In order to have employers who are committed whole heartedly the leaders must be optimistic in creating employees motivation.
The desire of the leader is to have employees who are committed in their work no matter how the circumstances are. In order of maximizing the productivity of the business or the business environment the leader need to respond and acknowledge the different and often unique needs of their employees. The needs of the employees are usually unique and the leaders need to understand the personal needs according to their significance. The leaders should consider and provide the desires of his or her employees, i.e.
security, affiliation, feeling of power, sense of ownership competence, meaning achievement et-cetera. A leader or manager who is optimal in leadership will acknowledge their employees when they do their best, he will know what the best he can do to his people and know the interest which the employees regard to be the best. Motivation will occur when the manager or the leader knows his employees, understands how their day to day events or undertaking may affect their performance. A good leader will know what can motivate his or her employees and therefore he or she will develop strategies to motivate them (Weightman, 2007).Work place motivation can affect the out put in terms of quality and quantity of the business. For a continued growth in education around the world motivation and job satisfaction is essential factors among the teachers as well. Motivation strategies, skills and professional knowledge, resource and the level of competence will determine performance and success of the education system in any given country. For a greater productivity of professionals in teaching and a strong organization development with a good working environment, there is need to tailor motivation, towards these human resources.
Motivation of the employees in the education system has become an important undertaking due to the current state of economy globally.Teachers in both private and public sectors should be viewed as assets in which to increase the level of production and improve on the working environmental conditions. Motivation increases the productivity of employees and should be viewed as an integral part in day to day administration and policies. Due to societal changes teaching professionals has continued to place more occupational demand. Due to the complex issues of societies and environment, it is a concern to both the national governments globally and the administrative staffs to look into motivation in order to increase the productivity levels of teachers who often address complex issues of social concern often with limited funding (YesPakistan.com Staff Writer 2004).Motivation towards teachers has been examined and the implication towards professionals in teaching is now more focused.
Strategies to Motivate TeachersMany primary and secondary schools lack quality education, the main reason being lack of teachers’ motivation that results to lack of proper teaching. This is a problem that can erode of nation schools standards. If teachers are not motivated it means that most of the time they can be absent from work, they may leave the profession or they may become indifferent in classroom practices. As a consequence any form of government may incur a lot of expenses in training other teachers to replace those who have left the profession.
Teaching performance among teachers is related to various sources of job satisfaction. Teachers can be dissatisfied by the payments and the fringe benefits, advancements, education policies and the system of administration and perhaps material rewards. Skills knowledge and competencies can be realized when challenging and often difficult tasks in education system can be mastered or tackled. A fair balance between employees input and their output need to be struck. The employee input would include enthusiasm, skill level, hard work, tolerance etc, while output would include benefits being recognized, good or appropriate payment. In any profession good payment is an incentive that encourages the workers or employees to work harder.They become more enthusiastic and dedicated to their work. Good pay will mean that the employees have financial security.
With financial security the employees will concentrate on their work and they don’t worry about how the end will meet. If the salary is inadequate the teachers will be forced to be absent from classroom and go and take an extra job to supplement the meager salary they get from teaching. If the balance is realized there will be a strong and a productive relationship among employees and they will feel satisfied and therefore become motivated in their work if the teachers (as it happens to all employees) feel that their input are greater than their output they automatically become de-motivated.
The response to de-motivation can be of different ways that is they will reduce their effort of performance they can also disrupt the activities of the organization or they can become disgruntled (http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newLDR_96.htm)The ministry of education expects high performance from teachers and is always curious about it. The ministry will also require certain degree of hard work, patriotism, loyalty, dedication, commitment from his or her employees. Similarly motivational strategies should not be underemphasized as motivation will promote the productivity of teachers.
There are factors that influence the desire of a person or the behaviour of a person in the performance of work. These desires are explained by the “need-based” theories as explained by Abraham (1970). Motivation is explained as to occur within an individual”that is intrinsic”. According to this theory there are five needs of outermost importance to a person this include esteem, self actualization, physiological affiliation and security.
Esteem needs are those of achievement, independence, respect, recognition, etc. Self actualization includes realization self development or realizing the full potential of a person. Physiological needs will include: food, pay, clothing, shelter, good working environment et-cetera. Affiliation needs are the needs of being accepted in work place, loved and the sense of feeling that you are part of the team or group.
On the other hand security needs will include: job security, protection from any form of threat, etc. According to Abraham a need seizes to be a need once it is satisfied and can no longer motivate an employee. The employee can only be motivated by the need at the upper hierarchy (http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newLDR_96.
htm.)Another theory that is based on the need to fulfill as a result to satisfy workers is the two factor theory. According to this theory, job satisfaction and job dissatisfaction are independent factors; (hygiene factors) are those environmental factors that result to work dissatisfaction.
Absence of hygiene factors will result to decline in work performance. Hygiene factors are associated with the job content that is the work condition, salary, relationship with the leaders, the day to day policies and administration, technical supervision etc. However these factors are not sufficient for job satisfaction.
The factors that make the workers to work hard are the motivating factors. These are the factors that are related to what people actually do in the work place like, recognition, advancement et-cetera. The individual needs to have these factors which are referred to as the motivating factors (http://accel-team.com/motivation/.). Both the motivating factors and the hygiene factors are important, they act in different ways.
If the concepts are applied in education system, an improvement of teaching, will results to improvement of schools. Then efforts should be geared towards motivation of teachers and improve their capabilities. A good social physical and psychological climate in classroom can be created by teachers who are highly motivated and are “need satisfied”. A teacher is likely to integrate knowledge, skills if the job is satisfying.There are other factors that play a big role in enhancing teachers’ commitment in their job. These factors include meaningful and a work that is varied, psychic rewards,, support from the administration, participation in day to day activities and in decision making, positive feedback, availability of resources and payment which are reasonable according to the workload et-cetera. On the other hand merit pays and rewards given to teachers for effective teaching as extrinsic incentives do not affect job satisfaction.
These extrinsic factors arise from the environmental working condition, while the intrinsic factors are the ones that motivate teachers to work to their desirable level of performanceTo satisfy teachers and meet the goals of education it is necessary for the policy makers and administrators in the education system to understand job satisfaction needs for teachers and design a system of reward.In order for the teacher to meet their basic needs of shelter, clothing, food and health care, there is need for adequate policies and administration strategies in terms of good payment and benefits that correspond to the kind of job they do. Satisfying the needs of the teachers improve their performance, and enable them to function properly as their psychological well being is improved.
Dissatisfaction with the job and lack of motivation resulting from lack of fringe benefits, underpayments, lack of advancements and rewards etc can result to teachers leaving the profession. If the ministry of education fails to pay attention to the teachers self esteem and dignity, they feel cheated, insecure and sometimes feel that they are underpaid. If such situations arise it will lead to casual disregard attitude towards work, frustrations, finally rebellion which will eventually result to strikes.Factors that motivate teachers do not depend only on administration and education policies but also on economic factors, social and cultural factors. “Equity and fairness” in all the work places determine motivation to employees and job satisfaction.In any department it is required that professionals utilize their mental and energy, take part in the production process of goods and services, interaction of professionals with peers and also define the professionals social status.
Motivation to increase productivity of professionals in teaching can be increased through environmental and situational approaches. The administrative practices which were used traditionally may not be of any use. Professional teaching practices and the styles of teaching varies in accordance to the social needs and education of the staff. It is therefore necessary for the administrators to change the styles of management in accordance to the requirements of teachers and also the students in order for the success of the education system.Reference:Adams’ Equity Theory; Balancing Employee Inputs and outputs, retrieved on 14th September 2008 from http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newLDR_96.htmEmployee motivation, the organizational environment and productivity, retrieved on 14th September 2008 from http://accel-team.com/motivation/.Weightman T (2007): Making Motivation Work: 30 Practical Exercises; Get to the heart of motivation – quickly and effectively; retrieved on 14th September 2008 from http://www.multimediahrd.com/item-Making-Motivation-Work-30-Practical-Exercises.html.YesPakistan.com Staff Writer (2004): Why Pakistan’s primary school teachers lack motivation retrieved on 14th September 2008 from http://www.yespakistan.com/education/teacher_motivation.asp.