He was elected during the tenure of the National Democratic Alliance (India) coalition government, under Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee.  During his term as President, he was popularly known as the People’s President. 4] Before his term as India’s president, he worked as an aeronautical engineer with DRDO and ISRO. He is popularly known as the Missile Man of India for his work on development of ballistic missile and space rocket technology.  In India he is highly respected as a scientist and as an engineer. Kalam played a pivotal organizational, technical and political role in India’s Pokhran-II nuclear test in 1998, the first since the original nuclear test by India in 1974. 7] He is the chancellor of Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology (Thiruvananthapuram), a professor at Anna University (Chennai), a visiting professor at JSS University in Mysore, and an adjunct/visiting faculty at many other academic and research institutions across India. Political views In his book India 2020, Abdul Kalam strongly advocates an action plan to develop India into a knowledge superpower and a developed nation by the year 2020. He regards his work on India’s nuclear weapons program as a way to assert India’s place as a future superpower.
It has been reported that there is a considerable demand in South Korea for translated versions of books authored by him. Kalam continues to take an active interest in other developments in the field of science and technology. He has proposed a research program for developing bio-implants. He is a supporter of Open source software over proprietary solutions and believes that the use of open source software on a large scale will bring the benefits of information technology to more people. Aerospace engineer After graduating in Physics from St.
Joseph’s College, Tiruchirapalli, Abdul Kalam graduated with a diploma in Aeronautical Engineering in the mid-1950s from the Madras Institute of Technology. As the Project Director, he was heavily involved in the development of India’s first indigenous Satellite Launch Vehicle (SLV-III). As Chief Executive of the Integrated Guided Missile Development Program (I. G. M. D. P), he played a major part in developing many missiles in India including Agni and Prithvi although the entire project has been criticised for being overrun and mismanaged.
He was the Chief Scientific Adviser to the Prime Minister and the Secretary of Defence Research and Development Organisation from July 1992 to December 1999. Pokhran-II nuclear tests were conducted during this period and have been associated with Kalam although he was not directly involved with the nuclear program at the time. Awards and honors On April 29, 2009, he became the first Asian to be bestowed with the Hoover Medal, America’s top engineering prize, for his outstanding contribution to public service.
The citation said that he was being recognised for: making state-of-the-art healthcare available to the common man at affordable prices; bringing quality medical care to rural areas by establishing a link between doctors and technocrats; using spin-offs of defense technology to create state-of-the-art medical equipment; and launching tele-medicine projects connecting remote rural-based hospitals to the super-specialty hospitals. It added that he was an eminent scientist, a gifted engineer, a visionary, and a humanitarian.  On 13 September 2009, he was awarded the International von Karman Wings Award. 13] The Government of India has honored him with some of the country’s highest civilian awards: Padma Bhushan in 1981 Padma Vibhushan in 1990 Bharat Ratna in 1997 for his work with the ISRO and DRDO and his role as a scientific advisor to the Indian government.
Kalam was the third President of India to be honored with a Bharat Ratna before being elected to the highest office, the other two being Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan and Zakir Hussain. He is also the first scientist and first bachelor to occupy the Rashtrapati Bhavan. After his tenure as the President he is now a visiting professor at J. S. S. University, Mysore. He has agreed to deliver a minimum of four lectures every year. Books and documentaries Kalam’s writings Wings of Fire: An Autobiography of APJ Abdul Kalam by A. P. J Abdul Kalam, Arun Tiwari; by K. Bhushan, G. Katyal; A. P. j. Pub. Corp, 2002. Scientist to President by Abdul A. P. J. Kalam; Gyan Publishing House, 2003. Ignited Minds: Unleashing the Power Within India by A. P. J. Abdul Kalam; Penguin Books, 2003. India 2020: A Vision for the New Millennium by A. P. J. Abdul Kalam, Y. S. Rajan; Penguin Books India, 2003. India-my-dream by A. P.
J. Abdul Kalam; Excel Books, 2004. Envisioning an Empowered Nation: Technology for Societal Transformation by A. P. J. Abdul Kalam; TATA McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Ltd, 2004. Guiding Souls: Dialogues on the Purpose of Life by A. P. J. Abdul Kalam, Arun K Tiwari; Ocean Books, 2005. Children Ask Kalam by A. P. J. Abdul Kalam; Pearson Education, ISBN 81-7758-245-3 Indomitable Spirit by A. P. J. Abdul Kalam, 2006 The Scientific Indian: A Twenty-first Century Guide to the World around Us by APJ Abdul Kalam and YS Rajan Biographies Eternal Quest: Life and Times of Dr.
Avul Pakir Jainulabdeen Abdul Kalam by S. Chandra; Pentagon Publishers, 2002. President A. P. J. Abdul Kalam by R. K. Pruthi; Anmol Publications, 2002. A. P. J. Abdul Kalam: The Visionary of India by K. Bhushan, G. Katyal; A. P. H. Pub. Corp, 2002. A Little Dream (documentary film) by P. Dhanapal; Minveli Media Works Private Limited, 2008. The Kalam Effect: My Years with the President by P. M. Nair; Harper Collins, 2008. ————————————————- My Days With Mahatma Abdul Kalam by Fr. A. K. George; ISBN No:978-8190452953; Publisher: Novel Corporation, 2009.
Bharat Ratna Dr. Avul Pakir Jainulabdeen Abdul Kalam born October 15, 1931, Tamil Nadu, India, usually referred to as Dr. A. P. J. Abdul Kalam, was the eleventh President of India, serving from 2002 to 2007. During his term as The President, he was popularly known as the People’s President. Before his term as India’s president, he worked as an engineer with DRDO and ISRO and was awarded India’s highest civilian honor Bharat Ratna in 1997 for his work with ISRO and DRDO and his role as a scientific advisor to the Indian government.
He is popularly known as the Missile Man of India for his work on development of ballistic missile and space rocket technology. In India he is highly respected as a Statist and as an Engineer. Kalam played a pivotal organizational, technical and political role in India’s Pokhran-II nuclear test in 1998, the first since the original nuclear test by India in 1974. He is a professor at Anna University (Chennai) and adjunct/visiting faculty at many other academic and research institutions across India. Although he is an engineer he has received many honorary doctorate degrees. With the death of R.
Venkataraman on January 27, 2009, Kalam became the only surviving former President of India. Kalam’s father was a devout Muslim, who owned boats which he rented out to local fishermen and was a good friend of Hindu religious leaders and the school teachers at Rameshwaram. APJ Abdul Kalam mentions in his biography that to support his studies, he started his career as a newspaper vendor. This was also told in the book, A Boy and His Dream: Three Stories from the Childhood of Abdul Kalam by Vinita Krishna. The house Kalam was born in can still be found on the Mosque street in Rameshwaram, and his brother’s curio shop abuts it.
This has become a point-of-call for tourists who seek out the place. Kalam grew up in an intimate relationship with nature, and he says in Wings of Fire that he never could imagine that water could be so powerful a destroying force as that he witnessed when he was thirty three. That was in 1964 when a cyclonic storm swept away the Pamban bridge and a trainload of passengers with it and also Kalam’s native village, Dhanushkodi. Kalam observes strict personal discipline, vegetarianism, teetotalism and celibacy. Kalam is a scholar of Thirukkural; in most of his speeches, he quotes at least one kural.
Kalam has written several inspirational books, most notably his autobiography Wings of Fire, aimed at motivating Indian youth. Another of his books, Guiding Souls: Dialogues on the Purpose of Life reveals his spiritual side. He has written poems in Tamil as well. It has been reported that there is considerable demand in South Korea for translated versions of books authored by him. ————————————————- Dr. Kalam received an honorary doctorate from Carnegie Mellon University. Dr. Avul Pakir Jainulabdeen Abdul Kalam Born On: October 15,1931
Tenure Order: 11th President Took office: July 25, 2002 Predecessor: K. R. Narayanan Biography “Dreams float on an impatient wind, A wind that wants to create a new order. An order of strength and thundering of fire. ” — from a poem written by Dr A. P. J. Abdul Kalam Dr A. P. J. Abdul Kalam is the undisputed father of India’s missile program. He has breathed life into ballistic missiles like the Agni and Prithvi, which put China and Pakistan well under India’s missile range. It is too exhausting to track Dr Abdul Kalam’s achievements to date.
In the ’60s and ’70s he was a trail blazer in the space department. In the ’80s he transformed the moribund Defence Research and Development Laboratory in Hyderabad into a highly motivated team. By the ’90s Kalam emerged as the czar of Indian science and technology and was awarded the Bharat Ratna. His life and mission is a vindication of what a determined person can achieve against extraordinary odds. Born on 15th October 1931 at Rameshwaram in Tamil Nadu, Avul Pakir Jainulabdeen Abdul Kalam studied at Schwartz High School in Ramanathapuram.
After graduating in science from St. Joseph’s College in Tiruchi, he did his DMIT in AeronauticalEngineering at the MIT, Madras, during 1954-57. After completing his third year at MIT, Kalam joined Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL), Bangalore as a trainee. Here, he worked on piston and turbine engines examining as part of a team. He also received training on radial engine-cum-drum operations. In 1958, when he came out of HAL as a graduate of aeronautical engineering, he had his long-standing dream of flying, as two alternative opportunities for employment.
One was the job at Directorate of Technical Development and Production (DTD & P) of the Ministry of Defence and another was a career in the Indian Air Force. He applied at both the places, and the interview calls came simultaneously from both. He went to Delhi for an interview with DTD & P, which did not challenge his knowledge of the subject. Then he went to Dehra Dun for interview with the Air Force Selection Board. Here too, the interview was more on personality test, rather than testing his knowledge.
He stood ninth in the batch of 25, and eight officers were selected to be commissioned in the Air Force. Kalam could feel the opportunity to join the Air Force slipping from his hands. Dissapointed at his rejection by the IAF, Kalam visited Rishikesh where he bathed in the Ganga and met Swami Sivananda “a man who looked like Buddha”. He introduced himself to the Swamiji, who did not react to his Muslim identity. He asked Kalam about the reason for his sorrow. Kalam told him about his unsuccessful attempt to join the Indian Air Force and his long-cherished desire to fly.
Sivananda guided him saying: “Accept your destiny and go ahead with your life. You are not destined to become an Air Force pilot. What you are destined to become is not revealed now but it is predetermined. Forget this failure, as it was essential to lead you to your destined path. Search, instead, for the true purpose of your existence. Become one with yourself, my son! Surrender yourself to the wish of God. ” After returning to Delhi, Kalam received an appointment letter from DTD & P. On the next day he joined as Senior Scientific Assistant, with a basic salary of Rs. 50/- per month. Here, he was posted at the Technical Center (Civil Aviation). He lost his resentment of failure, thinking he would be able to make aeroplanes airworthy if not fly aeroplanes. During his first year in the Directorate, he carried out a design assignment on supersonic target aircraft with the help of his officer-in-charge, R. Varadharajan, and won praise from the Director, Dr. Neelakantan. Then he was sent to the Aircraft and Armament Testing Unit(A & ATU) at Kanpur to get shop-floor exposure to aircraft maintenance.
Upon his return to Delhi, he was informed that the design of a DART target had been taken up at the DTD & P and he was included in the design team. After that, he undertook a preliminary design study on Human Centrifuge. He designed and developed a vertical takeoff and landing platform, and Hot Cockpit. Three years later, the Aeronautical Development Establishment (ADE) was formed in Bangalore and he was posted there. At ADE, Kalam served as a senior scientific assistant, heading a small team that developed a prototype hovercraft. Defence Minister Krishna Menon rode in India’s first indigenous hovercraft with Kalam at the controls.
But for reasons never explained, the project which would have been a considerable international achievement in those days, was not encouraged. This was probably one of the reasons why he moved out of ADE in 1962 and joined India’s space program. During 1963-82, he served the Indian Space Research Organisation(ISRO) in various capacities. Here Kalam initiated Fibre Reinforced Plastics (FRP) activities, then after a stint with the aerodynamics and design group, he joined the satellite launch vehicle team at Thumba, near Trivandram and soon became Project Director for SLV-3.
As Project Director, he was responsible for carrying out the design, development, qualification and flight testing of 44 major sub systems. The project managed to put Rohini, a scientific satellite, into orbit in July 1980. He was honoured with a Padma Bhushan in 1981. In 1982, as Director of DRDO, Kalam was entrusted with the Integrated Guided Missile Development Programme (IGMDP), India’s most successful military research task to date. The programme constituted of 5 major projects for meeting the requirements of the defence services and for establishing re-entry technology.
The 5 projects were scheduled to be completed in a time frame of only 10 years and consisted of: Nag – an anti-tank guided missile Prithvi – a surface-to-surface battlefield missile Akash – a swift, medium-range surface-to-air missile. Trishul – a quick-reaction surface-to-air missile with a shorter range. Agni – an intermediate range ballistic missile, the mightiest of them all From his SLV-3 experience, Kalam had learned the advantages of team work and of sharing the tasks with partners in private and public sector industries.
In the new management structure of the missile program, Kalam, as the Chairman of the Programme Management Board, delegated almost all executive and financial powers to five carefully selected Project Directors and kept himself free to address the core technology issues. His task was to inspire and monitor over 20 institutions and partners outside – ranging from large public and private sector suppliers to small specialist firms that needed seed money to take up the precision tasks. The missiles went up more or less on schedule: Trishul in 1985, Prithvi in 1988, Agni in 1989 and the others in 1990.
The development and successful flight test of Prithvi, Trishul, Akash, Nag, and Agni established the indigeneous capability towards self reliance in defence preparedness. The successful launching of ‘Agni’ surface-to-surface missile was a unique achievement which made India a member of an exclusive club of highly developed countries. The Trishul has the unique distinction of being capable of serving all three services. The establishment of the Research Centre Imarat(RCI), a campus 8km from DRDL, in 1988 was perhaps the most satisfying achievement for Kalam during the missile years.
He received generous funding from the Government to build the futuristic centre, which is totally geared for work in advanced missile technologies. Its state-of-the-art facilities are set in a unique ambience and the level of comfort accorded to the individual worker is matched by few R;amp;D institutions. And Kalam’s interest in the environment saw RCI emerge as an oasis in a rocky wasteland. It has a small farm that meets the food requirements of those who stay in the RCI quarters. Kalam was awarded the Padma Vibhushan in 1990.
On 25th November 1997, in appreciation of his contributions to Indian defence and science, Dr A. P. J. Abdul Kalam was awarded India’s highest civilian honour- the “Bharat Ratna”. In October 1998, he bagged the prestigious Indira Gandhi award for national integration(for 1997). After 10 years in DRDL, he went to New Delhi to take over from Arunachalam as Scientific Adviser to the Defence Minister – reluctantly, many in DRDL felt. But the system created by Kalam had taken a firm hold in that decade and the missile programme passed on smoothly into its final phase of production and induction.
In Delhi, Kalam as head of the DRDO had to deliver other prestigious projects, such as the Arjun MBT and the Light Combat Aircraft(LCA) projects. “Strength respects strength”, this is Kalam’s usual response to the question why India needs its own missiles or a battle tank or a combat aircraft. While management practices he adopted for the missile program have inevitably rubbed off on these projects, there are no miracles to be had in strategic development areas. There have been technical problems. Even in the missile program, work on the SAMs and the ATM is slower than anticipated.
But Trishul’s recent multiple test flights have demonstrated that the system Kalam put in place has inherent strengths. Kalam is by no means a miracle man. As the head of a vast network of laboratories – whose products include avalanche-controlling structures in Kashmir, water desalination kits for the Thar desert, a world class sonar submarine finder for the latest warship – INS Delhi, and infra-red night vision goggles for the Indian Army – Kalam’s attention is necessarily a bit diffused. His self-effacing persona cloaks a formidable catalyst who can make people work.
Kalam is happiest at the drawing board, in discussion with his scientists on how their dreams for the next millennium can be fulfilled. The projects envisaged include an air breathing hyperplane spacecraft that draws oxygen from the atmosphere rather than carry it all the way from the ground, reusable missiles and stealth technology. Kalam has shown that with adequate funding, freedom from procedural holdups and a people-oriented management, India can make products of internationally acceptable technical standards in a demanding arena like defence.
Science, according to Kalam, is a global phenomenon. He feels there are a few areas where India can develop its core competence. These areas are software engineering, computer products and design, agriculture and food, aviation, defence research and space technology and chemical engineering. “This will lead to a highly beneficial economic and social progress for the nation. ” Kalam’s advice to the youngsters of the nation is to “dream, dream and dream and convert these into thoughts and later into actions. ” Also to “think big”. We are a nation of a billion people and we must think like a nation of a billion people. Only then can we become big. ” On 25th November 1999, Dr A. P. J. Abdul Kalam was appointed Principal Scientific Adviser to the Government of India and accorded the rank of a Cabinet Minister. His role was to advise on overall scientific development in the country on issues relating to scientific and technical policy in different sectors. Kalam also advised on matters relating to achieving technological self-reliance and foreign collaboration.
On December 8, 2000, the Deputy Chairman of Planning Commission, Shri K. C. Pant conferred the “Life-time Contribution Award in Engineering 2000” on Dr A. P. J. Abdul Kalam at the annual function of the Indian National Academy of Engineering in New Delhi. Speaking on the occasion, Kalam said that Engineering and technology should be used for the upliftment of the people living below the poverty line. On November 10, 2001, Dr A. P. J. Abdul Kalam quit as principal scientific advisor to the government. Sources close to Kalam, said he quit because of “lack of executive authority”.
However Kalam had been for quite some time keen on pursuing academic interests and helping scientists across the country in developing their research capabilities. That’s why after quitting he took over the job as distinguished professor at Anna University. Dr Kalam has spent the past few years developing the concept of “India Millennium Missions 2020” – a blueprint for transforming India into a developed nation. He calls it “the second vision of the nation” and says he wants to focus on the children of India to ignite in their minds a love for science and the nation’s mission: a developed India.
On July 25, 2002, Dr A. P. J. Abdul Kalam was sworn in as the 11th President of India by Chief Justice of India B. N. Kirpal in the Central Hall of Parliament at an impressive function telecast live across the country. Kalam took the oath in the name of God as a 21-gun salute boomed in the background. Things You Didn’t Know About Kalam That Dr. Abdul Kalam is a bachelor and a teetotaler? That he recites the Holy Quran and the Bhagvad Gita daily and is equally at home with both Holy Scriptures? That as a young boy, he sold newspapers to enhance his family’s income?
That he is so modest about his achievements that at every felicitation ceremony he gives full credit for India’s success to his colleagues? Abdul Kalam Quotes Educationists should build the capacities of the spirit of inquiry, creativity, entrepreneurial and moral leadership among students and become their role model. Thinking is progress. Non-thinking is stagnation of the individual, organization and the country. Thinking leads to action. Knowledge without action is useless and irrelevant. Knowledge with action, converts adversity into prosperity.
English is necessary as at present original works of science are in English. I believe that in two decades times original works of science will start coming out in our languages. Then we can move over like the Japanese. Humanity will require mega-missions for harnessing solar energy, drinking water from seawater through the desalination process and bringing minerals from other planets. In such a situation, the present reasons for conflict will become insignificant and unwarranted. I have this big library at home and my favorite poets are Milton, Walt Whitman and Rabindranath Tagore. I write poetry too.
God has not promised Skies always blue, Flower-strewn pathways All our life through; God has not promised Sun without rain, Joy without sorrow, Peace without pain If a country is to be corruption free and become a nation of beautiful minds, I strongly feel there are three key societal members who can make a difference. They are the father, the mother and the teacher. If we are not free, no one will respect us. In India we only read about death, sickness, terrorism, crime. It means, people who are in high and responsible positions, if they go against righteousness, righteousness itself will get transformed into a destroyer.
Let us sacrifice our today so that our children can have a better tomorrow. When you speak, speak the truth; perform when you promise; discharge your trust. Withhold your hands from striking, and from taking that which is unlawful and bad Look at the sky. We are not alone. The whole universe is friendly to us and conspires only to give the best to those who dream and work. My view is that at a younger age your optimism is more and you have more imagination etc. You have less bias. No religion has mandated killing others as a requirement for its sustenance or promotion.
Tell me, why is the media here so negative? Why are we in India so embarrassed to recognise our own strengths, our achievements? We are such a great nation. We have so many amazing success stories but we refuse to acknowledge them. Why? Unless India stands up to the world, no one will respect us. In this world, fear has no place. Only strength respects strength. We have not invaded anyone. We have not conquered anyone. We have not grabbed their land, their culture, their history and tried to enforce our way of life on them.
We must think and act like a nation of a billion people and not like that of a million people. Dream, dream, dream! We will be remembered only if we give to our younger generation a prosperous and safe India, resulting out of economic prosperity coupled with civilizational heritage. Why are we, as a nation so obsessed with foreign things? Is it a legacy of our colonial years? We want foreign television sets. We want foreign shirts. We want foreign technology. Why this obsession with everything imported? Thinking should become your capital asset, no matter whatever ups and downs you come across in your life.