Computer Hardware Fundamentals Computer Maintenance and Training Manual Contents Safety2 Environmental concerns2 What are the Benefits? 2 Resources2 Power Protection2 Heat3 Dust3 Static3 Cleaning4 The Tower4 Monitor5 Keyboard5 Mouse5 Internal hardware installation and maintenance5 Motherboard Components5 Power Supply7 CPU installation8 Memory Installation9 Mass Storage Devices9 Hard drives10 Graphics card10 Input/output11 Windows Vista® Upgrade11 References13 Safety Environmental concerns With the amount of electronics used by humanity, disposal of outdated and roken equipment is a big problem that is growing larger with every upgrade and new device. A big problem with this increasing amount of waste is the hazardous chemicals that can be released into the environment from the old equipment. Another problem is the fact that these items are usually constructed of materials that don’t biodegrade without significant amounts of time. For these reasons, it isn’t always advisable to dump the equipment in landfills. There are methods available for reducing and recycling this electronic waste, whether it be repairing old computers for other users, or recycling the components themselves into new equipment.
There are still problems with refurbishing old computers, such as people being unwilling to use outdated equipment. Even if they are willing to take the equipment, they might not have access to proper disposal resources. This also points out that these concerns should be addressed globally, it is impossible to say how someone’s trash could affect our entire ecosystem.
Everybody should take pride in their environment and pull their own weight in order to keep it clean. What are the Benefits? There are many benefits that come from showing more concern for the environment.It will better our future, it is a good example for our children to build on.
There are many useful elements that can be salvaged from old or broken equipment, reusing them makes fiscal sense as well as environmental sense. We’ll also cut down on sources of hazardous material, which will help cut down on many things like illness and death. Resources I live in a rural area, so unfortunately my recycling options can be somewhat limited. However, there is a program that is ran by OM Computer Recycling that seems rather simple and easy.You send them an e-mail, and they mail you a packing slip with the postage paid. Put the equipment you want to get rid of in that and mail it back to them, they’ll remove all your traces from it and they don’t charge you anything for sending it in. They probably make a lot from reselling the parts, but if you aren’t concerned with that, this can be a variable method to recycle your equipment. Power Protection Power failures are a huge hassle, power surges can be disastrous.
Nobody likes to be working on a paper and then have the power cut off on them in the middle of it.Documents get lost, equipment gets damage, and nerves get frayed. Everybody has had a power issue at some point, and luckily there are ways to mitigate or eliminate them. One thing everybody should use is surge protection. Surge protectors, or suppressors, are appliances that are designed to protect against voltage spikes.
They try to regulate the voltage given to the electrical device by blocking or shorting to ground any voltage above a certain threshold. Many power strips have surge protection built in, and those that do are usually labeled that way.It is important to note that note all power strips are surge protectors. When it comes to surge protectors, there are certain specifications that should be considered.
They are: clamping voltage, joules, response time, and standards. Clamping voltage is the level of voltage that will be allowed through before shorting to ground, usually the lower the better but also the faster it wears out. Joules define how much power the protector can take without failure. A large number indicates a longer lifetime because the device will divert more power elsewhere and will absorb less energy.When there is a voltage spike, protectors don’t kick in immediately, there is a certain amount of time that is taken before it grounds the power. The longer this response time is, the longer your equipment will be exposed to the voltage. However, surges themselves take time to reach their peak voltage and a protector with a nanosecond response time will definitely be fast enough to catch the most damaging spike. The other power protection method I am aware of is uninterruptible power supplies or UPSs.
UPSs are apparatuses that provide emergency power to computer units when the regular power supply fails, like when the main electricity has a blackout. Unlike backup generators, UPSs respond nearly instantaneously to power interruptions by using battery power. Unfortunately they don’t usually last very long, but they can fill the gap until a generator can get started, main power can be restored, or the devices are shutdown properly. Heat Heat is bad for all electronic devices, and unfortunately almost all of them generate a lot of heat when used constantly.Electrical components can underperform if the heat is too much, and some parts can even break if the heat is too much. There are several things that can be done to keep this from happening. One of the best things to do is to make sure the computer has a lot of ventilation.
This will allow a lot of air to reach the computer, and increased air flow will keep the computer cooler. Enclosed spaces will cause the computer to keep up quickly. Don’t place it near other heat sources. Every computer has internal cooling devices, whether it be air fans or liquid cooling.Liquid cooling is much quieter and more efficient, but also more expensive and there is the risk of coolant leaks.
It is usually used by power users who want to overclock their systems and need the extra cooling. Dust Dust can cause a lot of trouble for a computer user, and not just because it messes with allergies. Dust in computers can cause overheating, mess with air flow, and can even cause some components to deteriorate. The overheating is caused by the dust settling on heat sinks and components and acting as an insulator, trapping the heat right next to the equipment.It compounds this by restricting air flow by clogging vents and cause damage to the computer’s fans because they have to work harder in a dusty environment. If it gets back enough the computer will usually just shut down to prevent further damage. This makes computer cleaning very important.
Every computer should be cleaned regularly, the more dusty it is the more often cleaning is needed. There are various things that can help people clean out their computers, canned air, air compressors, and vacuums can all save a computer user some time and trouble. Keeping the computer off the floor is also helpful in keeping dust away from it.
A second fan to blow old air from inside the computer out of the computer can also help by blowing dust out of the computer along with the hot air. Making sure there are no gaps in your case is also good, large holes like the ones used for PCI slots can let in lots of dust if left open. Static Electrostatic discharge (ESD) is otherwise known as static electricity, and with electronic equipment it can be a big problem, particularly with integrated circuits which are composed of materials that can be damaged permanently by sudden and momentary electric current passing through them.There are a few ways to keep this from happening that should be used every time computer components are handled, every installation section in this manual will mention this. One of the easiest ways to get around this problem is for the user to ground themselves before beginning maintenance. This can usually be done by touching a grounded piece of metal, the computer case itself is usually sufficient. Grounded mats and bracelets can be used to keep people and equipment constantly grounded as well, and it is also a good idea to never touch the electronic components unless it is necessary.
Handling cards should usually be done by holding them by their edges, to avoid touching their components and connectors. Cleaning The Tower Learning how to clean computer equipment is a vital skill for every computer user. There are some good tools out there that will help with this, as well as some good advice on how to do it.
I recommend a good anti-static device, either a bracelet or mat, to keep the cleaner grounded at all times. Cleaning can cause a lot of static buildup, so it is a good idea to keep it down as much as possible.A good cleaning cloth that does not have lint is good for the surfaces, Q-tips canned air is great for getting those hard to reach areas, computer vacuums are very helpful, and if necessary some mild soap can help as well. There are also devices that are specifically for cleaning disk drives. As with most things involving the inside of the computer, it is always a good idea to power it down and unplug it before starting. It should also go without saying that the area used to clean the computer should also be clean before beginning. Probably the best place to begin is with the outside of the desktop unit.This area should be easy to clean.
The first thing to do is unplug everything from the unit and move it to a stable location, preferably off the ground or carpet, that will make it easy to access all of its sides. Using a slightly damp cloth, just wipe the dust off the surfaces of the exterior panels. That should be all that is necessary to clean them.
Use the vacuum or canned air to clean out the vents and other openings. Cleaning the DVD or CD drive trays may require a paperclip, there should be a small hole on the front of them that will allow the paperclip to go inside and push the tray open.With it open it can be blown out with the canned air. If not comfortable using the paperclip, this can be done with the desktop running. Once that is done we can move on to the interior of the case by unscrewing and removing the appropriate panels. There are several different methods for opening cases, if confused the cleaner should consult their manual for instructions.
With the interior exposed, make sure to clean around the fans, air intakes, and exhaust ports with canned air or a compressor. It is a good idea to blow the air on these areas with a space of at least two inches between the nozzle and the target.Use short blasts of air and blow from different angles to loosen stubborn dust collections. After clearing out the interior and making sure everything is secure, we can close it back up. With the cables disconnected, they can be cleaned with the damp cloth by gently pulling the cables through the cloth in your hand.
Then just dry the cables with another dry cloth. For dusty areas there are dust covers available to keep dust out of computers, some allow air through but filter out dust and dirt. If dust is a major problem, then this could be a good way to keep the computer safe.Monitor To clean your flatscreen monitor, it is again a good idea to turn it off and unplug it first. This will also show areas that are dirty. Using a soft dry cloth, wipe the dust off the monitor. Do not scrub.
This can damage the screen. If necessary, dampen the cloth with distilled water or distilled water and white vinegar. There are special sprays available for monitor cleaning, but they usually don’t provide any special benefits.
The case surrounding the screen can be cleaned with regular soap, but be careful to avoid using it on the screen itself.Avoid using paper products or things like a shirt to clean the screen, these things could scratch it. “Avoid ammonia, ethyl alcohol, acetone, toluene, ethyl acid, or methyl chloride” (About.
com, 2010) which can damage the monitor. Also, avoid directly spraying liquid on the screen as it could get inside and ruin it. Keyboard Cleaning a keyboard will help it keep working properly. The first thing to do is to flip the keyboard over and gently tap out any loose dirt or other particles. Then using canned air or a compressor, gently blow out any other debris that might be harder to shake loose.Cleaning the key surfaces can be done with regular soap and a cloth. For a deeper cleaner, Q-tips can be used, or the back panel can usually be taken off. Mouse Optical mice don’t usually need cleaning as often as a ball mouse, but they can get dirty too, which will hamper its performance.
Unplug the mouse and examine the bottom of the mouse. This is where most of the debris accumulates and it is also where the lens and LED are that make the mouse work. If the LED cannot shine onto a surface the mouse won’t do anything. A cloth can be used to clean the mouse, but care should be taken with the lens and LED to prevent scratching.Once done, a dry cloth can be used to dry it or it can air dry. Internal hardware installation and maintenance Motherboard Components In this section I will run through the steps needed to replace a motherboard for a Windows XP computer system. Careful attention is needed because this is a potentially risky procedure and can cause damage to the user’s computer components. However, with proper care and following these steps should allow the user to change out a motherboard while maintaining their current XP installation and settings.
There are some details that should be covered before this process can begin and I’ll go other them. If the user is thinking about replacing the motherboard from an OEM (original equipment manufacturer) system with anything other than its replacement from the same manufacturer, there is a high likelihood this process will fail. Part of the process I’m going to describe requires using a Repair Installation of Windows XP.
To perform that function, it is necessary to have an XP bootable installation disk; not a recovery disk or system where the installation files are stored on a partition like many of the OEM’s supply.It is always a good idea to back up your system when performing a major upgrade like this, and there are many ways to go about doing it. However you do the backup, it’s important that you can recover all the data that you cannot afford to lose in case there is a problem.
There is also a possibility that Windows XP may have to be reactivated, but in most cases this can be solved with a simple phone call to Microsoft. When changing a motherboard, there is usually a desire to change other components like hard drives.It would be much better to wait until the replacement of the motherboard is successful and the computer is running again, before changing more components. This way, the user will know what the problem if there is one, instead of wondering what component it is. Now we can begin the actual replacement process. With the user’s current setup running, visit the homepage of the user’s motherboard manufacturer and download the current SCSI and RAID drivers for the board the user wants to install, in case they need those files along with the latest BIOS update.Follow the instructions provided by the manufacturer and store these files on a floppy drive or CD.
This way the user will have those files available after the replacement, in case they are needed. Next, insert the Windows XP disk; close the auto run window that opens and shutdown the computer normally. The XP CD should be in the disk drive when the computer is restarted. * Electrostatic Discharge, or static electricity, is a danger to all electronic components, and care should be taken to ensure that a discharge doesn’t occur accidentally.It is important to ground yourself before handling equipment, and there are bracelets and mats that will allow you to do this as you work on the equipment. * Power down the computer and remove all power cables and peripheral devices. * Labeling the motherboard connections can save you time, I recommend that the connections be labeled as they are removed, one by one. Don’t entirely disconnect them, just the ends that attach to the old motherboard.
* Disconnect all PCI cards, memory cards, and anything that might impede the removal of the motherboard like cooling systems and cables. Remove the old motherboard from the chassis and install the new board, making sure it fits properly and securely. * Reconnect the cards and attach all the necessary cables.
Consult the motherboard’s manual to make sure everything is connected properly. It may not have the exact same configuration as the old board. * Close up the system, reinsert the cables and devices, and make it ready to power up. With that done, it’s time to power up the system. Instead of going through the regular boot process, make sure to go to the BIOS setup screen.Most likely some changes will have to be made, which the motherboard manual should be able to walk the installer through.
The method that is most common is to power up the machine, and hit the F1 or other key to go to setup. Most systems have a message that says what key will allow access to the setup screen. If unable to get into the BIOS setup, do not allow the system to boot into XP which it probably will not anyway. Instead, restart the boot sequence or simply reset the machine and try again. Once in the BIOS setup screen there are some general items that should be checked.
Check the system date and time. Check the CPU settings, if there isn’t an auto detection system. Check the hard drive settings. There should be auto detect functions for this as well.
Lastly, specify that the boot sequence for the machine is set so that the system boots from the cd-rom rather than any other device. This is necessary because it will ensure that the system boots from the Windows XP disk rather than the hard drive, which should be the second step in the boot sequence. When that is completed, save your changes and exit the BIOS setup screen. It should restart system with the changes in effect.With the XP disk left in the CD-ROM, the computer should detect it and boot from it. It should inspect the computer’s configuration and once that is complete it will start to load files from the CD to begin installation.
Eventually there will be three options, and sometimes choosing the repair an XP installation using Recovery Console option may be the one that is needed. In this case, the best option is to repair XP without the Recovery Console, so the setup XP option should be selected. More files will be loaded and a list of all the current installations of Windows XP on the system will be displayed on the lower window.Select the one you want, if you have more than one.
Then press the R to begin the repair process. Do not press ESC; this will be like formatting and doing a clean install instead of repairing. The system will ask for the Windows XP Product Key, this is because it has essentially installed a fresh copy of XP over the existing install. While data and settings may be intact, service packs will most likely have to be reinstalled after the repair is complete, and the key will be necessary for that. The system should reboot, watch for the onscreen prompts, but this time do not boot from the CD.Installation should continue, occasionally popping up with requests for additional information. Supply the appropriate responses and the system should reboot again, to bring you back into Windows XP. I should point out that this is not a substitute for formatting a drive and doing a clean install.
It may help if there were problems on the old setup, but it isn’t as good a solution as formatting and reinstalling. Power Supply The first thing to do after removing your old power supply is to check the voltage switch and make sure it is set to the correct amount.In the US it is 115v, most likely it will be set on that already but always check. Insert the supply into the case, it should only fit in a certain way because of its shape. Make sure to screw it in securely.
Next look at your connectors, identify which is which, then connect the power connector to the motherboard to start. It is shaped so that the connector can only be plugged in when in the correct position. This is same for the connectors for the various drives. Generally the optical drives have larger connectors than the hard drives.I recommend taking the excess cabling and bundling it together with zip ties, and tucking it out of the way inside the case. It’ll keep them secured and out of the way for your next upgrade.
Double check all the connectors, make sure they are seated properly and that all your drives and motherboard are connected. When you have that all done, you should be good to go assuming that you have the right amount of power and everything is plugged in properly. Close it up, plug it in, and that’s it. CPU installation In order to replace a central processing unit, a few things have to be done first.One is determining what kind of socket is on the motherboard, and what its external clock rate is. The external clock rate is also known as the front side bus (FSB).
Both items should be listed in the motherboard manual, or online if the user knows the motherboard model number. One thing to bear in mind about motherboard manuals is that their information about the fastest processor the motherboard can handle can become out of date. This is because the manuals tend to be written well before the CPU models are on the market, so the user may be able to use a faster CPU than their motherboard manual may say.The reason the socket on the motherboard is important is because only the same type of CPU can be placed in it. If the socket and the CPU don’t match up, it will be necessary to replace the motherboard as well; something the user may not want to do depending on the situation.
Other replacements like memory and other components may need to be replaced as well. Another thing to do before changing components is to update the BIOS on their motherboard; just like with the motherboard replacement that was covered earlier. The BIOS being up to date will make sure the motherboard will recognize the CPU is if it is a brand new model.If it doesn’t recognize the CPU the motherboard won’t turn on, and the user will have to put their old CPU back in and start all over and won’t be able to progress until they do the BIOS update. Doing it beforehand will save all this trouble. After that, the next step should be opening the computer case after making sure all the cables are disconnected. The CPU should be easy to locate, it will most likely be seated under a fan or heat sink and will be square in shape. The user should make sure to ground themselves first, and then locate the lever on the CPU socket.
This locks the unit in place, so it will need to be open when removing and replacing CPUs. Removing the CPU should be a simple matter of lifting it out. In order to place the new one in the socket, it needs to be aligned properly. There should be a notch on one of the unit’s corners. Match it up with the layout of the socket, and it should go right in. Gently insure that it is fully inserted and properly seated then lock it in place with the lever that was used earlier. If it has a protection plate, make sure to align it properly per the instructions that should be available with the CPU.
After that the user should apply some kind of thermal grease or pad. If using thermal grease, only a few drops should be necessary on the part of the CPU that will come in contact with the heatsink. If using paste, spread it evenly with a clean plastic item. It is important that the thermal grease be uncontaminated. Next is the heatsink or other cooling solution. Make sure to align it properly with the CPU and it’s mounting points. Mount the heatsink or other cooling appliance according to its mounting method, which should be detailed in its manual.Be careful, a slip of the screwdriver can cause a lot of damage to a motherboard.
With that done, the user can go right into installing their new memory as well. The computer is already powered down, disconnected and opened up to allow access to the DIMM slots on the motherboard. Before going forward though, there are items that need to be addressed, particularly determining what kind of RAM the computer can use. Memory Installation There are many different kinds of RAM which includes DDR, DDR2, and DDR3. Most motherboards only use one type of ram, the type it uses can be found in he PC’s manual, or online if necessary.
Most PCs in use today use dual-channel memory, which can be installed in pairs for the best performance. Two 512mb memory sticks is better than one 1gb stick, for example. Once you determine the proper type of memory for the computer, and purchase them, then installing them is a very simple matter.
Making sure to ground themselves, the user should locate the slots that they want to upgrade and clear any obstructions that may get in the way. After that, the user should find the clips on the sides of the stick they are replacing and gently push them down.This will lever the stick out of the socket and make it easy to remove. Always move a ram stick by holding it by the edges; the user should try not to touch the circuitry or chips. The next step is to take the new sticks out of their anti-static packaging and align them with the now empty socket. Line up the notch on the stick with bump in the memory slot, and gently push it in by pressing on the top edge. It should go in smoothly if aligned properly and the clips will move back to their proper position to lock the stick in place.
With that done, all that’s left is to reconnect all the cables, and double checking that everything is in place and seated properly. If everything was done correctly, the system should power right up and BIOS should detect the changes properly. If not, check the connections again. If it still doesn’t detect them, you may need to reinstall the old equipment and see if there’s a solution, whether it be updating your BIOS or a bad component. Hopefully this isn’t the case, and the computer works better than it did before. Mass Storage DevicesReplacing a DVD drive is a fairly simple task for an experienced computer user, for the inexperienced I believe it is something that is easy to learn and a necessary part of upgrading computers. In many respects, it is much like replacing a hard drive. The same safety rules apply as well, always turn the computer off when working on its internal components.
Remove the case cover locate the old DVD drive, making sure it is the right one if there are multiple drives. After grounding any static build up on the case or other ground object, the replacement can begin.Unplug the connector to the sound card and make note of it, label it if necessary. Next is unscrewing the screws that secure the drive in place, usually on the sides of the drive. Remove the cable that supplies power to the drive and disconnect the drive cable. Make a note of which end the red wire connects to. It will either be pointed toward the power connector or in the opposite direction.
Remove the drive and examine the jumpers on the back of the drive. Make a note of the settings they indicate. The three settings are slave, master, and master only.With the new drive, make sure to set the jumper settings on its back to the same exact settings as the ones on the back of the old drive, unless a different setup is needed. Reconnect the drive cable, making sure to align the red wire with pin 1 on the drive connector. Most of the time it will be the same type of connector as the one on the drive that was just removed which should make this part easy. Connect the power cable next, then slide the drive into drive bay and secure it with the mounting screws. Before closing the case, plug in the sound cable that was unplugged earlier.
When that is done simply close up the case, reconnect the power cable to the desktop unit and power the computer on. The drive should be detected on start up, and it may work right away if Windows has the appropriate driver for it. If not, the drivers may need to be installed from another source such as a different optical drive or online if possible. With the proper driver, the drive should work fine. Hard drives Physically replacing a hard drive is a relatively easy process, much like installing a power supply. The part with the most difficulty will probably be putting the data into it that the user requires.
If it is simply extra storage space and not the operating system(OS) hard drive, then it is pretty easy because there won’t be a need to install the OS unless it is a machine that needs two OSes. It should still be formatted before usage, regardless of what it is being used for. Before beginning there are certain items that are necessary to start the process. Cables if the hard drive cables are different from the ones in the unit already, a screwdriver, and the OS disk if an OS is needed on it. I also highly recommend backing up the old hard drive before doing anything with it, to prevent data loss.The first step is to turn off and unplug the system and open the case. Locate the hard drive that is being replaced, unscrew the screws holding it in place, and remove any cables that are connected to it. Remembering to discharge static electricity during the installation process is important, touching the case can take care of this.
Take the new hard drive out from its packaging, being careful not to touch exposed circuitry. Connect the hard drive to the motherboard with the existing cables, unless it is a different standard that the old one. In that case the cables should be included with the drive, if not then buying them will be required.Secure the hard drive with the screws that were used with the old one, and make sure the cables are seated properly.
Close up the system and power it on, that should be it for the physical replacement. Graphics card The graphics, or video, card is a very important computer component. It controls what is displayed on the monitor and can be a very powerful piece of electronics. Upgrading and maintaining graphics cards is something everything computer user should do to get the most out of their machines. When replacing a graphics card, it is a good idea to uninstall the old card’s drivers.
This will help prevent driver conflicts and can be done by right clicking My Computer, then Properties. Under the hardware tab, there should be a button for the Device Manager. The graphics card should be located under Display adapter. Double click your old graphics card listing to open its properties. Under the driver tab, click Uninstall. Turn off the computer and unplug it. Open the case, ground yourself, and locate the AGP, PCIe (PCI Express), or PCI slot the old card is seated in.
Depending on what slot it uses, it might need to be unscrewed or simply pulled out.After that is done, just plug the new card into the appropriate slot for it. Make sure it is fully seated before moving on, and make sure any cables it might have are plugged in as well. With the new card installed, power the computer back up. Install the new drivers, which are usually located on a CD/DVD that should be included with it. Windows may automatically recognize it, but I would recommend installing the drivers that came with the card anyway. Once that is done, it may be a good idea to check the manufacturer’s website for updates.
And finally, restart the machine.Input/output I/O devices refers to devices that can be used to input data and devices that can output data. Examples of this are keyboards, mouse, monitors, speakers, printers, network connections, and many other things. I/O devices are the ways computers communicate and are communicated with. Whether the device is inputting or outputting depends on perspective. Humans output data that is inputted into the computers, and computers can output data that is inputted into humans. Most of the time though, we consider devices that humans use to input data into computers as input devices.Input devices include keyboards and mice, microphones, touch screens, track balls, and even devices that use tongue movements.
Output devices include speakers, monitors, and printers. Some devices can do both as part of their operation, these include network devices like modems. These devices all connect in different ways, most use USB ports or other connections, others are plugged into the motherboard or cards, and others operate wirelessly. Windows Vista® Upgrade When upgrading a computer system from Windows XP to Windows Vista there are several factors that must be considered.There may be hardware and software conflicts that crop up, and it can sometimes be a long process with installing and downloading the data required to install Vista, but before that point there are some things that need to be done first.
The first thing to consider is the hardware requirements for Vista as compared to the requirements for XP. They are different; Vista requires 512 megabytes (MB) of ram or more, 5-10 gigabytes of hardware space depending on features installed and virtual memory settings, a DirectX 9 class graphics card that supports WDDM and Pixel Shader 2. , a Vista capable CPU, and a DVD drive.
The computer that is being upgraded has all of these requirements already but when it comes to the CPU there is something important to take into account. Vista is available in 32 and 64-bit versions, the one that is chosen depends on what the CPU is set up for. A 64-bit processor can handle more random access memory (RAM) than a 32 so most of the newer processors are 64-bit and most of the CPUs used for XP are 32-bit. In this case, the CPU is a 64-bit processor, so 64-bit Vista must be installed.Another thing to do before installing Vista is to make a backup of the files on the computer. This way, if there is a problem or a format is need, there will be a backup of the files to put back into the computer. A clean install, that is an install that formats the hard drive before installing, is probably going to be necessary for this computer.
To do this, you can use Windows Backup or another backup program create a backup on DVD’s, an external drive, or on another computer in your network. With the data secured, the process of installing Windows Vista can begin.As the Admin of the computer, or someone with the right permissions, tart the setup by inserting the Vista DVD into the DVD drive while Windows is running, then click install now when setup screen loads. If the auto run program doesn’t start, open the DVD root menu through Explorer and click setup. exe. Click next to start the setup process and click ‘Go online to get the latest updates’. This will install some necessary patches and downloads from Microsoft that will make Vista more complete and functional.If the user doesn’t want to do this during setup, then choose the ‘Do not get the latest updates’ option.
In the product key field, type in the product ID that appears on the DVD case and click next after finishing. Next is the license terms, which should be read before accepting. Accepting the terms is necessary to continue, if not the installation will cancel and the user will exit Windows Vista setup. After that setup will ask what type of install is being done, in this case choose the ‘Upgrade (recommended)’ option to upgrade the existing installation of Windows.
The setup program should run on its own from that point without any further input needed, but it is recommended that the installer keep an eye on its progress just in case.References OM Computer Recycling. (n. d. ).
Missouri Laptop, Cell Phone Recycling ; Disposal in MO. Retrieved from http://www.
omcomputer. net/Missouri_laptop_cell_phone_recycling_disposal. html About. com. (2010). How To Clean A Flat Screen Monitor.
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