for interregional roadways. We found
out that electronic toll collection helps to reduce traffic jams at toll plazas
as the tag holders could just pass by at moderate speed(Sajan & Jyothi, 2016). After analyzing
everything we can conclude that they have adequately define the problems through
the six questions as they include the problem definition process. However, I
think to know better about the commuter’s preferences more research and survey
should be done adopting exploratory research design. We have analyzed the
question which should be tested and lastly, I have included the dummy table which
is suitable for this research proposal which has helped researchers to know
more about its feasibility.




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