It rises in the second half of the XIX Century, in some European countries, and a little later in the United States and other countries.
For some, Social Psychology appeared in 1859, along with the revised edition of “Great Soviet Encyclopedia” by Steintahl and Lazarus. This magazine puts Social Psychology as a branch of psychology bourgeois. For others, the social psychology emerged in recent years in the 9th century, with the process of psychologizing of Sociology.
As it can be seen, there is no consensus regarding the date and context in which social psychology was born.The non-Soviet social psychology has in common with the bourgeois sociology the tendency to justify the ideology of capitalism. But you can not reduce its Social Psychology bourgeois ideological function, it also deals with real problems, and provides methods for obtaining and preparing scientific information. According to Kuzmin, Social Psychology has taken two distinct paths: one tries to meet the needs of Psychology, the other serves the policy of the ruling classes (as bourgeois sociology). Therefore, it becomes difficult to argue that social psychology is closer to psychology or sociology.
To Mansurov, Social Psychology borns thanks to the successes of the various social sciences. However, it recognizes that reason alone was not enough, what was even influenced the ideological and political interests of the bourgeoisie. Mansurov reinforces the idea of seeing the social psychology as a branch of bourgeois sociology, ready to defend the ruling class in the revolutionary movement of the working class. According to Pariguin (text author), Social Psychology, goes far beyond this ideological character that some scholars try to impose it.It would be mediocre to believe that Social Psychology serving only the interests of a minority. Who ran a little from the simplistic analysis was ISKon, linking the emergence of social psychology with the psychologizing of Sociology. For him, the psychology of the middle of this century ignored social factors and the specific nature of the collective consciousness.
Occupied only the psychology of the individual. For the author, considering the epistemological roots of social psychology is as important as considering its social roots.Thus, Social Psychology also appears to meet the needs of the development of scientific knowledge. • SOURCES OF SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY: Gordon Allport points out Plato as the founder of irrational tendency in social psychology. This is because Plato underestimated the reasoning ability of the masses. In general, ancient philosophers despised the role of the masses in society. Helvetius highlighted the importance of social environment for the education of man xo role of conscience and the passions of the individual to the development of society.
Feuerbach emphasized the emotional factor in the communication process of people and human relationships in the development of all social relations. Hegel was one of the historical process that psychologized. He justified the actions arising from the masses as their needs and passions. Many issues related to social psychology are in the works of the early bourgeois thinkers.
Despite this, we can not consider them the founders of social psychology as a scientific discipline independent. Unthinkable, too, credited to the creation of the subjective idealist social psychology, as they had as a reality only the subjective world of the person.And the idealistic goals? Considered as a single reality as only the absolute idea, are also discarded as creators of social psychology. The class struggle, which was the leitmotiv of the bourgeois revolutions of the seventeenth-century, brought up the need for a study on the psychology of mass movements for a proper understanding of the meaning of historical events. In this moment of crisis the traditional idealist conception of history, who better reflected the peculiarities of certain psychosocial layers was Balzac, with his portraits of social types of the century France.
XIX. Balzac was able to attract the attention of sociologists and philosophers to the problems of psychology classes, through their art. To Labriola, Balzac was the one who discovered the psychology classes, not Auguste Comte. Against the bourgeois thought, the French historians Thierry, Mignet and Guizot were the first to recognize the important role of the masses in history. According to Thierry, is more comfortable for most historians give the hero some profound changes of a certain society, instead of admitting the indispensable role of people in these changes.The works of Marx and Engels had great influence on the bourgeois sociologists and psychologists, who came to consider the mass revolutionary movement as a progressive force of historical development. The study of the psychology of people and the masses is a factor origination of Social Psychology. • BIRTH OF PSYCHOLOGY AS A BRANCH OF DIFFERENT SECTORS OF SOCIOLOGY: Many sectors of Sociology had interest in Social Psychology.
Linguists, for example, was vital to the social psychology itself, through the work of Lazarus, Stheinthal, and even Wilhelm Wundt.Apart from linguistics, also influenced Anthropology, Archaeology and Ethnography. More specifically in the psychological area, we find influences of General Psychology and Psychiatry. We can locate the first foundations of psychosocial orientation in psychology in the work of psychologists and Baudouin McDougall, Wundt and Ribot. At the beginning of the century XX, the psychiatrist Sigmund Freud was used to study social psychology and the social character of the psychically conditioned neuroses and psychoses of the masses. SPECIAL FEATURES OF THE BIRTH OF CURRENT PSYCHOLOGICAL SOCIETY BOURGEOIS: Chronologically, we can situate the process of psychologizing of bourgeois sociology in the last decade of last century. I accept this process, many bourgeois sociologists have had no choice but to admit that “the century of the succeeding century heroes of the masses,” as the French sociologist and publicist G.
Le Bon. But, while acknowledging the power of the masses, the bourgeois sociologists and social psychologists still bore traces of philosophical traditions.Reinforcing these traditions, the defense of capitalism pointed the mass revolutionary movement as something irrational and destructive.
Thus, the psycho-bourgeois were unable to legitimize the important role of the masses in history, within a scientific conception. The psycho G. Mikhailovsky late sociologist and considered fundamental to the authority of the hero and his power of suggestion about the collective unconscious.
They believed that people need a model to be imitated, not being able to act consciously. Seeing one in social sychology ideological instrument, ready to defend the exploitation of workers, as reactionary G. Tarde, Le Bon and Social Psychology Sighele developed in this direction, treating people as anarchists and criminals, destroying the order. For Le Bon, knowing the psychological peculiarities of a people is the first step to mastering it. Social psychology as a science independent born between 1930-1940. 2. DEVELOPMENT OF BOURGEOIS SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY.
DIRECTIONS AND ITS CHARACTERISTIC TRAITS • BOURGEOIS SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY OF THE END OF XIX CENTURY AND THE BEGINNING OF THE CENTURY.XX: We can distinguish two stages in the development of bourgeois social psychology: the first goes from the second half of the century to the first quarter of the century XX; the second is that period to the present day. In the first period, two trends are noticeable: one sees the psychology of the individual as a product of society; the other is based on the individual (psycho-individual), and tries to explain both the psychology of society, like all other manifestations of social life.
Within this trend, there are two currents: the organismic and depth psychology.Organicists were based on the elementary psychic reactions that man has inherited the animals, to explain the phenomena of social life. Those who dealt with the depth psychology (among them Freud) tried to discover the psychological mechanism of individual behavior, considering the sex drive.
However, the psychosocial conception of Freud’s unscientific. Unlike Freud, Mikhailovsky and G. Afternoon situated the unconscious mental processes in the authority of the individual and the imitative capacity of the masses.Despite the differences all the representatives of depth psychology sought to explain social life by psychological factors. Between the end of the century. And early nineteenth century. XX, developed in social psychology to sociological trend, which placed the individual as a product of society.
Ribot, Blondel and Piaget advocated this idea. Another chain that emerges in this period in social psychology is the tendency biosocial. The neopositivists P. Caullet and E. V. Roberti were representatives of this current. AugusteComte emphasizes the socially conditioned nature of the human psyche; Durkheim speaks of the socially determined character of the psychic functions.
Within the current biosocial arises behaviorism, which consider the biological factors, interacting with physiological processes and the social environment. Behaviorism, which had its heyday during the First World War, was later lost ground to the depth psychology, especially for Freudianism, and then to neofreudism. An important aspect of bourgeois social psychology is its tendency to monism, as a single phenomenon could explain the whole psychology.Another feature of this period is irrational conception of man, his psyche and his conduct.
This thought went against rationalist ideas of Kant, Hegel and Herbart. The rapid development of irrational ideas in social psychology were based on political and ideological crisis, and also in bourgeois philosophy. In Social Psychology of the period also stood out, conceptualism, who allegedly elaborated general theoretical schemes to explain all social phenomena. • SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY IN CENTURY BOURGEOIS. XX: Between 20 and the present moment lies the second great step in the history of bourgeois social psychology.
The function of the applied social psychology at this stage causes decrease the interest of psychologists by theoretical questions. It has moved from broad generalizations to the philosophical study of small balls and small social groups. After the Second World War, the bourgeois sociologists and social psychologists have directed their object of study for small social groups. From there, the small group is seen as the backbone of the entire structure of Social Psychology. This conception microsociological intends to mask class differences, apparent social homogeneity in contemporary bourgeois society.
One of the characteristics of this current is the attempt to substantiate the empirical method as fundamental research. The opposition between the empirical methods of research and theory confirms the great crisis of modern methodological bourgeois Social Psychology. In 1924, Allport generalized the experience of the first experimental investigations, laying the first foundations for the development of methodological problems related to psychosocial experimentation.
Although the experiment psychosocial deserves ts recognized value, we can not consider it as an original discovery of Social Psychology. According to the psycho Curtis, currently bourgeois social psychologists dispute the notion of interaction (society – individual). New trends emerged, as neobehaviorism and Sociometry, among others. A novelty of the bourgeois social psychology is the principle of social conditions. Sociologists and Parsons Mead created the “theory of roles. ” Such trends also affect the Freudian, which shall consider the inclinations of man as a result of the influence of sociological environment.