We call nouns naming-words. They are the names of people, animals, places and things. Each person, animal, place and thing has a name. E. g.
– woman, baby, cow, dog, sea, beach, table, cupboard etc. Countable and Uncountable nouns * Nouns which can be counted are called countable nouns. We use a, an, a few, several, many, some, plenty of, a lot of, a large number of with countable nouns.
E. g. – many birds, a few cars, a lot of flowers, a large number of books, some pencils We use “a” with nouns that begin with consonant letters. E. g. a car, a table, a cupboard, a man, a dog etc.
We use “an” with nouns that begin with vowel letters. (a,e,i,o,u) E. g. – an orange, an apple, an hour, an eraser etc. * Nouns which cannot be counted are called uncountable nouns.
We use a little, much, some, plenty of, a lot of, a large amount of, a great deal of with uncountable nouns. (We never use a and an with uncountable nouns) E. g. – not much water, a little ice, plenty of food, a large amount of rice Proper nouns * Proper nouns are special names of people, animals, things or places Proper Nouns always begin with capital letters.E. g. – Jason (boy-person), Tom (dog-animal), Sea Fairy (ship-thing), Pearl River (river-place) Collective Nouns * The name used for a number of people, animals, or things which are collected together and taken as a whole is a called a Collective Noun. E.
g. – People A company of actorsA troupe of dancersA party of friendsA gang of labourers A band of musiciansA tribe of nativesA team of playersA posse of policemen| A class of pupilsA crew of sailorsA staff of servantsA choir of singerAn army of soldiers A crowd of spectatorsA staff of teachersA gang of thieves |E. g. – Things A flight of aeroplanesA bunch of bananasA library of bookA pack of cardsA set of chinaA packet of cigarettes A suit of clothesA bale of cottonA chest of drawersA bouquet of flowersA suite of furniture| A bunch of grapesA tuft of grassA stack of hayA group of islandsA fleet of motor-carsA collection of picturesA fleet of shipsA collection of stampsA flight of stepsA bundle of sticksA set of tools| E. g. – AnimalsA nest of antsA swarm of beesA flock of birdsA herd of buffaloesA herd of cattleA brood of chickensA shoal of fishA swarm of insectsA litter of kittens| A troop of lions/monkeysA nest of miceA team of oxenA litter of puppiesA nest of rabbitsA flock of sheepA flight of swallowsA school of whalesA pack of wolves| Singular and Plural Nouns * A noun that stands for one person, thing, animal or place is called a singular noun.
A noun that stands for more than one person, thing, animal or place is called plural noun. The list below shows how plural nouns are formed. . By adding –s. Son …. Sons Goat …. GoatsPicture ….
Pictures Table …. Tables| Farmer …. Farmers House ….
Houses Banana …. Bananas Bicycle …. Bicycles| 2. By adding –es to nouns ending in –s, –sh, –ch and –x.
Glass …. Glasses Class …. Classes Kiss …. Kisses Bus …. Buses Watch …. Watches Inch …. InchesMatch …. Matches Branch ….
Branches | Brush …. Brushes Bush …. Bushes Dish …. Dishes Thrush …. Thrushes Box ….
Boxes Fox …. Foxes Tax …. Taxes Sex …. Sexes | 3. By adding –es to some nouns ending –o. Buffalo …. Buffaloes Potato ….
PotatoesEcho …. Echoes Hero ….Heroes| Mango …. MangoesCargo …. Cargoes Volcano …. Volcanoes Negro …. Negroes | 4. By adding –s to some nouns ending in –o .
Bamboo …. BamboosPiano …. Pianos Radio …. Radios | Banjo …. Banjos Photo …. PhotosDynamo …. Dynamos | 5.
By changing –y into –ies. Baby …. Babies Lady …. LadiesStory …. Stories Fly ….
Flies| Cry …. CriesLorry …. LorriesCity …. CitiesArmy …. Armies| 6. By adding –s to some nouns ending in –y.
Monkey …. MonkeysWay …. Ways Day …. Days | Valley ….
Valleys Boy …. BoysKey …. Keys| 7. By changing –f or –fe into –ves. Leaf …. LeavesLoaf …. Loaves Thief ….Thieves Shelf ….
Shelves Calf … Calves | Half …. HalvesWolf …. WolvesLife …. LivesWife … WivesKnife ….
Knives| 8. By adding –s to some nouns ending in –f or –fe. Chief …. Chiefs Hoof …. Hoofs Roof …. Roofs Proof …. Proofs | Dwarf …. Dwarfs Safe ….
SafesReef …. Reefs Gulf …. Gulfs | 9. By changing the inside vowels.
Man …. MenGoose …. Geese Mouse …. MiceTooth . … Teeth | Foot ….
Feet Woman … Women Louse …. Lice | 10. By adding –en. Ox …. Oxen| Child …. Children | 11. Some nouns have their plural and singular alike.
Sheep …. Sheep Cod …. Cod | Deer …. Deer Fish ….Fish(es)| 12. Some unusual nouns form their plural in a different way. Note where the –s is placed. Brother-in-law ….
Brothers-in-law Son-in-law …. Sons-in-lawMaid-servant …. Maid-servants Mouse-trap …. Mouse-traps Step-mother …. Step-mothers Step-son …. Step-sonsPasser-by ….
Passers-by| 13. Some nouns are used only in the plural. Scissors TongsSpectaclesShearsPincers| PliersShortsTrousers ClothesMeasles| 14. Some plural forms are commonly used in the singular NewsFurniture Fun| Luggage HelpPoetry| Pronouns and adjectives form their plural in a different way.Singular …. Plural| Singular ….
Plural| I …. weyou …. youhe … they she …. they it …. theyme …. us you ….
you him …. them her …. them it …. them| my …. our your …. your his …. their her ….
theirits …. theirmine …. ours yours ….. yourshis …. theirshers ….
theirsthis …. these that …. those| Agreement * The verb in a sentence agrees with its subject in number. A singular verb is used with a singular subject.
A plural verb is used with a plural subject. E. g.
– The boy has a ball. He is playing with it. – They boys have a ball. They are playing with it. E. g.
– A duck quacks.It does not bark. – Ducks quack. They do not bark. The nouns and pronouns in the above sentences are ‘boy’, ‘ducks’, ‘it’ and ‘they’ are called the subjects.
Singular subjects – ‘boy’, ‘he’, ‘duck’, ‘it’ Singular verb – ‘has’, ‘is’, ‘quacks’, ‘does not bark’ Plural subjects – ‘boy’, ‘they’ Plural verb – ‘have’, ‘are’, ‘quack’, ‘do not bark’ Possession (Nous, Adjectives, Pronouns) Possessive Nouns * Nouns that show possession are called Possessive Nouns. We form possessive nouns by – adding an apostrophe s (‘s) to singular nouns not ending in s, E. g. –The man’s hat. The postmen’s bicycle. – adding an apostrophe (‘) to plural nouns ending in s, E. g.
–The ladies’ bag. – using ‘of the’ with names of non-living things. E.
g. –The front of the car. Possessive Adjectives * Adjectives that show possession are called Possessive Adjectives.
– my, your, her, his, our, its and their E. g. –That is my pen. E. g. –That is his dog. E.
g. –The book is returned to its owner. Possessive Pronouns * Pronouns that show possession are called Possessive Pronouns – mine, yours E. g. –That is my ruler. It’s mine. E. g.
–That is your bag. It’s yours. Forming Nouns Nouns can formed from adjectives, verbs and also other nouns. They can be formed by adding –ness, –ty, –th, –ion, –ry, –ance, –ment, –dom, –hood, –ship, etc. * Adjectives Nouns E. g.
– Bright …. Brightness Cruel …. Cruelty Warm …. Warmth Brave …. Bravery * Verbs Nouns E. g.
– Act …. Action Enter …. Entrance Enjoy …. Enjoyment * Nouns Nouns E. g.
– King …. Kingdom Child …. Childhood Friend …. Friendship This list shows how nouns are formed. Complete the table below. WORDS| NOUNS| WORDS| NOUNS| absent| absence| invite| | act| | judge| judgement| agree| | kind| | angry| | king| | rrive| | know| | attend| | laugh| | bad| | lazy| laziness| beautiful| | lend| | begin| beginning | like| | behave| | live| | bright| | long| | breathe| | lose| | brave| | mad| | broad| | marry| | busy| | mix| | choose| | move| | clean| | multiply| | collect| | obey| obedience| correct| correction| occupy| | cruel| | permit| | dark| | please| | deep| | poet| | describe| | proud| pride| die| | prove| proof| divide| division| punish| | do| | ready| | draw| | remember| | dry| | sad| | enjoy| | see| | enter| | safe| | explain| explanation| sell| | fail| | sharp| sharpness| fat| | sick| | it| | sit| | foolish| | slow| | free| | soft| | friend| friendship | speak| speech| give| | strong| | glad| | succeed| | good| goodness| teach| teaching| great| | tell| | grow| | thick| | hate| hatred| think| | heal| | tight| | high| | true| truth| honest| | valuable| | imagine| | weak| | instruct| | wed| | invent| | youth| | Forming sentences using the nouns formed by the following words.
E. g. –Beautiful 1. She is a beautiful woman. 2. She is a woman of great beauty. E.
g. –Behave 1. The naughty boys were told to behave themselves 2. The naughty boys were punished for their bad behaviour.