Engineers is very heavy and rigid; Concrete Structures

Engineers are developing new building materials that are
easy to construct, thermally insulating , and would be used worldwide to build
sustainable homes.

Development in Construction material would allow engineers
and architects to make more daring and brave structures possible because of
their improved strength and durability.

Concrete is getting more attention as engineers look to
improve it and utilize the material in new ways.

New building product that is durable, lightweight and offers
lots of architectural design potential.

Generally made of Expanded polystyrene in the form of
spherical beads or irregular granules, Portland cement, sand, and gravel mixed
with water .

Concrete is one of the most structural materials in use

Composite material made of Portland cement, sand and coarse
aggregates mixed with water.

Very durable material that requires little maintenance

Concrete is very heavy and rigid; Concrete Structures may
fail if overloaded.

Harsh weather, environment and chemical reactions all affect
its durability .


It is difficult to maintain specific water content during
casting because the porous aggregates absorb so much water; and this affect the
performance of Concrete

The focus has been to make concrete less heavy, yet stronger
and more efficient.

Expanded Polystyrene beads (EPS) as light Material in place of coarse aggregate
to reduce the concrete density and enhance its performance characteristics.


Conventional Concrete density: 2500 kg/m^3

EPS is 98% air and 2% polystyrene material

Its density ranges from 16 – 27 kg/m³ compared to that of
normal aggregate 1700 – 2000 kg/m³.

    EPS Concrete
density: 1800 kg/m^3  or less.


   Using EPS in
concrete mortar :

yields lighter loads 
during construction due to the decreased self-weight of concrete

enhances construction and on-site handling and reduces the
costs of transportation.

EPS has high compressive and impact strength and high energy
absorption capacity;  it strengthens the
concrete and enhances its ductility such that failure process is changed from
brittle to ductile.

Withstands temperature cycling.

Chemically inert; EPS concrete won’t weather or interact with

EPS has a closed cellular structure; it doesn’t absorb

  Thus ,

 it enable to maintain
specific water content during    casting
and don’t weaken the concrete .

EPS concrete minimizes the risk of leakages through roofs
and walls.


EPS is resistant to heat flow; it provides the concrete with
good thermal insulation properties.

Fire resistant

Very durable even when subjected to freeze-thaw cycles or
Sulfate attack.

Fire resistant material that ensures safer buildings.

Environmentally friendly and clean method of construction.

Extremely strong structure.

Good thermal insulation properties.

Completed buildings are energy efficient as less heat

Minimizes the risk of leakages

Can be easily be handled, EPS Blocks can be cut with power
tools or hand saws.

Polystyrene Concrete mixtures can be  produced with a wide range of densities for
wide range of applications.

Processing of Polystyrene Granules:


 Foaming of
polystyrene granules

 Polystyrene granules
becomes softer and begin to froth under the influence of  water steam . Auger blades mix the foamed
polystyrene pellets to prevent adhesion.


Drying (maturing)

Foamed polystyrene granules must be dried to harden the
outer walls of the granules and to stabilize the internal pressure. This is
done by pneumatic drying and transporting units.

Batching of raw components

Ready foamed polystyrene granules are delivered by the air
flow into the receiver bin of volume batcher. As the batcher is full, the
granules fall into the mixer. Cement and fine-dispersed filler from storage
bins are in turn fed into the bin of the weigh batcher. When the bin of the
batcher is filled with necessary quantity of material. the batcher pneumatic
flap opens and the material goes

to the mixer. Water is poured into special tanks before the
shift starts.

Preparation of polystyrene concrete

foamed polystyrene granules, cement, water, additives in
dosed parts are fed into the mixer to obtain blended homogeneous mixture.


v.     Casting of
in-situ polystyrene concrete

 The mortar is casted
into prepared formwork. The Rate of solidification depends on the binder
activity and room temperature.


 vi.    Manufacturing of polystyrene concrete

The mortar is casted into the pre-greased molds for forming
the mass.

Thermal Processing chamber is used to strengthen the
concrete. The mass is cut into wall blocks with target sizes using an automated
cutting complex.

finished blocks wrapped in stretch tape are kept in stock
until they have 70% of strength (7-10 days).

Used As:

insulated panel systems for facades, walls, roofs and floors
in buildings.

a lightweight fill in road and railway construction.

 flotation material in
the construction of marinas.

 Erection of exterior
walls in permanent shuttering for skeleton-type buildings

 Repairing  and reconstruction old buildings

The production process of EPS concrete costly because of the
complex machinery, chemicals and lightweight aggregate to be used