It is the study of how we deal with scarcity, or how we use our limited resources. These resources are those things that can be used to produce goods and services. (p. 10) An economizing organization calls for an excellent management style to optimize profit and productivity for an organization to survive – either for profit or non – profit. Wherein productivity – the key to business profitability – is the result of how we can manage the processes for producing goods and services and is driven by implementing innovations (Watson, 1994, p. 17).
Maximizing competitive advantage and minimizing competitive disadvantages methodology is one of the keys to attain productivity and profitability of an organization by increasing net profits, reducing expense costs, increasing process efficiency and effectiveness, maximized utilization of resources and the likes. This process involves internal and external environment scanning which calls for evaluation. This evaluation will utilize statistical analysis to enumerate the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT) present in the organization and out of the results, draw a solution.
This entire process is called strategic management (Wheelen and Hunger, 2002, pp. 80-85). Fitzsimmons and Fitzsimmons (1998) found out that the integration of information technology helps to define the competitive strategy of successful firms. Furthermore, they added that Information Technology supports an organization’s competitive advantage. (p. 74) Heskett (1986), viewed investment on communications networks, databases and information technologies intensify strategic advantage. Furthermore, He observed that the database a service firm possesses can be a hidden asset of strategic importance.
The value of information is of importance to a strategizing organization that is why (Capron, 2001) he introduced as new component of economics. (p. 3). Similarly, Oak (2008) emphasized that computers have changed the way we work, be it any profession. Computers play a vital role in every field. System integrations enable organization to perform processes in peak rate. (Watson, 2002) The conceptualization of the study entitled “The Development of a Computer-Based Laboratory Management System for Chemistry Laboratories of the University of the Assumption” emanated with the management theories cited. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
The proponent, first and foremost and above all, would like to thank his LORD GOD Almighty for the gift of time and wisdom, and opportunity HE bestowed upon him. Also, the proponent would like to express his sincerest appreciation and gratitude to the following persons: * Engr. Joseph M. Calilung, Dean of the School of Technological Studies, University of the Assumption for being his mentor and a father as well. * Engr. Danilo M. Guzman, for the encouragement and assistance. * Engr. Eleazar C. Nabong, MEP-MEM for not letting him down during time of hopelessness, and for his unselfish sharing of his expertise. Ms. Daphne R. Tadeo, a good friend for the corrections of his grammatical glitches. * Engr. Romano Gabrillo, Engr. Nancy M. Santiago and Engr. Magdalena Gatdula for bringing out the best in him and for the patience. * Engr. Ivy Mar Ramos for the untiring assistance to his queries. Last but not the least his family – Nanay Lourdes, Tatay Freddie, Maraya, Joy and Melody for staying late with him when he wrote this paper. Abcde Krizia E. Lumanog his love of his life, for the inspiration. Ferddie Q. Canlas Bulacan State University Malolos, Bulacan May 2010 TABLE OF CONTENTS Title Pagei Approval Sheetii
Executive Summaryiii Acknowledgmentv Table of Contentsvi List of Tablesviii List of Figuresix Chapter 1: Introduction 1. 1. Company Profile1 1. 2. Objectives of the Practicum 1. 3. Significance of the Project2 1. 4. Definition of Terms4 Chapter 2: Practicum Program 2. 1. Practicum Schedule5 2. 2. Type of Job Undergone6 Preliminary Stage Distribution and Accumulation Stage Analysis and Interpretation Stage 2. 3. Problems Encountered, Lesson Learned and Solutions7 Chapter 3: Practicum Project 3. 1. Background of the Study9 3. 2. Statement of the Problem10 3. 3. Objectives of the Project 3. 4.
Scope and Limitations11 3. 5. Problems Encountered, Lessons Learned and Solutions12 3. 6. Presentation of the Existing System13 3. 7. Presentation of Survey Results20 3. 8. Recommendation on the project26 Chapter 4: Summary and Conclusions44 References46 Appendices A. Survey Questionnaire48 B. Interview with the In-Charge of the Chemistry Laboratory52 C. Letter of Acceptance for Practicum55 D. Certificate of Practicum Completion56 E. Certificate of Statistical Validation and Analysis57 F. Certificate of Proof Reading58 Curriculum Vitae59 LIST OF TABLES Table 3. 7. 1. Respondents22 3. 7. . 1. Students Overall Rating23 3. 7. 2. 2. Rating Scale for Efficiency, Effectiveness and Reliability24 3. 7. 2. 3. Paired Sample Test (Students) 3. 7. 3. 1. Chemistry Teachers25 3. 7. 3. 2. Paired Sample Test (Teacher)26 3. 8. 1. Table of Recommended Components28 3. 8. 2. LMS Summary of Menus and Shortcuts31 LIST OF FIGURES Figure 2. 1. 1. Gant Chart for Activities from January 2009 to May 20095 2. 1. 2. Gant Chart for Activities from June to October 20096 3. 6. 1. Left Side of the Storage, Request and Issuance Area13 3. 6. 2. Right Side of the Storage, Request and Issuance Area14 3. 6. 3.
Transaction Processing on Chemistry Laboratory15 3. 6. 4. Transaction Processing – ID System16 3. 6. 5. The Record Keeping Office17 3. 6. 6. The Record Keeping Office (Cont. ) 3. 6. 7. Labeling of Chemicals18 3. 6. 8. Labeling of Tools19 3. 8. 1. The LMS 1. 0 Architecture27 3. 8. 2. The Proposed Floor Plan and Office Layout29 3. 8. 3. The Splash Screen30 3. 8. 4. Login Window31 3. 8. 5. The Main Window34 3. 8. 6. The User Account Window35 3. 8. 7. The User Account Table Window 3. 8. 8. The Student Information Window36 3. 8. 9. Attendance Monitoring Window37 3. 8. 10. Attendance Monitoring Report 3. 8. 11.
Request and Issuance Window38 3. 8. 12. The Borrowers Window39 3. 8. 13. The Category Window 3. 8. 14. The Index Window40 3. 8. 15. The Purchase Window41 3. 8. 16. The Inventory Window42 3. 8. 17. The Attendance Window (Logger)43 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION This chapter presents the background of the company where the proponent conducted the study, as well as the objectives and the significance of the practicum. 1. 1. Company Profile The University of the Assumption (U. A. ) is a private Archdiocesan Catholic university located at Unisite Subdivision, Del Pilar, City of San Fernando, Pampanga, Philippines.
It was founded on January 12, 1963 and is the first and only Catholic Archdiocesan University in the Philippines and in Asia. It is a non-profit and non-stock educational institution. Its current president is Bishop Roberto C. Mallari, D. D, also the Auxiliary Bishop of the Archdiocese of Pampanga. The School of Technological Studies where the proponent is assigned is a cluster under the office of the Vice President for Academic Affairs. It is consist of three (3) departments namely; Architecture and Interior Design, Engineering and Computer Studies. 1. . Objectives of the Practicum As an academician, the practicumer would like to accomplish the following before the end of the practicum: 1. Contribute to the school administration in bridging the gap between the theoretical and laboratory requirements of each engineering programs of the cluster, following the paradigms set by CHED and PAASCU by means of integrating computerized processes. 2. Conduct evaluation to existing laboratory processes and procedures to spot areas that need improvements in terms of efficiency, effectiveness and reliability. 3.
Conduct research that will contribute to the improvement of the “existing” laboratory processes based on the results of accumulated data during the evaluation process. 4. Translate problem solutions found on the research conducted, into a computer based system that will answer the issues of efficiency, effectiveness and reliability. 1. 3. Significance of the Project The value of a study, a research or an invention can be measured by its significance, the degree how it alleviates the operations and processes of the existing system, and the acceptance and capability to respond to and satisfy the needs of the users – also called beneficiaries.
According to Bishop Jeremiah the Hermit, “The most valuable thing on earth is time, because everything is acquired in time and all of man’s business is dictated by time. You could have food, clothing, fabulous homes, wisdom, and have all you want, but if you do not have time, it means – you have nothing. ” He also added that the worst thing on earth for man is the loss of time. Because by wasting time, we cannot acquire anything; we cannot have anything; by losing time, we lose everything. We even lose ourselves. (”The Value of Time,” n. d. An educational institution caters an intangible product called service. But what makes an organization different from its contemporaries is how expedient, accurate and satisfactorily it conducts its processes. This can be intrinsic and extrinsic in nature, meaning how the organization deals with itself and how the organization deals with the customers or stakeholders. Although an educational institution environment differs from the industrial setting and from a business setting, a common denominator can be drawn from them – increasing profit and decreasing cost. Minimizing astage of resources such as papers and human efforts due to inefficient systems is one of the ways of decreasing costs. The ability to expediently process customer transactions and even interdepartmental transactions increases profit. Proper allocation of resources such as buildings and rooms can both address the issue of profit and costs. Failure to accomplish any of these areas will result to a company’s loss. Process is time – bound. Efficiency and Effectiveness is being dictated by time. Reliability, security, availability and access of data, and processes affect time.
University laboratories try to mimic the industrial setting for the students to experience and to practice with. These are the places where most of the university’s assets and investments are housed. Students – also known as the clientele primarily accessed the laboratory services, tools, equipments and other facilities. Providing a strategic front end to the students may provide expedient response to request and issuance of equipments and supplies. Monitoring, inventory, scheduling and management of laboratory supplies and process will be found on the backend of the system.
However, anyone may argue that the process mentioned can be done using the paper – based or manual system. Strategically speaking modernized, competitive and service-oriented laboratories may find this method deficient and even expensive. Inconsistencies on records will poke another issue. On the other hand Computer-based management systems will provide not only attractive infrastructure to customers but also efficient and economic resorts. Also maximization of the available resources thru proper scheduling will also be an advantage.
Data stored on the database will be used for future decision making process, and will balance the “in” and “out” of resources. It is but a waste of resources if computers deployed on the university’s chemistry laboratories will just be used for simple encoding and internet surfing. The proponent has a strong conviction that the uses of high end computer should be maximized and not merely for word processing and the likes. 1. 4 Definition of Terms PAASCU – Philippine Accrediting Association of Schools, Colleges and Universities CHAPTER 2 PRACTICUM PROGRAM 2. 1. Practicum Schedule
The practicumer’s immersion commenced on January 8, 2009 and expected to end on June 8, 2009. The practicumer’s daily schedule will start at 8:00 am until 5:30 pm in a “flexi-time” basis. Figure 2. 1. 1 and Figure 2. 1. 2 shows the Gantt chart of the practicum activities: Figure 2. 1. 1. Activities from January 2009 to May 2009 Figure 2. 1. 2. Activities from June 2009 to October 2009 2. 2. Type of Job Undergone One of the school’s prime objectives is to attain higher form of recognition to each academic performance and to adhere to standards set forth by accrediting organization.
This endeavor entails a lot of evaluation and benchmarking to areas that need special attentions and improvements. Moreover, satisfaction of each student-clientele is also of great concern to private higher educational institutions (HEI’s). Thus, its financial sustainability and the ability to continually provide quality education services, depends on the patronage of its students. The engineering department of the University of the Assumption is gearing towards PAASCU Accreditation. As a preparation, the department should be able to perform internal evaluation from its faculty line-up up to its facilities and services.
The proponent was assigned to assist the department to examine papers and evaluate engineering laboratories. Laboratory evaluation results vary from one laboratory to another. The dean of the Technological Studies (which is also the practicum adviser of the proponent) found out that the Chemistry Laboratory which caters not only the engineering programs but also other departments has the most areas that need to be improved. As the proponent framed the solutions to initial problems found, the Person in Charge of the Chemistry Laboratory and the industrial adviser both agree hat there is a need to computerize some processes within the Chemistry Laboratory. If not totally eradicate the problems, at least minimize them or expedite some processes. The proponent was asked to design database solutions with effective front and backend application for the laboratory and centralize process by introducing network infrastructure. 2. 3. Problems Encountered, Lesson Learned and Solutions Transforming problem-solution into a software solution is not an easy task to do, and sometime is not always the real solution. It will incur costs when technology is being employed.
Thus, improper analysis will lead to reverberating problem results. An interview with the Person in Charge of the Chemistry Laboratory was conducted (see Appendix B) to elicit problems that need to be analyzed. The following are the problems found arranged in order of complexity: 1. Inventory Processes – usually takes months to finish 2. No centralized and systematize database management system 3. Record Keeping of Issuance and Request 4. No basic tracking of students entering the laboratory 5. No clear reservation process and procedure 6. Manual laboratory scheduling processes CHAPTER 3
PRACTICUM PROJECT 3. 1. Background of the Study It is but wise to comment that an organization operating without technology is lagging behind its competitors. Prevalence of IT and MIS department will prove the benefits computerization and telecommunications can bring to an organization. Expedience on transactions does not only satisfy and impress stakeholders but also cutting cost on the side of the organization. The proposed Network-Based Laboratory Management System for Chemistry Laboratory is a study that will amalgamate the three components of the computer system namely; Hardware, Software and Peopleware.
The proponent strongly agrees that these three are inseparable. The study would design front and backend application to be developed using Microsoft Visual Basic 6. 0. It is a network-based application that can be implemented either with wired or wireless infrastructure. Centralized storage and retrieval of information will be done using MySQL Database. Again, the study would frame front ends for student’s attendance monitoring within the laboratory using barcode reading technology and reservation of room and tools.
An interface is also included for personnel dealing with requests and issuance of tools and supplies, and the reservation of laboratory room. Thus, maintaining integrity and veracity of data. This study would produce an application that would serve more less two thousand students utilizing the chemistry laboratory each year. 3. 2. Statement of the Problem The study entitled The Development of a Network-Based Laboratory Management System for Chemistry Laboratories of the University of the Assumption, would like to answer the following questions: 1.
How to identify the strength and weaknesses of the current chemistry laboratory management systems on the following area: a. Laboratory utilization and scheduling b. Laboratory supplies, tools and equipment inventory and issuance processes c. Laboratory accession d. Laboratory Record Keeping 2. Is there any significant difference as perceived by the respondents of the study between the current chemistry laboratory management system and the proposed Network-Based Laboratory Management System for Chemistry in terms of : e. Efficiency f. Effectiveness g.
Reliability 3. 3. Objectives of the Project The project aims to develop a Network-Based Laboratory Management System for Chemistry Laboratories of the University of the Assumption Specifically the project aims to: 1. Identify the strengths and weaknesses of the current laboratory management system and to determine the areas that will need enhancement. 2. Evaluate the current system using the data gathered from the people involved with the laboratory utilization and management. 3. Draft guidelines and solution to address the problems found and elicited from data gathered. 4.
Create an integrated system for the following processes: request and issuance, inventory and control, laboratory scheduling and utilization, laboratory accession and record keeping. 3. 4. Scope and Limitations The study underpinned the underlying principles that could help analyze the problems of the current system. These lead to the blueprinting of the requirements for a development of a system that would answer these constraints. Synthesizing all the former principles found on past researches and publications, the proponent had framed a solution. Moreover, these principles boxed the project, and determined the scope and limitation of it.
The project focused on the development of LAN and computer based solution to the management of the engineering laboratories of the University of the Assumption. Thus, the application to be developed will be applicable and custom – tailored to the University’s laboratory set-up and requirements. This management solution is open – ended for future integration but currently limited to request and issuance, scheduling and utilization, accession and record keeping. It can’t be accessed from the internet. Implementation of total laboratory security is not covered by the project; a separate study should be conducted to realize this endeavor.
Similarly, budgeting and financial endeavors of the laboratory is not covered by the project, but it can somehow assists in the decision-making process based on the inventory system posed by the proposed project. Also, the inspection of the condition, content, composition and actual counts of each apparatus, tool and other related objects requested and returned is not covered by the study, therefore, it requires human predisposition to determined whether the former needs replacement, recalibration and other similar actions. The system would only track the maturity of each stock as entered by the encoder.
However, the assurance whether older stocks were issued first or not is still in the control of the person in charge of the transaction. 3. 5. Problems Encountered, Lessons Learned and Solutions Migrating into a computerized system will entail a lot of process and other requirements. Problems encountered by the proponent in implementing the proposed system are: 1. Labeling supplies and tools with barcodes 2. Reconstruction of the laboratory to meet the requirement of the current system 3. Procurement of barcode readers, finger scanners, networking equipment 4.
Networking processes to meet networking topology required The said problems hindered the expedience in evaluation and pilot testing of the new system. The proponent made a proposal to the management regarding the need to adopt the new system. With the assistance of the industry advisers, needed materials for the realization of the said endeavor were properly channeled. 3. 6. Presentation of the Existing System The chemistry laboratories were located at the first floor of the Cruz Building. The storage, request and issuance is located at the middle of the laboratories as shown on figure 3. 6. 1 and figure 3. 6. 2 Figure 3. . 1 Left Side of the Storage, Request and Issuance Area Figure 3. 6. 2 Right Side of the Storage, Request and Issuance Area Students are entertained on the windows. Each transaction is recorded to logbooks (See Figure 3. 6. 3). Student assistants perform the preparation of request, answer queries and record transactions on logbooks. On the other hand students are asked to fill up forms depending on transactions being conducted. These will be the basis for record keeping Figure 3. 6. 3 Transaction Processing on Chemistry Laboratory Students are asked to leave their ID’s when borrowing tools and equipment. Figure 3. 6. shows the system on borrowing. Figure 3. 6. 4. Borrowing Process – ID System The office of the in charge of the laboratory is also located where tools and chemicals are housed. This is also the record section, where all present and past transactions are kept. Figure 3. 6. 5 and Figure 3. 6. 6 show the condition of the said office. Figure 3. 6. 5 The Record Keeping Office Figure 3. 6. 6 The Record Keeping Office Chemicals and other tools are labeled with masking tapes for identification. Tools are stored on cabinets with markings. Figure 3. 6. 7 and Figure 3. 6. 8 depict the housekeeping and segregation of tools and supplies.
Figure 3. 6. 7 Labeling of Chemicals Figure 3. 6. 8 Labeling of Tools Based on the interview (see appendix B) and initial investigation conducted by the proponent, it is notably found that the laboratory is having problems on the following areas: 1. No recordkeeping of supplies, only tools and equipment. 2. Inventory records are inconsistent 3. No logging in and out records of laboratory accessions by students 4. Presence of forms for request and issuance as basis of record validation and reference 5. All processes are being done manually – paper based and log book transactions 6.
No reservation policy. Mr. Gilbert Changcoco – the in charge of the chemistry laboratories asked the proponent in computerizing laboratory processes 3. 7. Presentation of Survey Results The perception of each respondent – Students, Faculty and Administrators is of greater importance, more than anything else in the framing of the study and of the application being developed by the proponent. Whether the proposed system was able to answer and satisfy the clamor of then clienteles to expedient transaction processing and reliable information is being relied on the feedbacks and evaluation of the respondents.
The researcher strongly believes that there is a need to integrate computerization on the chemistry laboratory processes. Appendix A shows questions being poked to the respondents. Same set of questionnaire is given to Students, Faculty Members and Administrators. Both systems – the current and the proposed were evaluated using the same instrument – Efficiency, Effectiveness and Reliability. With the aid of Engr. Diana B. Pangilinan, MBA – the director of the Academic Research Office Department of the University of the Assumption, the survey results were processed using SPSS v17.
Engr. Pangilinan also interpreted the result (See. Appendix E) 3. 7. 1 Respondents A. Students The proponent used the Slovin’s Sampling Formula in determining the number of respondents. A 7% margin of error was also used. Thus, n=N1+Ne2 Where, N = is the total population under investigation n = is the sample size to be surveyed e = is the margin of error (usually from 1% to 10%) Substituting the values will yield, n=2701+270(. 072) = 116. 2290 However rounding 116. 2290 will give 116, thus the proponent is confident with the sample size. Respondents are all engineering students.
The 116 student respondents were picked randomly. Table 3. 7. 1 and Graph 3. 7. 1 show the breakdown of the respondents. Table 3. 7. 1 Respondents| Course| No. of Respondents| Percentage| BS Computer Engineering| 58| 50%| BS Electronics Engineering| 10| 8. 62%| BS Industrial Engineering| 30| 25. 85%| BS Civil Engineering| 18| 15. 52%| Total: 116 100% Graph 3. 7. 1 – Distribution of Respondents Per Course B. Chemistry Teachers and Administrators There were 2 administrators participated the evaluation. The remaining 8 are Chemistry Teachers. 3. 7. 2.
Evaluation of Students to the Current System and Proposed System The following tables will show the overall mean rating of students to the two systems under study and the significance of the difference among the ratings. Table 3. 7. 2. 1 Student’s Overall Rating| | | Mean| N| Std. Deviation| Std. Error Mean| Remarks| Pair 1| Efficiency (Current)| 1. 8545| 116| . 65668| . 06097| Needs Improvement| | Efficiency (Proposed) | 4. 3642| 116| . 47878| . 04445| Outstanding| Pair 2| Effectiveness (Current)| 2. 0961| 116| . 80455| . 07470| Needs Improvement| | Effectiveness (Proposed)| 4. 4618| 116| . 33349| . 3096| Outstanding| Pair 3| Reliability (Current)| 2. 1897| 116| . 83706| . 07772| Needs Improvement| | Reliability (Proposed)| 4. 4267| 116| . 39151| . 03635| Outstanding| Table 3. 7. 2. 1 shows that the proposed system outshined the current system with an outstanding remark on each area using Table 3. 7. 2. 2 as basis. Mean Value| Weight| Verbal interpretation| 4. 20 – 5. 00| 5| Outstanding (O)| 3. 40 – 4. 19| 4| Very Satisfactory (VS)| 2. 60 – 3. 39| 3| Satisfactory (S)| 1. 80 – 2. 59| 2| Needs Improvement (NI)| 1. 00 – 1. 79| 1| Poor (P)| Table 3. 7. 2. 2 – Rating Scale for Efficiency, Effectiveness and Reliability Table 3. . 2. 3 shows the following analysis: All p values are below 0. 05 (the set level of significance): The null hypotheses are rejected in favor of the corresponding research hypotheses. Conclusion: The proposed system is significantly rated higher than the current system in terms of efficiency, effectiveness and reliability by the student evaluators. Table 3. 7. 2. 3 Paired Samples Test| Areas| Paired Differences| T| df| Sig. (2-tailed)| | | 95% Confidence Interval of the Difference| | | | | Mean| Std. Deviation| Std. Error Mean| Lower| Upper| | | | Pair 1| Current Efficiency – Proposed Efficiency| -20. 7759| 7. 57358| . 70319| -21. 47047| -18. 68470| -28. 552| 115| . 000| Pair 2| Current Effectiveness – Proposed Effectiveness| -16. 56034| 6. 70793| . 62282| -17. 79402| -15. 32667| -26. 589| 115| . 000| Pair 3| Current Reliability – Proposed Reliability| -8. 94828| 4. 24642| . 39427| -9. 72925| -8. 16730| -22. 696| 115| . 000| 3. 7. 3 Evaluation of Chemistry Teachers and Administrators to the Current System and Proposed System The following tables will show the overall mean rating of chemistry teachers and administrators to the two systems under study and the significance of the difference among the ratings.
Table 3. 7. 3. 1 shows that the proposed system outshined the current system with an outstanding remark on each area being evaluated. Table 3. 7. 3. 1 Chemistry Teachers and Administrators Overall Rating| | | Mean| N| Std. Deviation| Std. Error Mean| Remarks| Pair 1| Efficiency (Current)| 2. 3125| 10| . 64617| . 20434| Needs Improvement| | Efficiency (Proposed)| 4. 4250| 10| . 23717| . 07500| Outstanding| Pair 2| Effectiveness (Current)| 2. 7286| 10| . 74824| . 23661| Satisfactory| | Effectiveness (Proposed)| 4. 3429| 10| . 38214| . 12084| Outstanding| Pair 6| Reliability (Current)| 2. 250| 10| . 73077| . 23109| Satisfactory| | Reliability (Proposed)| 4. 3750| 10| . 31732| . 10035| Outstanding| Table 3. 7. 3. 2 shows the following analysis: All p values are below 0. 05 (the set level of significance): The null hypotheses are rejected in favor of the corresponding research hypotheses. Conclusion: The proposed system is significantly rated higher than the current system in terms of efficiency, effectiveness and reliability by the Chemistry Teachers and Administrators. Table 3. 7. 3. 2 Paired Samples Test| | | Paired Differences| t| df| Sig. (2-tailed)| | | 95% Confidence Interval of the Difference| | | | | | Mean| Std. Deviation| Std. Error Mean| Lower| Upper| | | | Pair 1| Efficiency (Current) – Efficiency (Proposed)| -2. 11250| . 78936| . 24962| -2. 67717| -1. 54783| -8. 463| 9| . 000| Pair 2| Effectiveness (Current) – Effectiveness (Proposed)| -1. 61429| . 99215| . 31374| -2. 32402| -. 90455| -5. 145| 9| . 001| Pair 3| Reliability (Current) – Reliability (Proposed)| -1. 65000| . 90676| . 28674| -2. 29866| -1. 00134| -5. 754| 9| . 000| 3. 8. Recommendation on the project Based on the result of the evaluated conducted by two groups of people.
It is strongly suggested that the proposed system should be adopted by the Chemistry Laboratories of the University of the Assumption. During the evaluation periods, suggestions were given for future enhancement of the proposed system. One of these is to link the system to the university’s property custodian and to the finance department for the updates of records on procurement of supplies. Moreover, the system is also requested to be link to each student account for the collection of fees on breakages and damages made to some tools. The Laboratory Management System 1. (LMS 1. 0) Architecture LMS 1. 0 is Client-Server Architecture that utilize MySQL Database System as repository of data. Both the client and server applications are built using the Visual Basic 6. 0 programming language. Each component can be connected using either Wireless (802. 11) Network or Wired (Switched or Hubbed) Network. Figure 3. 8. 1 shows the Architecture of the proposed system, and Table 3. 8. 1 indicates the minimum and mandated requirement for the proposed system. Figure 3. 8. 1. The LMS 1. 0 Architecture Component| Requirement|
Operating System| Server: Windows XP or Server 2003Clients: Recommended is Windows XP | Hard Disk| Server: Minimum of 160, solely for MySQL Installation aloneClients: Minimum of 60| Processor| Server: Minimum is Pentium 4 or any equivalentClient: Minimum is Pentium 4 or any equivalent| RAM (Memory)| Server: Minimum 2GBClient: Minimum 256MB| Input Devices| Any compatible barcode readerSolely Digital Persona Finger Scanner U. are. U 4000B for finger readerAny compatible mouse and keyboard| Table 3. 8. 1 Table of Recommended Components Office Layout
The proponent also would like to simplify and ease the transaction processing within the laboratory premise. Figure 3. 8. 2 shows the ideal floor plan and office layout that can be adopted alongside the proposed System. The proponent also suggested some fixture arrangement and major rearrangement of the office layout. Areas enclosed with ovals are not present to the current floor plan of the chemistry lab. Issuance area for other laboratories is also noted to minimize intrusion of students on the laboratory, basically to secure tools and maintain orderliness within the premise. Figure 3. 8. 2.
The Proposed Floor Plan and Office Layout Screen Shots This portion would like to give a brief eye view of the Laboratory Management System (LMS) 1. 0 Application for both Chemistry Request and Issuance Office and Student Access Application The Splash Screen The splash screen (Figure 3. 8. 3) shows the title of the application and the author of the software. It usually loads the needed resources for the program to run. Figure 3. 8. 3. The Splash Screen The Login Window The login window (Figure 3. 8. 4) authenticates users that log into the system. Usernames and passwords entered are verified against the database.
Figure 3. 8. 4. Login Window The Main Window The main window (Figure 3. 8. 5) caters different functions. Primarily it contains menus and other essential shortcuts needed by the user. The application for students slightly differs from the application used by the Request and Issuance Office. Table 3. 8. 2 summarizes the menus and shortcuts present in each main window. Menus and Shortcuts| Request and Issuance Application Window| Student Access Application Window| Function| Menus and Sub Menus| File * Show Shortcut Pane * Log Off * Exit * Shutdown Computer| | | Shows Shortcut Pane when hidden or closed.
Switch users. Logs off current userCloses the entire applicationShuts down the computer. | Security * User Accounts * My Account * Student Information| | NoneNoneNone| Open User Accounts WindowOpens current user account windowOpens the student information window| Transactions * Attendance Monitoring * Open Attendance Window * Request * Request/Reservation * Inventory * Laboratory Schedules * Student Grouping| NoneNone| NoneNoneNoneNone| Opens the Attendance Monitoring WindowOpens the attendance logger window that tracks students and lab user’s logins. Students can make prior requests.
Opens Request/Reservation WindowOpens Inventory Window that keeps track of the current standing of stocksOpens the Lab Schedule Window that keeps record of schedulingShows groups and grouping information| Laboratory Settings * Subject Codes and Titles * Laboratory Rooms * Instructors * Others| | None| Common Laboratory Settings| About| | | Shows basic information about the application| Shortcuts| Show Request and Issuance Window| | None| | Show Inventory Window| | None| | Show Laboratory Logs Window| | None| | Show Attendance Window| None| | | Close Client Window| None| | | Shutdown Terminal| None| | |
Table 3. 8. 2. LMS Summary of Menus and Shortcuts Figure 3. 8. 5. The Main Window The User Accounts Window The user account window (Figure 3. 8. 6 and Figure 3. 8. 7) enable users to add, edit, update, delete and find users. It also collects pertinent information about users of the system. It is composed of two tabs, entry and search mode, and the tabular mode. It also provides printing of reports either by individual users or by table. Figure 3. 8. 6 User Account Window Figure 3. 8. 7 User Account Table Window The Student Information Window The student information window (Figure 3. 8. ) contain information about students current having dealings with the laboratory. It enables user to add, edit, update, delete and find students. Figure 3. 8. 8 The Student Information Window The Attendance Monitoring Window The Attendance Monitoring Window (Figure 3. 8. 9) allows filtering of attendance by laboratory users and students. It also allows printing of reports (Figure 3. 8. 10). Figure 3. 8. 9 Attendance Monitoring Window Figure 3. 8. 10 Attendance Monitoring Report Request and Issuance Window The Request and Issuance Window (Figure 3. 8. 11) allows users to perform transactions such as borrowing, returning, reserving and others.
It keeps records of each transaction. It also allows printing of reports for each borrower. It updates inventory records based on requests and issuance, returns and reservations. It also keeps track of breakages. Figure 3. 8. 11 Request and Issuance Window The Borrowers Window The Borrowers Window (Figure 3. 8. 12) shows the summary of day to day borrowers in a tabular form. It enables user to filter users based on dates. It also allows printing of reports for referencing. Figure 3. 8. 12 The Borrowers Window The Category Window The Category Window (Figure 3. 8. 13) allows user to add, edit and update new category.
Categories are categorized either consumables (supplies) or tools. Figure 3. 8. 13 The Category Window The Item Index Window The Item Index Window (Figure 3. 8. 14) maintains records of Items. Figure 3. 8. 14 Item Index Window The New Purchase Window The New Purchase Window (Figure 3. 8. 15) keeps records of new purchase items and updates the inventory table. It also allows printing of reports. Figure 3. 8. 15 New Purchase Window The Inventory Window The Inventory Window (Figure 3. 8. 16) keeps track of the current standing and the quantity of each item or stock on the database.
It allows filtering and printing of records based on some parameters. Figure 3. 8. 16 The Inventory Window The Attendance Window The Attendance Windows (Figure 3. 8. 17) keeps track of users and students coming in and out of the laboratory premises. It can be accessed either by manually encoding ID Number, or by scanning using a barcode reader, or by using a biometrics scanner. The proposed system also supports electronic door opening using the parallel port. Figure 3. 8. 17 The Attendance Window The proposed application supports reporting for some transactions. Printed reports are sometimes needed for filing and auditing purposes.
The proponent believes that it would help the user expedite the inventory and clearing processes CHAPTER 4 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS An economizing and strategizing organization should maximize its existing resources to optimize profit and reduce costs. Computers offer a lot of advantage to an organization. It provides better and attractive frontier to clienteles. It expedites services and transaction processing. Undeniably, computer technologies nowadays enter the arena of business specifically service sector. Economists believe that information is powerful enough to manipulate the business world.
Thus, a business without computer technology is living in chaos. Educational institutions use computers to serve their clienteles – the students. Records are the most important component of these institutions. Accuracy of information and the expedience in keeping and accessing them is one of utmost attention. Dissatisfaction of customers due to long waiting and inconsistent information is always been a problem. The advent of powerful computers with networking capabilities and large storage capacities solved these problems. However, a proper investment is a necessity. Maximization of computer uses is a much smarter action.
The Chemistry Laboratories of the University of the Assumption is one of the best example of service-oriented, not only that an educational sector. Mentioned transactions are all eminent. Thus converting the manual processes into a computer technology based processes will attain cost cutting and better frontier to students. The proposed Network Based Laboratory Management System for Chemistry Laboratories of the University of the Assumption is a computer, network and database based application that will provide better front and back end interface to both laboratory users and managers.
REFERENCES Capron, H. L. , Computers: Tools for Information Age, 5th Edition, Pearson Education Asia Pte Ltd 23-25 First Lok Yang Road, Singapore 629733, 2001 Fitzsimmons, James A. and Fitzsimmons Mona J. , Service Management Operations, Strategy, and Information Technology, 2nd Edition, McGraw-Hill Company, 1998 Heskett, James L. , “Operating Strategy Barriers to Entry,” Managing in the Services Economy, Hardvard Business School Press, Boston, 1986. Watson, Gregory H. , Business Systems Engineering: Managing Breakthrough Changes for Productivity and Profit, John Wiley and Sons, Inc. 1994 Wheelen Thomas L. , and David Hunger J. , Concepts in Strategic Management and Business Policy, 8th Edition,Pearson Education, Inc. , Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458, 2002 Zipkin, Paul H. , Foundations of Inventory Management, International Edition, McGraw-Hill Higher Education, 2000 Role of Computers in Education, http://www. buzzle. com/articles/role-of-computers-in-education. html, June 23, 2009 The Value of Time by Bishop Jeremiah the Hermit http://www. sv-luka. org/articles/timevalue. htm, June 23, 2009 APPENDICES Appendix A SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRE
Students Who Took or Currently Taking Up Chemistry PART 1 – Profile of the Respondents Date: __________________ Name:____________________________________________________________ ___ Course: _____________________________________________ Age:_________ Please rate the current system in terms of efficiency, effectiveness and reliability. Systems are usually evaluated according to: Efficiency * the amount of time spend in carrying out the task and producing a result * skillfulness in avoiding wasted time and effort * the quality of being efficient or producing an effect or effects
Effectiveness * the usability of the manual system * the quality of being effective Reliability * the dependability, security, maintainability and constancy of the information yielded Instruction: Please rate by putting check inside the box according to the scale provided: Rating Scale * 5 – Outstanding * 4 – Very Satisfactory * 3 – Satisfactory * 2 – Needs Improvement * 1 – Poor PART II. Evaluation of the Current System Efficiency of the Current System| 5| 4| 3| 2| 1| The time it takes to process request of tools, chemicals, etc. uch as filling up of forms and log books and the likes. | | | | | | The time it takes to be cleared when returning borrowed tools, chemicals, etc. | | | | | | The time it takes to be entertained regarding your queries about the availability of tools, equipment, chemicals and the likes, e. g. the searching of each item from the inventory list. | | | | | | The time it takes to be able to reserve tools, equipment and the likes, e. g. availability of slots and tools and supplies being reserved. | | | | | | Availability of student records on the laboratory transactions. | | | | | The time it takes to be cleared during semestral break| | | | | | The availability of personnel to respond to queries regarding records of consumption, breakage, supplies and tools availability. | | | | | | Expedience of interval when each student is served| | | | | | Effectiveness of the Current System| 5| 4| 3| 2| 1| The process of recording of login and log out of students entering the laboratory| | | | | | The process of request and issuance transaction recording process| | | | | | The process of reserving tools, equipment, supplies laboratory room, etc. | | | | | | The process of semestral clearance| | | | | |
The process of releasing processed information requested for reference| | | | | | Complexity of filling up of forms for request and the likes| | | | | | Overall recording procedure and method used in the laboratory| | | | | | Reliability of the Current System| 5| 4| 3| 2| 1| Consistencies of information recorded on log book regarding requests, issuance, breakage and the likes| | | | | | Accuracy of information given regarding the availability of chemicals, tools, equipment and the laboratory room. | | | | | | Knowledge of the persons asked regarding queries on availability of supplies, tools, equipments and the likes. | | | | | Knowledge of the persons asked regarding the queries of students current transactions in the laboratory| | | | | | PART III. Evaluation of the Proposed System Efficiency of the Proposed System| 5| 4| 3| 2| 1| The time it takes to process request of tools, chemicals, etc. such as filling up of forms and log books and the likes. | | | | | | The time it takes to be cleared when returning borrowed tools, chemicals, etc. | | | | | | The time it takes to be entertained regarding your queries about the availability of tools, equipment, chemicals and the likes, e. g. he searching of each item from the inventory list. | | | | | | The time it takes to be able to reserve tools, equipment and the likes, e. g. availability of slots and tools and supplies being reserved. | | | | | | Availability of student records on the laboratory transactions. | | | | | | The time it takes to be cleared during semestral break| | | | | | The availability of personnel to respond to queries regarding records of consumption, breakage, supplies and tools availability. | | | | | | Expedience of interval when each student is served| | | | | | Effectiveness of the Proposed System| 5| 4| 3| 2| 1|
The process of recording of login and log out of students entering the laboratory| | | | | | The process of request and issuance transaction recording process| | | | | | The process of reserving tools, equipment, supplies laboratory room, etc. | | | | | | The process of semestral clearance| | | | | | The process of releasing processed information requested for reference| | | | | | Complexity of filling up of forms for request and the likes| | | | | | Overall recording procedure and method used in the laboratory| | | | | | Reliability of the Proposed System| 5| 4| 3| 2| 1|
Consistencies of information recorded on log book regarding requests, issuance, breakage and the likes| | | | | | Accuracy of information given regarding the availability of chemicals, tools, equipment and the laboratory room. | | | | | | Knowledge of the persons asked regarding queries on availability of supplies, tools, equipments and the likes. | | | | | | Knowledge of the persons asked regarding the queries of students current transactions in the laboratory| | | | | | Signature over printed name Appendix B INTERVIEW WITH THE IN CHARGE OF THE CHEMISTRY LABORATORY 1.
What are the courses does the chemistry lab serve each year? We have, Nursing, HRM, Education, Psychology, Civil Engineering, Computer Engineering, Electronics Engineering, Industrial Engineering, and Interior Design. 2. What is the average student population do you server each year? Roughly, 21 class in a year, around 40 students each class. 3. How do you manage all of these? I have student assistants that help me during their free times. 4. Are there times that you do it all yourself? Yes. 5. Do you have computers inside the chemistry laboratory? If yes, where do use them?
Yes, basically for filing and record keeping and some word processing. 6. What software do you use for filling and record keeping? I manually encode them to Excel and Word only. 7. Do you find this method efficient? No. It takes time to locate specific records. A lot of files need to be open first before I can find the information that I need. 8. What problems do you encounter with your filing and record keeping method? Entries for current request and issuance encoded by working students are not consistent for some time. Records on log books need to be re-encoded again to the computer.
That makes work redundant. 9. Do you find centralization of filing using a database system would be beneficial? That was exactly, I wanted at the very start. It will help us a lot in the reporting process especially on the inventory. It will help us a lot in accessing student records expediently with utmost reliability. During semestral break, it is the peak where student records are of importance for clearing process. Log books method makes the work tedious. 10. How do you process requests, issuance, and clearing of tools, equipment and the likes? We issue forms such us request and breakage form.
Requests and issuances are entered to log books for clearing purposes. 11. How do you keep these records? We keep them on cabinets for future references such as auditing and the likes. 12. How do you perform reporting out of these data? It is a very long task to do. You need to get them from the cabinets and start browsing each form and synthesize them to form a report. 13. Are there times that redundancy or inconsistency on records appear on the log book? Yes, especially when different student assistants served the same student. 14. How efficient your request, issuance, and clearing process?
It is almost ok, except for the problem of searching specific record of student. It takes time to process that. 15. Do you record supply consumption? We record tools and equipment, but not supplies such as chemicals and powders. 16. How do you track your supplies? We just perform ocular inspection. We record consumption on log book. 17. Do you perform inventory? How long does it take to do inventory? Yes we do. It takes couples of weeks to do it. There are a lot of stocks to inspect. 18. Do you have system of basic monitoring of laboratory accession of student? None. The teacher does the attendance monitoring. 9. Do you think, computerization will solve problems you mentioned earlier? Yes. It will expedite processes. Records are consistent. Access of records is faster. Mr. Gilbert Z. Changcoco In Charge of the Chemistry Laboratory Appendix C LETTER OF ACCEPTANCE FOR PRACTICUM SCHOOL OF TECHNOLOGICAL STUDIES University of the Assumption City of San Fernando, Pampanga LETTER OF ACCEPTANCE FOR PRACTICUM April 24, 2009 Ma. Magdalena V. Gatdula, CoE, MAE-CAIP Department Head – Graduate School and Eleazer Nabong, RME, MEP-MEM Practicum Adviser Greetings! This is to inform your office that Mr. Ferddie Q.
Canlas is permitted to undertake his practicum under the Engineering Department of the University of the Assumption as the Head of the Internal Engineering Program and Laboratories Evaluation Team in preparation for PAASCU Accreditation. He will be in charge of the research for laboratory improvement and advancement. Furthermore, an agreement was made between Mr. Canlas and the department. His work schedule will be from Monday to Friday 8:00 am to 5:30 pm, from January 5, 2009 to June 8, 2009. Moreover, he is not required by the department to personally attend his workplace, and he may conduct his work at home. Very truly yours, Mr. Joseph M.
Calilung Dean – School of Technological Studies Industry Adviser Appendix D CERTIFICATE OF PRACTICUM COMPLETION SCHOOL OF TECHNOLOGICAL STUDIES University of the Assumption City of San Fernando, Pampanga CERTIFICATE OF PRACTICUM COMPLETION This is to certify that MR. FERDDIE Q. CANLAS has completes his practicum and all the necessary requirements under my supervision from February 2009 to December 2009. This certificate is issued upon the request of Mr. Canlas for whatever legal purpose it may serve him. Given this 18th day of December 2009 at the School of Technological Studies, University of the Assumption, City of San Fernando, Pampanga.
Mr. Joseph M. Calilung Dean – School of Technological Studies Industry Adviser Appendix E CERTIFICATE OF STATISTICAL VALIDATION AND ANALYSIS ACADEMIC RESEARCH OFFICE University of the Assumption City of San Fernando, Pampanga CERTIFICATE OF STATISTICAL VALIDATION AND ANALYSIS This is to certify that the questionnaires of MR. FERDDIE Q. CANLAS for his study entitled: “The Development of a Network-Based Laboratory Management System for Chemistry Laboratories of the University of the Assumption” has undergone validation in this office. All p values are below 0. 5 (the set level of significance): The null hypotheses are rejected in favor of the corresponding research hypotheses. Therefore it can be concluded that the proposed system is significantly rated higher than the current system in terms of efficiency, effectiveness and reliability Furthermore, the analysis and interpretation of the survey results were processed with SPSS v17 under the supervision of the undersigned. This certification is issued upon the request of Mr. Canlas for whatever legal purpose it may serve him. Engr. Diana B. Pangilinan, MBA Director – Academic Research Office Appendix F CERTIFICATE OF PROOF READING
College of Professional Teachers Education University of the Assumption City of San Fernando, Pampanga CERTIFICATE OF PROOF READING This is to certify that the manuscript of MR. FERDDIE Q. CANLAS entitled: “The Development of a Network-Based Laboratory Management System for Chemistry Laboratories of the University of the Assumption” has undergone proof reading under my scrutiny Furthermore, the said manuscript is found to be free of grammatical and typographical errors. This certification is issued upon the request of Mr. Canlas for whatever legal purpose it may serve him. Ms. Daphne Rashid Tadeo Instructor – BSE Major in English
CURRICULUM VITAE FERDDIE QUIROZ CANLAS Zone 1. 129 Sta. Ines, Betis, Guagua, Pampanga E-mail: [email protected] com Contact #: 09065800674/09225013321 CAREER OBJECTIVES: To be able to impart my knowledge to my students as well as to continually learn as a fulfillment. SPECIAL SKILLS: Excellent communication skills. Excellent marketing skills WORK EXPERIENCE: Instructor – AMA Computer College, Pampanga Campus June 3, 2006 up to June 2007 June 2009 to present Guagua National Colleges November 3, 2008 Chairperson for Computer and Electronics Engineering Department – University of the Assumption August 17, 2007 to present
DUTIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES: * Handles Computer Science, Information Technology and Computer Engineering Subjects. * Handles Mathematics such as Algebra, Statistics and Business Related Mathematics. * Conducts Career Talk and Marketing. * Participates in School’s Academic Planning * Participates in the Schools’ Seminars and Training. EDUCATIONAL INFORMATION: Master in Engineering Program Major in Computer Engineering Bulacan State University Malolos City, Bulacan Bachelor of Science in Computer Engineering AMA Computer College Pampanga Campus (AMACCP) OYG Bldg. , B. Mendoza St. , City of San Fernando AFFILIATIONS:
CISCO Networking Academy – CISCO Curriculum Academy Instructor CISCO Networking Academy Curriculum Lead for the University of the Assumption Microsoft Certified Professional MCP ID# 3470330 SEMINARS AND TRAINING ATTENDED: Strategic Management, Leadership, Fiscal Management, and Economics Seminar-Workshop May 4 to 8, 2009 Ateneo de Manila University Graduate School of Business, Rockwell, Makati CISCO NetAcad Instructor’s Conference and Workshop 2009 March 26 – 28, 2009 Century Hotel, Angeles City CCNA Exploration: Accessing the WAN December 6, 2008 Mapua Institute of Technology, Intramuros, Manila CCNA Exploration: LAN Switching and Wireless
October 24, 2008 Mapua Insitute of Technology, Intramuros Manila Central Luzon Regional Curriculum Summit – Strengthening the Curriculum Towards Producing World Class Competent Graduates. September 24 to 26, 2008 University of the Assumption Regional I. T Consortium: Nurturing Ethics of IT Professionals September 5, 2008 Angeles University Foundation Institutional Strategic Planning II April 21and 22, 2008 University of the Assumption CISCO NetAcad Instructor’s Conference and Workshop 2008 March 28 to 29, 2008 Hotel Dominique, Tagaytay City CCNA Exploration: Routing Protocols and Concepts December 10, 2007 Meralco Foundation Institute
CISCO Exploration: Network Fundamentals University of Sto. Tomas, Manila October 25, 2007 Guest Lecturer – Creating PC – Based Application Using Visual Basic 6. 0 October 10, 2007 AMA Computer College Pampanga Campus Orientation Write – Shop on Ladderization September 19 and 20, 2007 University of the Assumption Trainer’s Methodology Training Program (TM1) May 15-18, 2007 TESDA Provincial Office, SACOP, Maimpis, City of San Fernando PERSONAL BACKGROUND: Nickname:Deck Birthdate:February 05, 1985 Status:Single I certify that the above information pertain to me and true to the best of my knowledge. Ferddie Quiroz Canlas