The term ‘Facism’ has its several dimensions so have a look over the major characteristics of the fascist ideology. The leadership cult, is the very first trait; the adoration of an all-knowing, supreme leader. Second, the worship of the nation-state as a creature itself, a perfect component to which the individual is counted. The very close idea of everything in the favor of the state, nothing against the state. Hitler’s henchman Rudolf Hess said that Adolf Hitler is Germany, and Germany is Adolf Hitler, means there is a close mingle up in leadership cult and the state cult. Third, elevation of military conquest is an other major issue where the state is authorized with power by suppressing, winning, and enchaining other territories and people.
Propagation of a folk theology, Jews were a prominent part of the trade unionists, communists, homosexuals and others. who would spoil the so called pure-blooded and weaken the state. Michel Parenti (2007)On behalf of the interests of the huge business alliances, there was a complete and concerted restraint, both by the Italian fascists and German Nazis, including all free working-class concerns even labor unions too. There is a prominent link between facism and capitalism. Of these main characteristics of fascism, the link between facism and capitalism is rarely talked about by conventional historians, political scientists and journalists who normally ignore the link between fascism and capitalism, because they ignore the entire subject of capitalism itself because there is something controversial needs to be said about it. But they tend towards the more peculiar components of fascist ideology: the ‘nihilist revolt against Western individuality’, ‘the mystic yolk attachment’, and so on. Although fascism was related to these things, but that’s not the all because along with its irrational approaches it had rational functions too.
It was a major tool for the protection of plutocratic supremacy. Michel Parenti (2007)Rise of Fascism in GermanyThe economic collapse of Germany after 1929 was the main concern for the rise of facism in Germany. The lack of democratic roots in Germany was another basic reason for the development of facism. The concept of democracy is liberal and progressive in nature but at that time Germany was not able to understand that ideology. A common man had a relation only with bread, so the absence of democratic concept was the basic reason which gave a proper and enough space to facism to get developed. Under the Weimar republic facism found a great shelter to get itself developed.
It was quite impossible to secure a majority in parliament and results democracy as a weak government system. (Robert Pearce)The president had an extraordinary authority to declare a state of emergency at any time and Hitler used Hindenburg’s capability to do this in order to maintain his dictatorship. The fear of communism was another major reason to strengthen the facism concept.
Hindenburg appointed Hitler as chancellor just because of such fears. Actually the Nazis exploited the Weimar system because of the weaknesses and used violence as a tool against their opponents. Propaganda was used as a tool to shape public opinion. Even some political parties were not in favor of supporting democracy and represented themselves as a potential associates for Hitler.
(Robert Pearce)Germany became a state of only one party, less parties means more space use law and order according to one’s own. Hitler was supreme within the party and he was taken as the personification of National Socialism. Education was controlled and that was not a progressive approach at all. In fact it was the first attack on the liberty of fundamentals. There was a strict censorship of the media being imposed, no more space to think and express freely. Strict censorship of media can be seen as the assassination tool for the democratic concept because press is being considered as the fourth pillar of democracy.
All non- facist youth movements were banned and replaced by movements such as Hitler Youth and in due course of time it was almost compulsory for youth to be a member of Hitler Youth. The churches could also not get detached by this new system and brought under control of facism. No more rights were available for the labors to strike any kind of trade union ; strikes were totally banned. Terror was used as a tool to crush all resistance. The army was now brought under total control, Officers swore being faithful and loyal to Hitler. Nazi officers filled army ranks and that trend was promoted a lot. (Robert Pearce)On the other hand the non-Nazi commander and war minister were dismissed and got engaged in several so called scandals.
The Nazis made used propaganda as a major tool. Impact on ethnic superiority always plays well so the Aryan Germans were declared in an appreciable way as to be the ‘Master Race’ Hitler claimed to come together all Germans and Nazi interests centered on attaining land in Europe. There was a close identical relation between party and state, both were known as synonyms of each other and finally it all resulted into the centralization of power. (Robert Pearce)Totalitarianism was introducedNormally totalitarian parties were kept in a state influenced by militancy. It sought to make clear all human history as a history of struggle and transition in terms of class struggle, and that the transition from capitalism to socialism and communism is unavoidable. In many ways, Nazism was comparatively a simpler doctrine and less rational.
It advocated German superiority and greatness, lebensraum (living space) and ethnic superiority. In these totalitarian regimes, the leader-dictator was the main author of the ideology (e.g. Mussolini and Hitler) or its trustworthy interpreter (e.g. Lenin and Stalin as interpreters of Marxism): the writings of their own, such as Hitler’s “Meet Kampf ” and Lenin’s ample of essays and pamphlets.
The regime was organized in such a hierarchy, governed by an all-powerful leader. Hitler was known as the Fuhrer, and he had all the dictatorial powers. Hitler considered force as the first law and said, “Only force rules. Force is the first law.” Thus in Nazi Germany, the Storm Troopers and the Gestapo threatened the entire country, mainly the communists and the Jews. Hundreds of thousands were so called victimized. Being an ideology there was always a presentation which could be rationalized so not only “enemies of the people” but also party cadres were eliminated.
(www.thecorner.org)An Evaluation of National SocialismThe national socialism failed in the long run and resulted into disaster to Germany. Although it brought short term benefits but those were not actually fruitful. A destruction for Germans who have contributed greatly for Germany. Strict censorship of art, literature and academic life could not flourish under the Nazis and that was a great loss to Germany. Women’s rights suffered a lot and women forgot the word ‘free.
’ A great loss of civil liberty was all over the Germany that resulted into bad consequences. Nazi extremism brought about Allied extremism and resulted into events such as civilian bombings and loss of law and order in the country. Still some successes can be counted as construction of autobahns, organizations of enterprises like Volkswagen, and scientific advancement in some areas such as rocketry and synthetics. (Robert Pearce)Generic fascism has been the matter of concentrated myth-making from the dictators as well as their followers and their enemies.
It has been a subject to endless conjecture from political scientists and philosophers. The problem of fascism can’t find any solution rather than the above mentioned. It can not be explained in one meaning to the term, only because so many different, contradictory and adverse meanings have been given to it, sometimes due to own profit and sometimes due to other’s losses. Perhaps the most useful approach is; fascism is looked at on several levels and it should be, including ideology, style and organization, and actions. According to an Italian historian Tasca, the best way to define fascism is to write its history.
That may be a way to escape because these are wise words. We should keep in concern that the search for terminological meaning is doomed to failure but the search for historical understanding to know it in a better way is always fruitful. (Robert Pearce)Referenceswww.mac.
com ;www.mac.com http://homepage.mac.com/stray/ib/history/fascism.html;Pearce, Robert.
Fascism, University College of St Martin, Lancasternew perspective. Volume 3. Number 1.
September 1997 ;http://www.thirdworldtraveler.com/Fascism/Fascism_MParenti_CN.html;www.thecorner.org ; http://www.thecorner.org/hist/essays/europe/totalitarian.htm;;;