Chemistry

Topic: BusinessEnergy
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Last updated: February 22, 2019

The location where the substrate (reactant) binds to an enzyme is called the……….Substrate siteActive siteInducer siteAllosteric site Facilitated diffusion across a semi-permeable membraneRequires the use of ATP as an energy sourceUtilizes ATP as the carrier moleculeInvolves the movement of molecules from regions of low to high concentrationInvolves passive (as opposed to active) transport In what stage of mitosis is the cell shown here?TelophaseProphase                                         no picture of cell is shown hereAnaphaseMetaphase Proteins are polymers ofNucleotidesPeptidesSugarsAminoAcids When a nervous signal is sent along a nerve cell, sodium ions enter the cell very quickly through protein channels in the membrane to an area of lower concentration.  After the nervous signal has passed, the sodium ions are moved out of the cell to establish a high concentration outside the cell’s membrane.  The first movement of ions described here is an example of ______while the second movement of ions is _______.

Active transport; active transportActive transport; facilitated diffusionFacilitated diffusion; active transportFacilitated diffusion; facilitated diffusion The concentration of potassium is much higher inside a red blood cell than outside.  Despite this, potassium continually moves into the cell.  The process by which potassium is moved into the cell is calledOsmosisSimple diffusionFacilitated diffusionActive transport Frequently attached to the endoplasmic reticulum are ___________, producing the rough ER.

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CentriolesLysosomesMitochondriaRibosomes Which of the following lists the correct order in which newly produced proteins are delivered to the plasma membrane.From the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi apparatus to lysosomes to the         plasma membraneFrom the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi apparatus to the plasma membraneFrom the endoplasmic reticulum to the plasma membraneFrom the Golgi apparatus to the endoplasmic reticulum to the plasma membrane Which of the following events occurs during prophase of   mitosis?DNA is replicated creating sister chromatidsChromosomes condense so that they become visible with a light microscopeSegments of chromosomes are exchanged between homologous chromosomesMicrotubules pull sister chromatids apart Science assumes that natural laws (such as the law of gravity)Apply uniformly through space and through timeApply in the laboratory but not in natureChange with timeDiffer depending on the location of the observer 6CO2 + 6H2O + light energy -> C6H12O6 + 6O2 is the overall reaction of photosynthesis.  In which of the photosynthetic reactions is oxygen produced?The light reactionsThe dark reactionsIn both the light and dark reactionsIn the Krebs cycle When an electron moves from a lower shell to a higher shellEnergy is released by the atomEnergy is absorbed by the atomThe atom is called an isotopeThe atom is called an ion All of the following are features of the scientific method exceptHypothesis formulationObservation and experimentationSubjective data collectionInductive and deductive reasoning Glycolysis isThe breakdown of starch to form glucoseThe systhesis of pyruvate in mitochondriaThe breakdown of glucose to form two molecules of pyruvateThe synthesis of glucose from two molecules of pyruvate Enzymes are a class of proteins that catalyze chemical reactions.  Like all other catalysts, they speed up chemical reactions byElevating the activation energy of the reactionReleasing energy for the reactionMaking the reaction endergonicLowering the activation energy of the reaction The internal structures of eukaryotic cells are calledOrgansOrganellesTissuesMicrospheres Our muscles may ache after strenuous exercise due to a buildup ofCarbon dioxideLactic acidPyruvic acidOxygen Meiosis results in the formation of2 daughter cells that are genetically identical2 daughter cells that are genetically different4 daughter cells that are genetically identical4 daughter cells that are genetically different Hemoglobin is a protein that consists of four polypeptide subunits bonded together.

  Which level of organization is represented by the bonding together of these subunits?PrimarySecondaryTertiaryQuaternary In the hierarchy or organization levels of living organisms, the first level which can be called “living” is theAtomic levelOrganelle levelCell levelOrganism level Where does the oxygen liberated by plants in photosynthesis come from?Carbon dioxideGlucoseWaterPyruvic acid Which of the following organelles is mismatched with its function?Golgi apparatus – packaging products for exocytosisNucleolus – ribosomal subunit synthesisRibosomes – lipid synthesisLysosomes – stores hydrolytic enzymes The activation energy of a chemical reaction could be defined asThe amount of randomness in a systemThe total amount of energy in a reactionThe net energy change from reactants to productsThe energy input needed to start the reaction Which of the following sequences correctly describes mitosis?Prophase – > anaphase -> metaphase -> telophaseProphase -> metaphase -> telophase -> anaphaseProphase -> metaphase -> anaphase -> telophaseTelophase -> metaphase -> anaphase -> prophase In the light –dependent reactions of photosynthesis, ATP is produced by chemiosmosis.  Which of the following describe the processWhen light strikes the chlorophyll  molecules, water is moved across the      chloroplast membrane.  When water moves back across the membrane, ATP is generatedAs high-energy electrons move from carrier to carrier in the electron transport     system of the thylakoid membrane, some of the energy is used to pump hydrogen    ions across the membrane.  When these hydrogen ions move back across the         membrane, they pass through an ion channelChemiosmosis is the process by which water moves across a semipermeable        membrane27.The fluid mosaic model describes membranes as fluid becauseThe phospholipids molecules are continually sliding by one anotherThe proteins interact with each other to form a superconducting fluidThe proteins flow through membrane pores into the cell’s interiorThe phospholipids molecules are embedded in a water solution The second law of thermodynamics relates to the organization of energy.  It states that unless additional energy is acquired, the orderliness of a system tends to ________ whereas entropy _______.

Decrease, increasesDecrease, stays the sameStay the same, increasesIncrease, decreases Photosynthesis takes place in which of the following organelles?MitochondriaGolgi apparatusChloroplastNucleus Diffusion is the movement of molecules fromAn area of lower concentration of that molecule to an area of higher concentrationOne side of a membrane to the otherAn area of higher concentration of that type of molecule to an area of lower    concentration Choose the correct statement about prokaryotic cellsThey have no membrane bound nucleiThey have membrane bound organellesThey have no cell membraneThey have mitochondria A homologous pair is composed of twoCentriolesGenesChromatidsChromosomes Nonpolar covalent bonds are different from polar covalent bonds becauseElectrons are shared in nonpolar covalent bonds and are lost or gained in polar    covalent bondsElectrons are shared unequally in nonpolar covalent bonds and shared equally in             polar covalent bondsElectrons are shared equally in nonpolar covalent bonds and are shared unequally      in polar covalent bondsElectrons are lost in nonpolar covalent bonds and are gained in polar covalent     bonds A condensation reaction typically producesMonomersPolymersSimple sugarsAmino acids DNA replication occurs duringThe G1 phase of the cell cycleThe G2 phase of the cell cycleThe S phase of the cell cycleThe R phase of the cell cycle Which of the following are products of photosynthesis?CO2 and H2OLight energy and CO2O2 and C6H12O6NADPH and CO2 If 41% of the energy in glucose is used to make ATP, what happened to the other 59%It is used to make proteinsIt is used to make lipidIt is lost as heat or some other unusable form of energyIt is used to help enzymes do their work The chemical (bonding) properties of an atom are primarily determined byThe number of isotopes of the atomThe atom’s massThe number of neutrons in the nucleusThe number of electrons in the atom’s outermost shell Ions are atoms that haveGained a protonGained or lost an electronDifferent numbers of neutronsBroken apart due to radioactive decay The Calvin cycle reactions of photosynthesis produceOxygenCarbohydratesCarbon dioxideATP and NADPH Carbohydrates normally function in the human body asThe functional units of lipidsEnzymes in the regulation of metabolic processesSites of protein synthesisA source of energy The energy released as electrons passing through an electron transport chain chemiosmosis) is used toMake glucosePump hydrogen ions across the membraneBreak down glucoseFix carbon The Krebs cycle takes place in theGolgi bodiesCytoplasmLiquid portion (matrix) of the mitochondriaOn the inner membranes (cristae) of the mitochondria The cell membrane consists primarily of aPhospholipid bilayer and proteinsProtein bilayer and phospholipidsCarbohydrate bilayer and proteinsPhospholipid bilayer and carbohydrates The final electron acceptor in the electron transport chain of cellular respiration isWaterOxygenNADHCarbon dioxide In your stomach, you have enzymes which catalyze the breakdown of proteins    You also have enzymes in your small intestine which catalyze this reaction.  The pH of the stomach is around 2 while the pH of the small intestine the pH is around8.      Based on your knowledge of enzyme activity, which of the following would you expect to be true?The enzymes from the stomach travel into the small intestine to continue the breakdown of proteins.  As they move into the small intestine, they change their three-dimensional structure to continue catalyzing the reaction.

As the enzymes from the stomach travel into the small intestine, their enzymatic activity will increase since all enzymes work better near neutral pH conditions.When the enzymes from the stomach move into the small intestine, there will be no change in enzyme activity or enzyme structure since this change in pH is so small it will not affect enzymatic activity.As the enzymes from the stomach move into the small intestine, their enzymatic activity will be reduced or stopped due to the change in pH.  Other enzymes designed to work in conditions of the small intestine will continue the breakdown of proteins. Saturated fatsHave no double covalent bondsTend to be solid at room temperatureContain the maximum number of hydrogen atoms possibleAll of the above The bond formed between two atoms in which an electron is unequally shared is called a (n)Nonpolar covalent bondNonpolar ionic bondPolar covalent bondPolar ionic bond In eukaryotic cells, pyruvate produced by glycolysis is transported into the mitochondrial matrix, whereEnzymes for the Krebs cycle break down the pyruvate, producing CO2 as a waste           productThe electron transport system recombines pyruvate molecules to produce glucoseThe electron transport system breaks down the pyruvate, CO2 as a waste productEnzymes for the Krebs cycle convert the pyruvate into alcohol or lactate 1)      Why is carbon dioxide a key molecule in the light-independent reactions of photosynthesis?-         Carbon Dioxide is one of the raw materials for the synthesis of sugars, which are they key products of the light-independent reactions-          Carbon Dioxide provides electrons to replace those lost by chlorophyll during the light dependent reactions-          Carbon dioxide inhibits the light-independent reactions of photosynthesis-          Carbon Dioxide is the major product of the light-independent reaction of photosynthesis 

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