This assignment will be based on an advertising campaign introduced by Innocent within the UK this advert was known as ‘super fruit’. With Innocent smoothie’s having been a UK based brand since the summer of 1998 when we had developed our first smoothie recipes Innocent drinks (2011) Innocent drinks has since then become the biggest smoothie brand within the UK. Growth of 14% on the previous year saw Innocent become the biggest smoothie brand in the UK with 75% of the market share.
O’Reilly (2011) Having had this affect within the UK I will now develop a campaign proposal based on repositioning this product within the USA through the use of traditional and e-based advertising media. I will do this by critically analysing the impact of globalisation and e-technologies on advertising strategy, implementation and control. I will then propose amendments to advertising objectives, message appeals and media for a variety of campaign contexts. ? Innocents Smoothie Globalisation impact: 2. 1 Advertising
Advertising is a mass-mediated communication. For communication to be classified as advertising it must be: 1. Paid for 2. Delivered to an audience via mass media, and 3. Attempting to persuade. In order to persuade the American consumer, or be effective, the advertisement must communicate to the audience the message it wants to relay, that is, it needs to be understood. Therefore if international advertising aims at communicating across cultures, its messages need to be encoded in a way to be understood by the target culture.
At this point, it is also important to add that advertising is a form of communication that employs not only verbal but also non-verbal signs in order to communicate messages about products or organizations. 2. 2 Culture Advertising strategy will have affect on the cultural environment of the USA “this is the accumulation of shared meanings, rituals, norms, and traditions among the members of an organization or society. We can’t understand advertising unless we consider its cultural context: culture is the lens through which consumers make sense of marketing communications. Solomon (2009) This shows that understanding the culture before repositioning within the USA is important and from research has shown that some observers contend that the British and American cultures are based on different assumptions that in turn, should be reflected in their advertising (Carey 1975, Lannon 1986). According to Lannon’s scenario, British advertisers use more soft sell methods, which would include greater use of humor, than the more hard sell, fact-based model that she believes is dominant in U.
S. advertising. Having found this out the Innocent advert tends to use the soft sell methods with its ‘super fruit’ slogan and I think this will need to change to be able to reach the American culture I will explain later in the proposal when making amendments how we intend to do this. Britannica. com (2007) defines Culture as: “The integrated pattern of human knowledge, belief, and behaviour that is both a result of an integral to the human capacity for learning and transmitting knowledge to succeeding generations.
Culture thus consists of language, ideas, beliefs, customs, taboos, codes, Institutions, tools, techniques, and works of art, rituals, ceremonies, and symbols. ” Culture is the most important concept in anthropology. Anthropologists commonly use the term culture to refer to a society or group in which many or all people live and think in the same ways. Likewise, any group of people who share a common culture, and in particular, common rules of behaviour and a basic form of social organization, constitutes a society. Thus, the terms culture and society are to some extent interchangeable. According to Encarta. msn. com (2007): Variation among cultures is attributable to such factors as differing physical habitats and resources; the range of possibilities inherent in areas such as language, ritual, and social organization; and historical phenomena such as the development of links with other cultures. An individual’s attitudes, values, ideals, and beliefs are greatly influenced by the culture (or cultures) in which he or she lives. Culture change takes place as a result of ecological, socio-economic, political, religious, or other fundamental factors affecting a society. ” Therefore, in the repositioning of the Innocents Smoothie to America, I refer o cross-cultural advertising, I am talking about the reformulation of a message about a product or organization that has been created according to the language, ideas, beliefs, customs, taboos, codes, institutions, tools, techniques, works of art, rituals, ceremonies and symbols shared by a group, to the knowledge (language, ideas… ) of another group of people. 2. 3 Globalization Repositioning the Innocents Smoothie advert within the USA will mean having to take the advertising campaign through globalisation to ensure the advert will appeal to the USA in the same way it has been successful within the UK.
The term Globalization was – to my knowledge – born almost twenty years ago in a paper by Levitt called “The Globalization of Markets”. The Harvard professor claimed that thanks to technology, markets are being homogenized worldwide as are peoples’ needs and wishes, thus “the result is a new commercial reality – the explosive emergence of global markets for globally standardized products, gigantic world-scale markets of previously unimagined magnitudes. (Levitt 1983: 20) Although today these words seem to be truer than ever, thanks to the unprecedented growth of the Internet and its commercial applications, the idea of “homogenized cultures” has been met by strong resistance. The term took on a political tone, personifying US “cultural imperialism” and was demonized by its polemicists. The definition of the term given by LISA (Localization Industry Standards Association) is the following: “Globalization addresses all of the enterprise issues associated with making a company truly global.
For the globalization of products and services this involves integrating all of the internal and external business functions with marketing, sales, and customer support in the world market. ” (Source: www. lisa. org/term/termdefinitions) In these terms, Globalization is a function used in the process of globalizing a company, the key that opens the gates of foreign markets to its practitioners. 2. 4 Internationalization A key aspect within Globalization is that of Internationalization. The word that expresses the full meaning of this term better than any other is “enablement”.
Internationalization involves the creation of a product that is as culturally neutral as possible by eliminating any culture specific characteristics it may contain, thus enabling it’s easy and fast localization or tailoring. 2. 5 Competitors Innocents Smoothie have only been around for 13 years and only really used local advertising so repositioning it within a global market will also need consideration of a global strategy which can help Innocents become the number one smoothie and juice seller within the USA.
The only over competitors within the same market are Dr Smoothie “Dr. Smoothie Brands was founded in 1997 on the concept of providing healthy smoothie products, addressing the popular demand for real fruit with no artificial flavours, colours or preservatives. ” The big difference in culture though shows that Americans associate smoothies with gym work and to improve physique. This shows that it’s only over competitor sells smoothies through a different stream aimed at sports players and professionals giving Innocents smoothie a gap within the market to exploit.
Some might say Innocents would struggle to be noticed within a Global market and not many people would recognise the product but after “the Coca-Cola has upped its stake in Innocent to almost 60%, as the smoothie maker” Wright (2010) This shows that joining force with a countries main drink supplier before entering their markets within the USA will allow for people to associate it with the Coca Cola brand and it will automatically be accepted some may say because Coca Cola has a global image. . 6 Economic conditions When repositioning this product within the USA it is also essential to look at economic conditions in America being not as strong as the UK and the pound being stronger then the dollar will allow Innocents smoothie to exploit the resources within America. This will also allow Innocents smoothie to have a larger customer base with America having a larger population compared to the UK. 3. Standardization
The communication boom that started in the 1970s with the invention of commercial satellite communication and market globalization led advertisers to invent “international” marketing strategies under the influence of the standardization approach: promoting the same product with the same brand name and the same strategy everywhere in the world. The strategy of standardization has been successful in a multitude of cases and is approved by marketing managers due to its cost-effectiveness.
Papavassiliou and Stathakopoulos in their 1997 paper “Standardization versus Adaptation of International advertising Strategies” list the reasons that make the standardization approach appealing and why Innocents Smoothie should make these plans when repositioning its product within America. a) It allows the multinational corporation to maintain a consistent image and identity throughout the world. b) It minimizes confusion among buyers who travel frequently. c) It allows the multinational company to develop a single, coordinated advertising campaign across different markets. ) This approach results in considerable savings in media costs and advertising illustrative material. The standardization approach has also been at the forefront of the market globalization process. Dave Chaffey, in his book E-Business and E-Commerce Management, notes that: Globalization refers to the move towards international trading in a single global marketplace and also blurring between social and cultural differences between countries. Some perceive it as Westernisation or even Americanisation. (Chaffey 2002: 143)
However, a very important lesson that Innocents Smoothie need to learn in the age of globalization is that the blurring of cultural differences does not mean disrespecting the local culture. In every market, respect is measured in accordance to the effort that each brand shows in understanding the local culture. In order for Innocents Smoothie to overcome the cultural boundaries and to transmit a message across cultures effectively and respectfully, an emerging approach that seems to achieve better results than the standardization approach consists in the adaptation or localization of the riginal advertising strategy. Papavassiliou and Stathakopoulos (1997) also provide a list of the arguments introduced by the proponents of the adaptation approach: a) Separate messages should be used to reach buyers in different markets by fitting the message to each particular country. b) There are insurmountable differences (e. g. cultural, economic, legal, media and product dissimilarities) between countries and even between regions of the same country. ) These differences necessitate the adaptation or development of new/different advertising strategies. d) Assuming similar buying motives for consumers across foreign markets may be simplistic, or even dangerous. Therefore an immediate consequence for Innocents Smoothie wanting to compete in the global marketplace, as noted by Quelch and Klein, is that they need an “in-depth understanding of foreign marketing environments to assess the advantages of its own products and services” (Quelch and Klein cited in Chaffey 2002: 143). Chaffey then acknowledges that: Language and cultural understanding may also present a problem On the other hand Quelch and Klein note that the growth of the use of the Internet for business will accelerate the trend of English becoming the lingua franca of commerce. ” (ibid. ). The theoretical framework for standardization approach in the online arena is that a single website from Innocents Smoothie which they already operate can operate efficiently as a company’s link to the whole world by overcoming both physical and cultural boundaries, which seems to include the assumption that most Internet users can speak English.
Thus English can operate as a lingua franca bringing this new digital world and its inhabitants closer together. ?