Laurie Holmes April 30, 2010 Econ4494W Thesis Proposal: Title IX and College Sports Throughout history, according to the laws of almost every country, males have been the dominate sex.
In almost every sector of life, the law has granted men more rights and privileges, whether it be property rights or the right to vote. However, in the United States, ever since women’s suffrage, all women’s rights have been increasing steadily. One privilege that men have had in the past, active and supported participation in intercollegiate sports, has also been opened up to women through Title IX, part of an amendment to the 1964 Civil Rights Act.Although Title IX does not solely target sports, its effect on college sports across the United States reaches far beyond what policymakers and others involved in its inception anticipated, in both positive and negative ways. Title IX has affected participation of women in college sports significantly. In 1972, only 15% of those competing in intercollegiate sports were women, which is even almost double from 1967. By 2003, that percentage had increased by 26%, to 31% (Grant et al, 2008, p.
413).Before Title IX, in 1968, there were about 16,000 female athletes participating in college sports, but as of 2004, there were over 150,000 female athletes playing on 8402 teams (Grant et al, 2008, p. 413). However, because the amendment calls for “proportionality in participation opportunities (Grant, 2008, p. 402),” critics claim that it has caused universities to reduce or cut men’s sports.
According to these critics, if a university adds more to the budget of one men’s sport, but cannot afford to add money to a women’s, they may cut back or completely eliminate some men’s programs in order to continue compliance with Title IX.The ramifications of Title IX continue to affect athletic programs and students today. Due to the downturn in the economy, paying for college is becoming even harder for many students. At the same time, colleges feel the effects of the recession as well, so they react by tightening their budgets and raising tuition. Issues of spending and revenue surround Title IX, especially since women’s sports traditionally do not bring in the money of men’s sports.Also, Title IX requires schools to give athletic scholarship money to women and men proportionality, based on student population. Despite the benefits this gives women, it creates an even more competitive scholarship environment for men, and causes athletic departments to have difficulties remaining cost efficient.
My purpose in doing this research is to attempt to discover, if, in fact, the benefits of Title IX outweigh the costs associated with its implementation, therefore supporting the continuation of the law. The benefits of this law come in the form of externalities.Some of these externalities include healthier decision making on part of the athletes, fewer health issues, higher graduation rates, and higher self-esteem (Grant et al, 2008, p. 418). These externalities benefit society as well as the universities. However, it seems that Title IX makes society more efficient through its benefits at the expense of increasing athletic department costs, making universities less efficient. I will attempt to find the optimal efficiency for universities and society based on the affects of Title IX, and figure out the highest point of optimization to keep both parties satisfied.Although it may not be possible to reconcile the law to make both parties achieve their individual highest optimizations, I believe that reaching the highest point to maximize societal benefits while keeping universities as efficient as possible subject to the social benefits would be sufficient.
I will also attempt to apply the various proposed corrections, such as exclusion of football and other “revenue generating sports” from Title IX or counting slots as opposed to the number of participates, to Title IX to see if this combined optimal point could be made even higher to maximize efficiency (Grant et al, 2008, p. 21-422). In order to achieve this goal, I will use sources that have discussed this issue before and attempt to reconcile their ideas to discover what truly the efficiency effects of Title IX are. I will collect data from athletic departments, focusing specifically on Division-1 NCAA public institutions, as well as data from the sources listed below. I will use this data to create economic regressions using utilizing Ordinary-Least Squares to answer questions such as: If an athletic department adds an additional women’s team, how does that affect the department’s efficiency?Or how does a percentage increase in women playing athletics save society money on obesity prevention? I also hope to develop a model to reconcile the benefits to society and universities with the costs to reach an optimal point of efficiency for both. Lastly, I want to apply different proposed amendments, listed in the previous paragraph, to Title IX to see how they would affect its efficiency.
I, thus far, have five sources to use for this paper: Anderson, Deborah, and John Cheslock. “Institutional Strategies to Achieve Gender Equity in Intercollegiate Athletics: Does Title IX Harm Male Athletes?. American Economic Review . 94. 2 (2004): 307-11.
Print. This article specifically focuses on gender issues and the possible harm that Title IX has caused on male sports while trying to help females. It discusses the college’s decisions about how to adjust to Title IX, such as whether cutting male programs is really a result of Title XI.
This article will definitely be useful because it has a lot of data that I could potentially also use, and also uses regressions to prove its thesis, just as I hope to do. Carroll, Kathleen, and Brad Humpheys. “Nonprofit Decision Making and Social Regulation: TheIntended and Unintended Consequences of Title IX. ” Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization. 43. 3 (2000): 359-76.
Print. This article’s purpose is to discuss nonprofit decision making based on social regulations. It focuses specifically on using Title IX as an example of the social regulation that a college, specifically an athletic director, is forced to take into consideration when making decisions. This article will definitely be applicable to this paper.
It is from the athletic director’s point of view, which gives an interesting perspective and adds a new dimension to the analysis of Title IX’s effect on college sports.Cottingham, Clement and Nand Hart-Nibbrig,. The Political Economy of College Sports. 1st. Canada: D. C.
Heath and Company, 1986. 28-29. Print. This book discusses the politics of and the economics behind many aspects of college sports. Although for the most part, this book doesn’t apply to this research paper, the little it says about Title IX could be utilized in this paper because it highlights the NCAA’s interest in women’s sports. Durkin, Jennifer, Michael Leeds, and Yelena Suris. “College Football and Title IX. ” Economics of College Sports.
Westport, Connecticut: Praeger, 2004. Print. This paper discusses the effect of Title IX on college athletic programs and how men’s football programs at schools come into play.
It uses the idea of prestige at universities to show that Title IX policies do not hurt football programs, and that perhaps many schools still don’t implement the Title IX policies when they should. This paper will definitely be useful because most athletic directors with football programs are heavily against Title IX because they think it has bad effects on their program.However, the article proves that Title IX actually has little effect on football, and even vice versa.
This paper also provides a decent amount of data and statistics that could possibly be used to test the different proposed reforms. Grant, Randy, John Leadley, and Zenon Zygmont. The Economics of Intercollegiate Sports.
1st. Singapore: World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd, 2008. 401-429.
Print. This book gives historical background to the passing of Title IX, as well as discussing the achievements and setbacks to the amendment.It also offers an economical analysis of the college sport’s market situation that has come to be since Title IX and some of the proposed reforms that could adjust the effect of Title IX. This book definitely has useful information. As stated before, it contains many of the reforms I will analyze. Also, the economic analysis it contains would make a good model to work off of in this paper. Overall, with the articles and the models I wish to create and analyze, I hope to reconcile the debate about Title IX and find a point at which both universities and society can be as satisfied as possible and accept the law.