EmergingConcepts in Management:Beinga 21st Century ManagerPushpaRani AnandAceInstitute of Management Beinga 21st Century ManagerIn today’s morevolatile, uncertain and ambiguous business battlefield, decentralization of controland leadership through networks of people at different levels is imperative forsuccess. In some of the most successful start-ups and even large organizationsthat have emerged over a period of time, there is greater levels of delegationand decision making at all levels. Leaders and managers focus on guiding andcommunicating the vision leading large client projects and finding new ways todevelop and train their staffs. Managers in today’s context are taking more andmore responsibilities and passing on increasing amounts of responsibility tojunior employees.(Gleeson, n.
d.)Management inthe 20th century was about achieving a finite goal i.e. deliveringgoods and services to make money.The first reason why traditional managementtheories are irrelevant in the current rapidly changing business environment isthat they tend to focus on internal structures, process and roles of theorganization instead of the quality of the product (Enkvist, Nauclér&Oppenheim 2008). But the management in 21st century is about theinfinite goal of delighting customers. As the world changes so does theworkplace.
Managers of the 21st century operate in environmentswhich is dynamic and must regularly update their skills to meet the challengesof a dynamic global market and a more diverse workforce.Anorganization’s environment has micro and macro environments. The organizationalso has its own structure and culture. This environment and culture can be thegenerator of forces for change. Needs from within the organization canstimulate change; these are internal forces for change. Today’s organizationsare characterized by frequent disruptions to its environment. New strategy, newtechnology and change in employee mix or attitudes are all internal factorsthat can create force for change.Anorganization’s culture can be a prevailing force for innovation or seriouslythreaten the innovative endeavor.
The environment and that we create throughchange and trying to encourage change is one that can stimulate innovation.Organizations need to have flexible structures, good communication, and culturethat are relaxed and supportive of new ideas. Crucial to the implementation of cultural change is management’s abilityto use leadership skills and provide a shared vision of the future. In achaotic, dynamic world of change managers must be able to come up with newideas and inventions in order to compete in the global market.
Those who aregood innovators are the ones who can gain competitive advantages.Survival demandschange. Managers must be intuitive and read the current and changing situationsurrounding them and make the best decision to coordinate work and applyresources (Graham, 1997, p174).
When change is implemented correctly it canunleash employee creativity and potential, reduce bureaucracy and costs, andprovide ongoing improvement for an organization. Throughout thecenturies people were trying to choose between profit and moral. Perhaps, someof them obtain both, but every time it could have roused ethical issues.Setting the ethical standards for the way of doing business in corporation is aprimary task of management.
Corporations have to maintain the same standards asan individual person and as organizational units. They should have their ownsocial responsibilities toward customers, employees and society. However, anybusiness should keep its original purpose of functioning – making profit.Balancing the traditional standards of profitability and burden of socialresponsibilities is not an easy task.
In recent years it has been a trend ofsetting standards of corporate ethics according to high degree of morale.What a managerdoes and how it is done can be categorized by Henri Fayol’s four functions ofmanagement: Planning, Organizing, Leading and Controlling. Through thesefunctions, managers can be catalysts for change. What a manager can change inthe company falls majorly into the three categories stated in the definition ofchange: people, structure, and technology. The manager can make changes inthese areas in order to adapt to or facilitate change.
The change of peopleinvolves changing attitudes, expectations, perceptions and behavior. Thesechanges are used to help people i.e. employees within organizations to worktogether in groups more effectively. Changing structure is related to jobdesign, job specialization, hierarchy, formalization and all otherorganizational structural variables. These changes are ones that need to beflexible to be adaptable to change. Technological change includes modificationof work methods and the introduction of new equipment.
Changes in this area hasled to enormous innovations in areas of communications, production andoperations within an organization.The major challenges include:1. Impactof globalization: It has led to strategic challenges of mixed cultures andlanguages in the business environment. Many companies especially in theindustrialized and emerging countries, make a big portion of their totalrevenue and profits through foreign sales.2.
Managingacross borders: The ability of an organization to survive and succeed in the 21stcenturytransactional workforce and borderless business environment serves as a majorchallenge.3. Revolutionof information technology: It refers to a new world infrastructure of datacommunications and telecommunications i.e. use of internet, wireless,e-commerce as a part of management tools and easing of technology transfer.4. Securityissues: Issues of security within wide usage of internet platform in businesstransactions.
Security and privacy in a highly dynamic business is a majorproblem for managers. The invention of the internet together with cheap datastorage, wireless abilities and host of other technologies have influencedeconomic growth and innovation. However, the use of these technologiespotentially comes with various risks.5. Demandfor knowledge worker: Increasingdemand for knowledge-worker in the knowledgedriven organizations is a challenge. 6. Broaderrange of stakeholder’s interests: Today companies need to address a broaderrange of stakeholder interests than in the past.
Government, activists and themedia have become adept at holding companies to account for the socialconsequences of their activities. This had led to emergence of corporate socialresponsibility as a key priority for business leaders around the world,affecting diverse areas such as the management of supply chains, corporategovernance and intercultural leadership.7. Enterprisemobility: Organizations in a broad cross section of markets like financialservices, pharmaceuticals and life sciences, consumer products, education andmanufacturing are seeing the value of mobilizing enterprise information andmaking it available to customers, employees and partner. This process iscomplex, expensive and time consuming and requires resources for ongoing updatesand maintenance.
8. Individualand leadership challenges: Globalization, the war for talent, digitalcommunications, societal changes, the changing shape of organizations and theaspirations of the next generation are all challenging the 21stcentury leaders in new ways. It is no longer enough to motivate followersthrough heroic gestures and charisma alone. 21st century visionaryleaders focus on growing deep organizational engagement amongst their followersand employees and on generating a shared and common understanding of a dynamicand evolving vision for the future.9.
Manpowermanagement: The changes of the workforce required to shift from traditionalpersonnel management to human resource management. Human resources have startedto be seen as an inimitable and most valuable factor for organizations to gaincompetitive advantage. The role of human resource for the 21stcentury isstrategically reactive in business strategy implementation throughsupporting the long term strategies with the necessary employee qualificationsand developing the cultural and technical capabilities required for thestrategies of the organization.The managerialfunction has undergone considerable changes during the last century.
Within the21st century, firms are continuously engaged in boundary-bustingadaptation processes, learning processes and creating the required knowledgeand skills to achieve a competitive edge in the turbulent environment of theeconomy.The tools managers use for the strategic planning and forecasting havechanged considerably in the past few decades. But they are inadequate whenfaced with today’s fast changing environment. The business environment isdynamic as well as uncertain. Uncertainty is an entrepreneur’s everydaybusiness. They face uncertainty in the overall environment-the macroeconomic,political, social, technological and environmental framework in which theyoperate. Underestimating the uncertainty can be hazardous. At worst, it leadsto strategies that are unable to protect the company against threats.
At best,it leads to strategies that ignore the potential opportunities inherent inuncertainty.For example, backin 1876, the financial services company western union believed that thetelephone would never replace the telegraph. An internal memo from that yearstated that “the telephone has too many shortcomings to be seriously consideredas a means of communication.” Today the number of cellphone subscriptions aloneis about sex billion and more.Hence, skillsevery 21st century manager needs include:1.
Betterunderstanding in cultural change: Some companies deal with foreign delegatesand they also provide sales provision in foreign countries. And to handle suchexternal activities smoothly, a manager needs to understand the levels ofcultural differences in different countries.2. Digitaland technological understanding: In today’s modern and digitized world ofbusiness, obtaining technological knowledge can add an advantage in the list ofskills of a manager.3. Analyticalskills: When a corporate problem occurs in a company, it is necessary for themanager to analyze that issue and come with a feasible solution for theproblem.4.
Overcomingbarriers: Every manager should have an idea about cultural diversity. They allshould have a global mind set. The managers should adapt their work accordingto cultures so as to make their company successful.5.
Knowledgeof online networks: Through social networking sites a manager is able toconnect with his colleagues and the employees. Moreover, networking sitesprovide information for such managers so that they can plan and make thecompany more strong and gain a competitive edge.6. Maintaininga healthy relationship with employees: A manager should be able to maintainhealthy relationships with their employees and the staff, so that they canunderstand them and work with them. A caring and an attentive manager isnecessary for any company or organization to grow, and it will also motivatethe employees to work harder to their full potential. This will increase the company’soutput and productivity.7.
Managersshould present a win-win situation for both the stakeholders and theemployees:One of the main role of manager is his ability to handle the domainbetween the high level stakeholders and the working employees. In failure tohandle these both parties, there can be a loss in the company profits and alsoa high employee and labor turnover. A manager is a person to whom the employeesshould be able to discuss and submit their welfare issues to, while the role ofmanagers in an organization is to present these problems to the supervisors andthe higher-ups so that they can form an effective solution. Hence, he should beable to successfully handle and balance both the parties.Corporateexecutivesemphasize on the need for a clear, shared vision, a strongorganizational culture:ways of doing business that leverage the size and reachof the company.
It ensures the alignment of the corporation’s vision and itswidely dispersed activities. Hierarchical, highly centralized, command andcontrol models no longer work for most global organizations. In conclusion,the world of management has changed dramatically and dynamically over the pastdecade. Companies have become more global and employee groups have become morediverse than before. Organizational structures are less hierarchal and morecollaborative. Also today’s networked offices are full of technologicaldistractions that would have been unimaginable to the 20th centurymanager.
It is obviousthe ability to stimulate change, excellent planning capabilities, and ethicsare important traits a manger should possess and utilize in leadingorganizations in the 21st Century. These traits help the manager focus onsuccess for their organization, as well as there are traits subordinates lookfor in their leader. By using these traits, a manager can place him/herself ona path that can lead to success.The managers in the 21st centuryorganization need to learn how to navigate through the complex and uncertainenvironment of today’s highly competitive global economy. In order to achievethe objectives they must take their employees along with them by motivating andempowering them with the skills and knowledge to perform their duties and movethe organization forward. References: Geissler, C. (n.
d.). Retrieved from file:///E:/Downloads/9783658028749-c1.pdf Gleeson, B. (n.d.
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com/brent-gleeson/the-future-of-leadership-and-management-in-the-21st-century-organization.html Mollinsky, A. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://hbr.
org/2012/01/three-skills-every-21st-century-manager-needs (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.
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pdf (n.d.). Retrieved from file:///E:/Downloads/302-752-1-PB.pdf (n.
d.). Retrieved from https://studymoose.com/management-challenges-in-the-21st-century-essay (n.
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