Example research essay topic: Ayasofya – 4,943 words

… misphere set on the larger circle isintersected by vertical planes rising from thesides of the square, forming four arches. Ahorizontal plane is then passed through thehemisphere at the tops of these arches, providinga ring on which is built the dome, which has adiameter equal to the circle inscribed within thesquare. The pendentives are spherical triangles,the remaining portions of the first, or outer,hemisphere.

At Hagia Sophia, two opposing archeson the central square open into semidomes, eachpierced by three smaller radial semidomes, formingan oblong volume 31 m (100 ft) wide by 80 m (260ft) long. The central dome rises out of thisseries of smaller spherical surfaces.An abundanceof small windows, including a circle of them atthe rim of the dome, provides a diffused light.Byzantine figurative art developed acharacteristic style; its architecturalapplication took the form of mosaics, great muralcompositions executed in tiny pieces (tesserae) ofcolored marble and gilded glass, a techniquepresumed to have been borrowed from Persia.Byzantine churches, each with a central domeopening into surrounding semidomes and other vaultforms, and accompanied by the characteristiciconography, proliferated throughout the ByzantineEmpire-Greece, the Balkans, Asia Minor, and partsof North Africa and Italy-and also influenced thedesign of churches in Western Christendom. Laterchurches are often miniaturizations of theoriginal grandiose concept; their proportionsemphasize vertical space, and the domes themselvesbecome smaller. When Moscow became Christian,Europe was already into the Renaissance, butMoscow’s Saint Basil’s Cathedral (1500-60) showshow Byzantine domes finally became onion-shapedtops of towers, no longer relevant to interiorspace making.

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See Byzantine Art and Architecture.A plan drawn on parchment of a now-vanishedmonastery in Sankt Gallen, Switzerland, shows thatby the time of Charlemagne (742-814) theBenedictine monastic order had become a bigdepartmentalized institution, but not until almost1000 did church building come to life throughoutthe West. At first, the architects were all monks,for the monasteries supplied not only the materialwealth but also the aggregated learning that madethe new initiative possible. The basilican planused in earlier times needed elaboration toaccommodate a new liturgy.The essential symbol ofthe cross was incorporated in the form oftransepts, a cross axis (perhaps borrowed fromByzantium) that served to identify the choir (forthe monks), as distinct from the nave (for thepublic). Beyond the choir, in a semicircular apsegirded by the ambulatory (a semicircular extensionof the aisles), stood the main altar, the focalpoint of the building. Subaltars, needed for thedaily Mass required of many monks, were placed inthe transepts and in the ambulatory.

At the naveentrance were placed narthexes, vestibules andreception areas for pilgrims. Although many Frenchchurches-Saint Savin sur Gartempe (nave1095-1115), Saint Sernin in Toulouse (circa1080-1120), and Sainte Foy in Conques (begun1050)-had barrel-vaulted naves, Saint Philibert inTournus (950-1120) used transverse arches tosupport a series of barrel vaults, with windowshigh in the vertical plane at the ends of thevaults. Ultimately, the groin vault became thepreferred solution, because it offered highwindows together with a continuous longitudinalcrown, as in Sainte Madeleine in Vzelay (1104) andWorms Cathedral (11th century) in Germany.Thesemicircular arches of the groin vault form asquare in plan; thus, the nave consisted of a longseries of square bays or segments. The smaller andlower vaults of the aisles were often doubled up,two to each nave bay, to conform to thisconfiguration. The greatest monastic Romanesquechurch, Cluny III (1088-1121), did not survive theFrench Revolution but has been reconstructed indrawings; it was an immense double-aisled churchalmost 137 m (almost 450 ft) long, with 15 smallchapels in transepts and ambulatory. Its designinfluenced Romanesque and Gothic churches inBourgogne and beyond. Another important stimulusto French Romanesque was the pilgrimage cult; aconvergence of routes led over the westernPyrenees into Spain and thus to Santiago deCompostela, where the pilgrim could venerate thepresumed relics of St.

James.Along the routes toSpain, certain points were sanctified aspilgrimage stops, which led to the erection ofsplendid Romanesque churches at Autun (1120-32),Paray-le-Monial (circa 1100), Prigueux (1120),Conques (1050), Moissac (circa 1120),Clermont-Ferrand (1262), Saint Guilhem le Dsert(1076), and others. See Romanesque Art andArchitecture. At the beginning of the 12thcentury, Romanesque was transformed into Gothic.Although the change was a response to a growingrationalism in Christian theology, it was also theresult of technical developments in vaulting. Tobuild a vault requires first a temporary carpentrystructure, called centering, which supports themasonry until the shell has been completed and themortar has set.

Centering for the ordinary groinvault must be for an entire structural unit, orbay, with a resultant heavy structure resting onthe floor. About 1100, the builders of DurhamCathedral in England invented a new method.Theybuilt two intersecting diagonal arches across thebay, on lighter centering perhaps supported highon the nave walls, and then found ways to fill outthe shell resting on secondary centering. Thisgave a new geometric articulation-the ribbedvault. Ribs did not modify the structuralcharacteristics of the groin vault, but theyoffered constructional advantage and emphaticallychanged the vault’s appearance. Anotherdevelopment was the pointed arch and vault. Themain advantage was geometrical. Vaults of variousproportions could cover a rectangular or even atrapezoidal bay, so that nave bays couldcorrespond with the narrower aisle bays, andvaulting could proceed around the curved apsewithout interruption.

Also, the nave wallscontaining clerestory windows could be pushed justas high as the crown of the vault. Soon thisclerestory became all window, filled with traceryand stained glass that conferred a new luminosityon the interior. With these advances, the masterbuilders were encouraged to construct moreelegant, higher, and apparently lighterstructures. But the vaults had to be kept fromspreading outward by restraint imposed near thebase of the vaults, now high above the aisleroofs. The solution was another innovation, theflying buttress, a half arch leaning against thevault from the outside, with its base firmly setin a massive pier of its own.

This new stylereceived its most intensive development in thele-de-France.The abbey church of Saint Denis(1140-44), the royal mausoleum near Paris, becamethe first grandiose model. Bishops in prosperousnorthern cities were then drawn into competitionfor designers and artisans to outdo othercathedrals. The beginning dates of the majorFrench examples are Laon, 1160; Paris, 1163;Chartres, 1194; Bourges, 1195; Reims, 1210;Amiens, 1220; and Beauvais, 1225. The beginningdates of English Gothic cathedrals are Canterbury,1174; Lincoln, 1192; York Minster, 1261; andExeter, 1280. The collapse of the Beauvais choirin 1284, however, indicated that structural limitshad been reached. The transverse span of the navevaults of these cathedrals was in the range of 9to 15 m (30 to 50 ft), but the rebuilt Beauvaischoir attained a height of 47 m (154 ft).

Althoughthe finest medieval architecture wasecclesiastical, secular builders also constructedgreat buildings in the years 1000 to 1400. Themedieval castle is a romantic symbol of feudalism;one of the most impressive and best-preservedexamples is the Krak des Chevaliers (1131) inJordan, built by the Knights Hospitalers at thetime of the Crusades. Military architecture was adefensive response to advances in the technologyof warfare; the ability to withstand siegeremained important. Fortifications sometimesembraced whole towns; important examples includevila in Spain, Aigues-Mortes and Carcassonne inFrance, Chester in England, and Visby in Sweden.Urbanization increased on a large scale, broughtabout by the needs and desires of many groups,including the church and its monasteries, thenobles and kings, the craft guilds, and themerchants and bankers.

The planning patterns thatdeveloped are quite different from the arbitrarygeometry of Roman cities or of Renaissancetheorists. Throughout northern Europe, wherehardwood remained available until the IndustrialRevolution, timber frame construction flourished.In half-timber construction, a quickly erectedwood frame was infilled with wattle and daub(twigs and plaster) or brickwork.Monastic barnsand municipal covered markets necessitated largebraced wooden frames. The descendants of Vikingsbuilt the curiously beautiful stave churches inNorwegian valleys. In the Alps whole towns werebuilt of horizontally interlocked wood timbers ofsquare cross section. Brick architecture alsoflourished in many regions, notably Lombardy,northern Germany, Holland, and Denmark.

See GothicArt and Architecture. The Islamic concept of amosque as a place for ablutions and prayer differsfrom the idea of a Christian church, and thedesert climates in which Islam first becameestablished required protection from sun, wind,and sand.The initial prototype was a simplewalled-in rectangle containing a fountain andsurrounded with porticoes. A qibla, or wall towardMecca, had in its center an apse, or mihrab, witha nearby pulpit, or minbar; the shelter at thisend consisted of multiple arcades of transverseand lateral rows of columns. Structural elementswere the arch and the dome; roofs were flat unlessforced upward by vaults, and there were no highwindows.

The mosque had at least one tower, orminaret, from which the call to prayer was issuedfive times daily. The same basic plan is followedto this day. Western and Middle Eastern IslamicArchitecture The Great Mosque at Al Qayrawan inTunisia was built in AD 670, but itswell-preserved state today reflects constructionof the period 817-902.The oldest mosque in Iraqis at Samarra (847-52). It is now a brick ruin,but its curious cone-shaped minaret with outsidespiral ramp survives. The Great Mosque at Crdobain Spain covers 2.4 hectares (6 acres) and wasbuilt in several stages from 786 to 965. It wasconverted to a Christian cathedral in 1236.

Alsoin Spain is the Alhambra (1354-91) at Granada, oneof the most dazzling examples of Islamic palacearchitecture; its courts and fountains havedelighted visitors ever since its construction.Over the centuries Islamic architecture borrowedextensively from other cultures. Beginning in1453, the Ottoman Turks ruled from Constantinople.Sultan Suleiman I (the Magnificent) was a patronof arts and architecture.His architect, Sinan,knew the Byzantine traditions, and in his mosqueshe refined and elaborated on the great 6th-centuryprototype, Hagia Sophia. Sinan’s masterpieces arethe Suleimaniye (begun 1550) in Istanbul and theSelimiye (begun 1569) in Edirne.

Iran is renownedfor brick masonry vaulting and for glazed ceramicveneers. The finest examples of Islamicarchitecture in Iran are found in Esfahan(Isfahan), the former capital. The enormousimperial mosque, the Masjid-i-Jami, representsseveral construction periods, beginning in the15th century. Even more richly ornamented is thesumptuous Masjid-i-Shah (1585-1616), built to bepart of the royal civic compound of Shah Abbas I.

The Mughal peoples, who had embraced Islam, madeincursions into India and established an empirethere.Mughal architecture was based on Persiantraditions, but developed in northwestern India inways peculiar to that region. The earliestremaining mosque, the Qutb, near Delhi, was begunin 1195. It is impossible to separate Mughalreligious architecture from that erected toglorify the Mughal Empire. The great builders werethe emperors of the 16th and 17th centuries.

Theirmost impressive monuments are a succession ofimperial tombs. Notable are the superblyarchitectonic tomb (1564-73) of Humayun in Delhi,the jewel-like Itimad-ud-Daulah (1622-28) in Agra,and the beautifully proportioned and decorated TajMahal (1632-48), also in Agra.A typical tomb wasa high central dome surrounded by smaller chambersarranged about two intersecting axes so that allfour sides of the structure are alike. It is builton a raised platform overlooking a large formalgarden, surrounded by a wall, with pavilions atthe axial points. Each of the 16th- and17th-century Mughal emperors elaborated the hugeforts at Lahore, Delhi, and Agra. These fortsincluded living quarters, mosque, baths, publicand private audience halls, and the harem. Onecompound, that of Fatehpur Sikri, was begun in1571 and abandoned in 1585.

See Indian Art andArchitecture.Islam forbade the representation ofpersons and animals; yet craftsmen created highlyornamented buildings. The motifs are geometricaldesigns, floral arabesques, and Arabiccalligraphy. The materials are glazed tile, woodjoinery and marquetry, marble, mosaic, sandstone,stucco carving, and white marble inlaid with darkmarbles and gemstones. See Islamic Art andArchitecture.

The cultural revolution in Westerncivilization now called the Renaissance broughtabout an entirely new age, not only in philosophyand literature but in the visual arts as well. Inarchitecture, the principles and styles of ancientGreece and Rome were revived and reinterpreted, toremain dominant until the 20th century.TheRenaissance, literally meaning “rebirth,” broughtinto being some of the most significant andadmired works ever built. Beginning in Italy about1400, it spread to the rest of Europe during thenext 150 years. The families who governed rivalcities in northern Italy in the 15th century-deMedici, Sforza, da Montefeltro, and others-hadbecome wealthy enough through commerce to becomepatrons of the arts. People of leisure began totake serious scholarly interest in the neglectedLatin culture-its literature, its art, and itsarchitecture, whose ruins lay about them.

Early inthe 15th century the city of Florence was in theprocess of completing its cathedral. Piers hadalready been erected to support a dome almost aslarge as that of the Pantheon in Rome.A proposalfor its completion was submitted by FilippoBrunelleschi, who had studied Roman structuralsolutions. His constructed dome (1420-36) isderived from Rome but is different; it is ofmasonry, is octagonal, has inner and outer shellsconnected by ribs, is pointed and rises higher,and is crowned with a lantern. Its drum withcircular windows stands alone without buttressing,for the base contains a tension ring-huge stoneblocks held together with iron clamps and toppedwith heavy iron chains. Two additional tensionrings are contained within the dome’s doubleshells. Brunelleschi stood at the thresholdbetween Gothic and Renaissance. His Pazzi Chapel(begun c.

1441), also in Florence, is a clearstatement of new principles of proportion anddesign. A new type of urban building evolved atthis time-the palazzo, or city residence of aprominent family. The palazzi were several storieshigh; rooms were grouped around a cortile, orcourtyard; the outer walls of the palazzo were onthe lot lines.

The Florentine architect LeonBattista Alberti, in his design for the PalazzoRucellai (1446-51), employed in its facade threesuperposed classic orders, much as in the RomanColosseum, except that he used pilasters insteadof engaged columns. They seem to have beenengraved in the wall plane; the resultingcompartmentalization of the facade provides alogical setting for the windows. Alberti alsopublished in 1485 the first book on architecturaltheory since Vitruvius, which became a majorinfluence in promoting classicism.In the 16thcentury, Rome became the leading center for thenew architecture. The Milanese architect DonatoBramante practiced in Rome beginning in 1499.

HisTempietto (1502), an elegantly proportionedcircular temple in the courtyard of San Pietro inMontorio, was one of the earliest Renaissancestructures in Rome. The erection of a new basilicaof Saint Peter in Vatican City was the mostimportant of many 16th-century projects. Indrawing the first plan (1503-06) Bramante rejectedthe Western basilica concept in favor of a Greekcross of equal arms with a central dome. Popes whocame after Julius II, however, appointed otherarchitects-notably Michelangelo and CarloMaderno-and, when the church was completed in1612, the Latin cross form had been imposed with alengthened nave.Michelangelo’s dome, ribbed andwith a lantern, is a logical development fromBrunelleschi’s in Florence. It rises in a highoval and is the prototype not only for laterchurches but for many state capitol buildings inthe U.

S. Toward the middle of the 16th centurysuch leading architects as Michelangelo,Baldassare Peruzzi, Giulio Romano, and Giacomo daVignola began to use the classical Roman elementsin ways that did not conform to the rules thatgoverned designs in the early Renaissance. Arches,columns, and entablatures came to be used asdevices to introduce drama through depthrecession, asymmetry, and unexpected proportionsand scales. This tendency, called Mannerism, isexemplified by Giulio’s sophisticated Palazzo delT (1526-34) at Mantua. The architect AndreaPalladio practiced in the environs of Vicenza andVenice.Although he visited Rome, he did notwholly adopt the Mannerist approach. Hespecialized in villas for gentleman farmers.

Thesevillas explore all the variations on the classicalnorms: governing axis defined in the approach,single major entrance, single major interior spacesurrounded by smaller rooms, secondary functionsextended in symmetrical arms, and carefulattention to proportion. They were immortalized byPalladio’s publication The Four Books ofArchitecture (1570; trans. 1738), in whichdrawings for them appear, with the dimensionswritten into the plans to emphasize Palladio’sharmonic series of dimensions that govern themajor proportions.

These books later enabled InigoJones in England and Thomas Jefferson in Virginiato propagate Palladian principles among thegentleman farmers of their times.In two largeVenetian churches, San Giorgio Maggiore (1565) andII Redentore (1577), Palladio made importantcontributions toward the adaptation of classicideas to the liturgical and formal traditions ofRoman Catholicism. Renaissance ideas had spreadrapidly to France by 1494. French royal policy wasto attract Italian artists (beginning withLeonardo da Vinci in 1506) while at the same timeencouraging and developing native talent. It isbelieved that the Italian architect Domenico daCortona designed the extraordinary Chteau deChambord that Francis I built (1519-47) in theLoire Valley, which retains outwardcharacteristics of a medieval castle. The Frencharchitects Jacques Androuet du Cerceau the Elderand Philibert Delorme worked at Fontainebleau, andDelorme was architect for the Chteau d’Anet, whereBenvenuto Cellini was employed as sculptor. InParis, work on the Louvre was undertaken by PierreLescot in 1546.

Philip II of Spain engaged Juan deHerrera and Juan Bautista de Toledo as architectsfor his colossal Escorial (1563-84) nearMadrid-half palace, half monastery. England wassomewhat slower to change. Inigo Jones, itsprincipal early Renaissance architect, visitedItaly and emulated Palladio in such works as theBanqueting House (1619-22) in Whitehall, London.See Renaissance Art and Architecture. In earlyRenaissance and even Mannerist architecture,elements were combined in rather staticcompositions; classic design implies a serenebalance among the several components, and spaceslocked into the geometry of perspective.Unsatisfied with this, the baroque architects ofthe 17th century deployed classic elements in morecomplex ways, so that the identity of theseelements was masked, and space became moreambiguous and more activated. Baroque movement isunderstood as that of the observer experiencingthe work, and of the observer’s eyes scanning aninterior space or probing a long vista. Some ofthe later rococo works contain a richness ofornament, color, and imagery that, combined with ahighly sophisticated handling of light, overwhelmsthe observer.

Italians were the pioneers ofbaroque; the best known was the architect-sculptorGianlorenzo Bernini, designer of the great ovalplaza (begun 1656) in front of St. Peter’s.Francesco Borromini produced two masterpieces,both on an intimate scale, in Rome. San Carlo alleQuattro Fontane (1638-41; facade completed 1667)distorts the dome on pendentives into a cofferedellipse to stretch the space into a longitudinalaxis; its facade undulates, entablature and all.The plan of Sant’Ivo della Sapienza (begun 1642)is based on two intersecting equilateral trianglesthat produce six niches of alternating shapes;these shapes, defined by pilasters and ribs, risethrough what would ordinarily be a dome,continuing the hexagonal concept from floor tolantern. Guarino Guarini designed a church inTurin, San Lorenzo (1668-87), with eightintersecting ribs that offer interstices forletting in daylight.

His even more astonishingCappella della Santa Sindone (Chapel of the HolyShroud, 1667-94), also in Turin, has a cone-shapedhexagonal dome created by six segmental archesrising in eight staggered tiers.Seventeenth-century French architects alsodesigned baroque churches, one of their greatestbeing part of Les Invalides, Paris (1676-1706), byJules Hardouin-Mansart. The best French talent,however, was absorbed in the secular service ofLouis XIV and his government.The Chteau deVaux-le-Vicomte (1657-61) is a grandiose ensemblerepresenting the collaboration of the architectLouis Le Vau, the painter Charles Lebrun, and thelandscape architect Andr Le Ntre. The Sun King wasso impressed that he engaged these designers torebuild the Chteau de Versailles on a truly regalscale. The Palace of Versailles became the centerof government and was continuously enlargedbetween 1667 and 1710. Bernini submitted designsfor enlarging the Louvre in Paris, but ClaudePerrault was finally awarded that commission(executed 1667-79). French architecture of legrand sicle lacks the exuberance of Italianbaroque, but its designers achieved the epitome ofelegance.

In England the rebuilding of Londonafter the 1666 fire brought to prominence themany-talented Sir Christopher Wren, whosemasterpiece is Saint Paul’s Cathedral (1675-1710).He also designed or influenced the design of manyother English churches.Among other innovations,Wren introduced the single square tower belfrywith tall spire that became the hallmark of churcharchitecture in England and the United States.Baroque thinking powerfully addressed the area ofurban design.

Michelangelo’s Campidoglio (Capitol,1538-64) in Rome had already provided a model forthe public square, and villas such as Vignola’sVilla Farnese (begun 1539) in Caprarola showed howthese important buildings could extend axial tiesinto the townscape. Baroque church facadesfrequently had more to do with their accompanyingpiazzas than with the church interiors. Often,whole new towns were built on formal principles.Early in the 18th century Peter the Great broughtItalian and French baroque architects to Russia tocreate Saint Petersburg. In the New World werebuilt such large urban centers as Mexico City;Santiago, Chile; Antigua Guatemala, Guatemala;Philadelphia; Savannah, Georgia; and Washington,D.C. See Baroque Art and Architecture.When LouisXIV died (1715), changes in the artistic climateled to the exuberant rococo style.

Once again thework of Italians-notably Guarini and FilippoJuvarra-provided the basis for a new thrust. Theexpression of royal grandeur has survived inParis’s Place de la Concorde (begun 1753) byJacques Ange Gabriel and the great axis and plazas(1751-59) by Hr de Corny at Nancy. A more intimateand personal expression appears in Gabriel’s PetitTrianon (1762-64) at Versailles.

Rococo came tofull flower, however, in Bavaria and Austria. TheAustrian Benedictine Abbey (1748-54) at Ottobeurenby Johann Michael Fischer is only one of abrilliant series of spectacular churches,monasteries, and palaces that includes BalthasarNeumann’s opulent Vierzehnheiligen (Church of theFourteen Saints, 1743-72) near Bamberg, Germany,and the Amalienburg Pavilion (1734-39) by theFlemish-born Bavarian architect Franois deCuvillis in the park at Nymphenburg near Munich.The many elaborate colonial churches foundthroughout Central and South America attest to thepower and influence of the Roman Catholic churchduring baroque and rococo times.They includecathedrals in Mexico City, Guanajuato, and Oaxacade Jurez, Mexico; Antigua Guatemala, Guatemala;Quito, Ecuador; Ouro Prto, Brazil; and Cuzco,Peru; as well as such northern missions as Sant’Xavier del Bac in Tucson, Arizona, and the chainof missions on the California coast. The Spanisharchitect Jos Churriguera developed an extremelyelaborate decorative style that, transferred toLatin America and somewhat debased, was given thename Churrigueresque. See Latin American Art andArchitecture. In many countries of northern Europethe elegance and dignity attainable throughadherence to classic rules of composition retainedappeal, while in central and southern Europe andScandinavia, baroque and rococo ran their course.

In England, the duke of Marlborough’s greatBlenheim Palace, designed (1705) by Sir JohnVanbrugh, emulated in rougher and reduced form thegrandeur of Versailles. A renewed interest inPalladio and his follower Inigo Jones emerged.Development of the resort city of Bath gaveopportunities to John Wood and his son to applyPalladian classicism to the design of Queen’sSquare (1728), the Circus (1754-70), and finallythe great Royal Crescent (1767-75), in all ofwhich the individual houses were made to conformto an encompassing classic order. Robert Adampopularized classicism, expressing it notablythrough delicate stucco ornamentation.Historicalscholarship became more precise, and true Greekarchitecture-including such pure examples of Doricas the Parthenon-became known to architectsthrough the 1762 publication by James Stuart andNicholas Revett of Antiquities of Athens.

Thesedevelopments reinforced the grip of neoclassicismin England, and the resulting type of architecturebecame popularly known as the Georgian style. Inwhat was to become the northeastern United States,Peter Harrison and Samuel McIntire took their cuesfrom English architects in their own version ofGeorgian architecture, which was called Federalafter the United States won independence. In theSoutheast, with an aristocracy predominantlyrural, Thomas Jefferson, Benjamin Latrobe, andothers derived their building style more directlyfrom Palladio. Jefferson, whose early virtuosityhad been demonstrated in Monticello (1770-84), wasalso moved by ancient Rome, and placed a version(1817-26) of the Pantheon at the head of hismagnificent Lawn at the University of Virginia.

See Neoclassical Art and Architecture. TheIndustrial Revolution, which began in Englandabout 1760, led to radical changes at every levelof civilization throughout the world.The growthof heavy industry brought a flood of new buildingmaterials-such as cast iron, steel, and glass-withwhich architects and engineers devised structureshitherto undreamed of in function, size, and form.Disenchantment with baroque, with rococo, and evenwith neo-Palladianism turned late 18th-centurydesigners and patrons toward the original Greekand Roman prototypes. Selective borrowing fromanother time and place became fashionable. ItsGreek aspect was particularly strong in the youngUnited States from the early years of the 19thcentury until about 1850. New settlements weregiven Greek names-Syracuse, Ithaca, Troy-and Doricand Ionic columns, entablatures, and pediments,mostly transmuted into white-painted wood, wereapplied to public buildings and important townhouses in the style called Greek Revival.

InFrance, the imperial cult of Napoleon steeredarchitecture in a more Roman direction, as seen inthe Church of the Madeleine (1807-42), a hugeRoman temple in Paris. French architecturalthought had been jolted at the turn of the centuryby the highly imaginative published projects oftienne-Louis Boulle and Claude Nicholas Ledoux.These men were inspired by the massive aspects ofEgyptian and Roman work, but their monumental (andoften impractical) compositions were innovative,and they are admired today as visionaryarchitects.The most original architect in Englandat the time was Sir John Soane; the museum hebuilt as his own London house (1812-13) stillexcites astonishment for its inventive romanticvirtuosity. Late English neoclassicism came to beseen as elitist; thus, for the new Houses ofParliament the authorities insisted on Gothic orTudor Revival.

The appointed architect, SirCharles Barry, was not a Gothic expert, but hecalled into consultation an architect who was-A.W. N. Pugin, who became responsible for thedetails of this vast monument (begun 1836). Pugin,in a short and contentious career, made a moralissue out of a return to the Gothic style.Otherarchitects, however, felt free to select whateverelements from past cultures best fitted theirprograms-Gothic for Protestant churches, baroquefor Roman Catholic churches, early Greek forbanks, Palladian for institutions, earlyRenaissance for libraries, and Egyptian forcemeteries. In the second half of the 19th centurydislocations brought about by the IndustrialRevolution became overwhelming.

Many were shockedby the hideous new urban districts of factoriesand workers’ housing and by the deterioration ofpublic taste among the newly rich. For the newmodes of transportation, canals, tunnels, bridges,and railroad stations, architects were employedonly to provide a cultural veneer. The CrystalPalace (1850-51; reconstructed 1852-54) in London,a vast but ephemeral exhibition hall, was the workof Sir Joseph Paxton, a man who had learned how toput iron and glass together in the design of largegreenhouses.

It demonstrated a hithertoundreamed-of kind of spatial beauty, and in itscarefully planned building process, which includedprefabricated standard parts, it foreshadowedindustrialized building and the widespread use ofcast iron and steel.See Crystal Palace. Alsoimportant in its innovative use of metal was thegreat tower (1887-89) of Gustave Alexandre Eiffelin Paris. In general, however, the most giftedarchitects of the time sought escape from theirincreasingly industrialized environment by furtherdevelopment of traditional themes and eclecticstyles. Two contrasting but equally brilliantlyconceived examples are Charles Garnier’s sumptuousParis Opra (1861-75) and Henry Hobson Richardson’sgrandiose Trinity Church (1872-77) in Boston.

Atthe turn of the century, designers appeared whorefused to work in borrowed styles. Antoni Gaud inBarcelona, Spain, was the most original; hissinuous Casa Mil (1905-7) and the unfinishedIglesia di Sagrada Familia (Church of the HolyFamily, 1883-1926) exhibit a search for neworganic structural forms.His work has someaffinity with the movement called art nouveau,which had been inaugurated contemporaneously inBrussel and Paris. Charles Rennie Mackintosh,whose masterpiece is the Glasgow School of Art(1898-99), espoused a more austere version of artnouveau. The Chicago architect Louis Sullivan, inhis Wainwright Building (1890-91) in St. Louis,Missouri, his Guaranty Building (1895) in Buffalo,New York, and his Carson Pirie Scott DepartmentStore (1899-1904) in Chicago, gave new expressiveform to urban commercial buildings. His careerconverges with the so-called Chicago School ofarchitects, whose challenge was to invent theskyscraper or high-rise building, facilitated bythe introduction of the electric elevator and thesudden abundance of steel. They made a successfultransition from the masonry bearing wall to thesteel frame, which assumed all the load-bearingfunctions.The building’s skeleton could beerected quickly and.



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