EdwardMorgan Forster was an English novelist, essayist,short story writer,and critic.Heis a difficult writer to classify, as an Edwardian modernist he criticizedVictorian middle class mores in formally traditional novels.Forster publishedfive novels in his lifetime, all of them except The LongestJourney, have been adapted into films.Thenovel “Maurice” although written nearly sixtyyears earlier, it was published a year after his death, in 1971.He never got tofinish his seventh novel, “Arctic Summer”.
Through his writing, he tried to showhis personal views stressing that he was opposed to his country’s cripplingoppression of non-Europeans.Thebeginning of Forster’s early novels are all intertwined.The first novel thatwas published in 1905 was actually Forster’s third attempt at a novel.He hadwritten fragmentary drafts of the English and Italian halves of his TheLucy Novels whicheventually became A Room with a View in 1908.Forster’s first novel “WhereAngels Fear to Tread” was published in 1905, a story dealing with Lilia, a young Englishwidow who is amazed by Italy and Italians and tries to escape her controllingand unbearable in-laws in England.
The title of this novel originates from aline in Alexander Pope’s An Essay on Criticism: “For fools rush in where angelsfear to tread”.The second novel of Forster’s six published novels, “TheLongest Journey” is a bildungsroman published in 1907.Despite having a reputation forbeing the least known of his novels, Forest described it as the book that he’smost glad to have written and he did consider it an autobiographical work. “In itI have managed to get nearer than elsewhere towards what was in my mind – orrather towards that junction of mind with heart where the creative impulsesparks.
” (“Aspects of a Novel”, 1228)In1908, he published “A Room with a View”, being his lightest and mostoptimistic work.He started this novel early as 1901, before any of his othernovels, its earliest versions are entitled “Lucy”, the story is both a romanceand a critique of English society at the beginning of the 20thcentury.The book was adapted as a film of the same name in 1985.
The fourthnovel of Forster, “Howards End” (1910), considered as the secondmost ambitious novel (A passage to India is viewed as his most ambitiousnovel), brought Forster his first major success.It deals with relationships inturn-of-the-century England, he attempts to take on the question of the BritishEmpire and its position in the world.”Howards End” was adapted as a film in1991 by the Merchant-Ivory team. “Maurice” written in 1913-1914, but published posthumously,it is a homosexual love story, considered controversial, given that Forster’shomosexuality had not been widely acknowledged.Critics continue to discuss overthe extent to which Forster’s sexuality and his personal activites influencedhis writing, especially in this book. “A passage to India” (1924), his last and most controversial novel, brought the greatestsuccess to his life.It is the last completed novel that he published during hislifetime.
Acclaimed as his masterpiece, the novel is subtle and rich in symbolism,and works on several levels.It talks about India (a colonial possession of Britainat that time) and about the relations between Indian and British people in thiscountry.A passage to India reveals Forster’s interest in politics and religion aswell.Itwas written in 1913 and not published until 1924.It is inspired mainly from E.
MForster’s own experience as a temporary resident in India and his contacts withthe Indian people and with the British servants, called Anglo-Indians. In addition to other essays,novels, and short stories, Forster wrote a biography of his great-aunt, MarianneThornton, published in 1956; Alexandria: A history and a Guide (1922); a documentaryaccount of his Indian experiences, “The Hill of Devi (1953).Forster did not publishanother novel, spending his last forty-six years of his life writing non-fictionand short stories