Danielle Velazquez Mr. Teacher Course Number 3 May 2011 How the Industrial Revolution Affects Today The Industrial Revolution that rocked America’s economic and social structure was a magnificent tool of change. The massive influx of industry that it brought with it changed the lives of millions of people.
The Industrial Revolution marked a turning point in American history. Almost every aspect of daily life was influenced in some way. “For the first time in history, the living standards of the masses of ordinary people have begun to undergo sustained growth…Nothing remotely like this economic behavior has happened before” (Robert E.Lucas, 1997). Steam power, machine-based manufacturing, water power, improved communication, and railroads were just the tip of the iceberg as far as technological innovations went. The effects spread throughout Western Europe and North America during the 19th century, eventually affecting most of the world. The impact of this change on society was enormous. The changes, both positive and negative, of this industrialization can still be felt today in modern America.
The Industrial Revolution began in Great Britain during the 1700s. It started spreading to other parts of Europe and to North America in the early 1800s.By the mid-1800s, industrialization had become widespread in Western Europe and the northeastern United States. The Industrial Revolution created an enormous increase in the production of many kinds of goods.
Some of this increase in production resulted from the introduction of power-driven machinery and the development of factory organization. Before the revolution, manufacturing was done by hand or simple machines. Most people worked at home in rural areas.
A few worked in shops in towns as part of associations called guilds. The Industrial Revolution eventually took manufacturing out of the home and workshop.Power-driven machines replaced handwork, and factories developed as the best way of bringing together the machines and the workers to operate them. As the Industrial Revolution grew, private investors and financial institutions were needed to provide money for the further expansion of industrialization. Financiers and banks thus became as important as industrialists and factories in the growth of the revolution. For the first time in American history, wealthy business leaders called capitalists took over the control and organization of manufacturing. Historians have disagreed on the significance of the Industrial Revolution.
Some have emphasized that the importance of the revolution was in the great increase in the production of goods. They argue that this increase did more during the 1800s to raise peoples standard of living than all the actions of legislatures and trade unions. Other historians have stressed the negative parts of the revolution. They point to the overcrowded and unsanitary housing and the terrible working conditions created by rapid industrialization in the cities. The period in which the greatest economic and technological progress occurred was between the end of the 18th century and the beginning of the 20th.During this period the nation was transformed from a primitive agricultural economy to the foremost industrial power in the world, with more than a third of the global industrial output. 1 Early Industrialization American Industrialization was facilitated by a unique blend of geographical, social, and economic factors. The post-Revolution American population remained low compared to its European counterparts.
Some industry existed throughout the North with a little manufacturing carried on in European-like guilds in small towns. Most manufacturing, however, took place in homes in rural areas.Merchants distributed raw materials to workers in their homes and collected the finished products. The merchants owned the raw materials, paid for the work, and took the risk of finding a market for their products. They often spread their operations to include workers in nearby villages. In the home, the whole family worked together making clothing, food products, textiles, and wood products. The way of life differed from place to place, depending on the climate, the soil, and the distance from towns and trade routes. For most people, life revolved around the agricultural seasons–planting, cultivating, harvesting, and processing the harvest.
The demand for manual labor created strong incentives to mechanize labor intensive tasks such as plowing and harvesting. The eastern seaboard of the United States, with a great number of rivers and streams along the Atlantic seaboard, provided many potential sites for constructing mills and infrastructure necessary for early industrialization. A vast supply of natural resources along with a large labor supply consisting of surplus domestic rural workers and massive immigration from European nations enabled industrialization.The ready supply of labor was an advantage American industrialism had over European.
1. 1 Factories and Mills In the mid 1780’s, Oliver Evans invented the grain elevator and hopper boy that would eventually replace traditional gristmills. By the turn of the century, Evans also developed one of the first high pressure steam engines and began establishing a network of machine workshops to manufacture and repair these popular inventions. In 1789, the widow of Nathanael Greene recruited Eli Whitney to develop a machine to separate the seeds of short fibered cotton from the fibers.The resulting cotton gin could be made with basic carpentry skills but reduced the necessary labor by a factor of 50 and generated huge profits for cotton growers in the South.
While Whitney did not realize financial success from his invention, he moved on to manufacturing rifles and other armaments under government contract that could be made with “expedition, uniformity, and exactness”—the foundational ideas for interchangeable parts. (Cowan, 1997) Between 1800 and 1820, new industrial tools that rapidly increased the quality and efficiency of manufacturing emerged.Simeon North suggested using division of labor to increase the speed with which a complete pistol could be manufactured which led to the development of a milling machine in 1798. In 1819, Thomas Blanchard created a lathe that could reliably cut irregular shapes, like those needed for arms manufacture. By 1822, Captain John H. Hall had developed a system employing special machines, division of labor, and an unskilled workforce to produce a breech-loading rifle—a process that came to be known as “Armory practice” in the U.
S. and the “American system of manufacture” in England. Cowan, 1997) One of the most spectacular features of the Industrial Revolution was the introduction of power-driven machinery in the textile industries. This took place between 1770 and 1800 and marked the beginning of the age of the modern factory. Agriculture as well as rural industry began to feel the changes brought about by the industrialization of textile manufacturing. To meet the increased demand for textiles and other products, landowners began raising raw materials rather than food on their land.
The size of farms increased.Many farms were organized along industrial lines. There was a large increase in capital investment in agriculture. Standards of farm management improved. The quality of livestock and crop seed also improved greatly. For hundreds of years before the Industrial Revolution, spinning had been done in the home on a simple device called a spinning wheel.
One person operated the wheel, powering it with a foot pedal. The spinning wheel produced only one thread at a time. The first spinning machines were crude devices that often broke the fragile threads.In 1738, British inventor Lewis Paul and John Wyatt patented an improved roller-spinning machine. This machine pulled the strands of material through sets of wooden rollers that moved at different speeds, making some strands tighter than others. When combined, these strands were stronger than strands of uniform tightness.
The combined strands passed onto the flier, the part of the machine that twisted the strands into yarn. The finished yarn was wound onto a bobbin that revolved on a spindle. Mechanically, the roller-spinning machine was not completely successful.However, it was the first step in the industrialization of textile manufacturing. In England in the 1760’s, two new machines revolutionized the textile industry.
One was the spinning jenny, invented by James Hargreaves. The other machine was the water frame, or throstle, invented by Sir Richard Arkwright. Both machines solved many of the problems of roller spinning, especially in the production of yarn used to make coarse cloth. These secrets were tightly guarded by the British government which forbade their export or the emigration of those who were familiar with the technology.
In 1787 first cotton mill in the United States was established, but it relied on horse power. In 1789, Samuel Slater, an apprentice in one of the largest textile factories in England emigrated to the United States. He helped establish the largest currently existing cotton mills with a fully mechanized water power system, Slater Mill in Pawtucket, RI in 1793 Slater’s Mill was established in the Blackstone Valley, which extended into neighboring Massachusetts, and became one of the earliest industrialized region in the United States, second to the North Shore of Massachusetts.Slater’s business model of independent mills and mill villages (the “Rhode Island System”) began to be replaced by the 1820s by a more efficient system (the “Waltham System”) based upon Francis Cabot Lowell’s replications of British power looms. The first power looms for woolens were installed in 1820, at Uxbridge, Massachusetts, by John Capron, of Cumberland, Rhode Island. These added automated weaving under the same roof, a step which Slater’s system outsourced to local farms. Lowell looms were managed by specialized employees, employed with unmarried young women (“mill girls”), and owned by a corporation.Unlike the previous forms of labor (apprenticeship, family labor, slavery, and indenture), the Lowell system popularized the concept of wage laborer who sells his labor to an employer under contract—a socio-economic system which persists in many modern countries and industries.
1. 2 Turnpikes and Canals The United States controlled a greater area (from New Hampshire to Georgia) than any European nation. Even as the country grew even larger with the admission of Kentucky, Tennessee, and Ohio by 1803, the only means of transportation between these landlocked western states and their coastal neighbors was by foot, pack animal, or ship.Recognizing the success of Roman roads in unifying the Roman Empire, political and business leaders in the United States began to construct roads and canals to connect the distant parts of the nation. The early canals were constructed, owned, and operated by private joint-stock companies but later gave way to larger projects funded by the states. The Erie Canal, proposed by Governor of New York De Witt Clinton, was the first canal project undertaken as a public good to be financed at the public risk through the issuance of bonds.When the project was completed in 1825, the canal linked Lake Erie with the Hudson River through 83 separate locks and over a distance of 363 miles (584 km). The success of the Erie Canal spawned a boom of other canal-building around the country: over 3,326 miles (5,353 km) of artificial waterways were constructed between 1816 and 1840.
Small towns like Syracuse, New York, Buffalo, New York, and Cleveland, Ohio that lied along major canal routes boomed into major industrial and trade centers, while canal-building pushed some states like Pennsylvania, Ohio, and Indiana to the brink of bankruptcy. 1. 3 SteamboatsDespite the new efficiencies introduced by the turnpikes and canals, travel along these routes was still time-consuming and expensive. The idea of integrating a steam boiler and propulsion system can be first attributed to John Fitch and James Rumsey.
However, these first steamboats were complicated, heavy, and expensive. It would be almost 20 years until Robert R. Livingston contracted a civil engineer named Robert Fulton to develop an economical steamboat. Fulton’s paddle steamer, The North River Steamboat, made its first trip from New York City north on the Hudson River to Albany on August 17, 1807.By 1820, steamboat services had been established on all the Atlantic tidal rivers and Chesapeake Bay. The shallow-bottomed boats were also ideally suited navigating the Mississippi and Ohio Rivers and the number of boats on these rivers increased from 17 boats to 727 boats between 1817 and 1855.
The speed of the steamboats decreased travel times between coastal ports and upstream cities by weeks and costs for transporting goods along these rivers by as much as 90%. (Cowan, 1997) Steamboats profoundly altered the relationships between the federal government, state governments, and private property owners.Livingston and Fulton had obtained monopoly rights to operate a steamboat service within the state of New York, but Thomas Gibbons, who operated a competing New Jersey ferry service, was prohibited from entering New York waters under the terms of the monopoly. In 1824, the Supreme Court ruled in Gibbons v. Ogden that Congress could regulate commerce and transportation under the Commerce Clause which compelled the state of New York to allow steamboat services from other states. Because the physics and metallurgy of boilers were poorly understood, steamboats were prone to boiler explosions that killed hundreds of people between 1810s and 1840s.
Burke, 1997) In 1838, legislation was enacted that mandated boiler inspections by federal agents under the threat of revocation of the operator’s navigation licenses and lowered the threshold for liability in suits arising from such accidents. While Americans long resisted any government’s power to regulate private property, these new rules demonstrated that many Americans believed that property rights did not override civil rights and set the precedent for future federal safety regulations. 2 Technological Systems and InfrastructureThe period after the Civil War was marked by increasing intense and pervasive industrialization and successive technological advances like the railroad, telegraph ;amp; telephone, and internal combustion engine. This facilitated America’s westward expansion and economic development by connecting the frontier with the industrial, financial, and political centers of the East. Americans increasingly relied upon technological infrastructures like the railroad, electric, and telecommunications systems for economic and social activities. .
1 Railroads Between 1820 and 1830, many inventors and entrepreneurs began to apply emerging steamboat technology to engines that could travel on land. The earliest proposal came in 1813 from Oliver Evans’ idea of a railway to connect New York and Philadelphia with “carriages drawn by steam engines. ” (Cowan, 1997) Many individuals and companies have a claim to being the first railroad in the United States, but by the mid-1830s several companies were using steam-powered locomotives to move train cars on rail tracks.Between 1840 and 1860 the total length of railroad trackage increased from 3,326 miles (5,353 km) to 30,600 miles (49,250 km). (Cowan, 1997) The efficiency of railroad to move large, bulk items contributed enabled further drops in cost of transporting goods to market but in so doing undermined the profitability of the earlier turnpikes and canals which began to fold and fall into disrepair. However, the early railroads were poorly integrated; there were hundreds of competing companies using different gauges for their track requiring cargo to be trans-shipped—rather than traveling directly—between cities.The completion of the Transcontinental Railroad in 1869 and its attendant profit and efficiency had the effect of stimulating a period of intense consolidation and technological standardization that would last another 50 years.
It was during this time that railroad magnates such as Jay Gould and Cornelius Vanderbilt amassed great power and fortunes from consolidation of smaller rail lines into national corporations. By 1920, 254,000 miles (408,800 km) of standard-gauge railroad track had been laid in the United States, all of it owned or controlled by only seven organizations.The need to synchronize train schedules and the inefficiencies introduced by every city having its own local time, also led to introduction of Standard time by railway managers in 1883. 2.
2 Iron and Coal Because iron does not occur in nature as a pure metal, it must be smelted to drive out impurities and made stronger. Bloomery forges were prevalent in the colonies and could produce small batches of iron to be smithed for local needs (horseshoes, axeblades, plowshares) but were unable to scale production for exporting or larger-scale industry (gunmaking, shipbuilding, wheelmaking).Blast furnaces creating pig iron emerged on large self-sufficient plantations in the mid-17th century to meet these demands, but production was expensive and labor-intensive: forges, furnaces, and waterwheels had to be constructed, huge swaths of forest had to be cleared and the wood rendered into charcoal, and iron ore and limestone had to be mined and transported. By the end of the 18th century, the threat of deforestation forced the English to use coke, a fuel derived from coal, to fire their furnaces. This was a practice that was later adopted in the US as well.This shift precipitated a drop in iron prices since the process no longer required enormous quantities of increasingly scarce wood. Although steel is a form of iron, historically steel and iron-making were intended for different products given the high costs of steel over wrought iron.
In the 18th century, innovations like steamboats, railroads, and guns increased demand for wrought iron and steel. In the 1850s, American William Kelly and Englishman Henry Bessemer independently discovered that air blown through the molten iron increases its temperature and drives off impurities.The Kelly-Bessemer process, because it reduces the amount of coke needed for blasting and increases the quality of the finished iron, revolutionized the mass production of high-quality steel and facilitated a drastic drop in steel prices and expansion of its availability. In 1868, Andrew Carnegie saw an opportunity to integrate new coke-making methods with the recently developed Kelly-Bessemer process to supply steel for railroads. In 1872, he built a steel plant in Braddock, Pennsylvania at the junction of several major railroad lines.Carnegie earned enormous profits by pioneering vertical integration; he owned the iron ore mines in Minnesota, the transport steamboats on the Great Lakes, the coal mines and coke ovens, and the rail lines delivering the coke and ore to his Pennsylvania mills. By 1900, the Carnegie Steel Company was producing more steel than all of Britain and in 1901 Carnegie sold his business to J. P.
Morgan’s U. S. Steel earning Carnegie $480 million personally. 2. 3 Telegraph and TelephoneThe ability to quickly transmit information over long distances would prove to have an enormous impact on many diverse fields like journalism, banking, and diplomacy. Between 1837 and 1844, Samuel F. B.
Morse and Alfred Vail developed a transmitter that could send “short” or “long” electric current which would move an electromagnetic receiver to record the signal as dots and dashes. Morse established the first telegraph line (between Baltimore and Washington D. C. ) in 1844 and by 1849 almost every state east of the Mississippi had telegraph service.
Cowan, 1997) Between 1850 and 1865, the telegraph business became progressively more consolidated and the 1866 incorporation of Western Union emerged with a near-monopoly over 22,000 telegraph offices and 827,000 miles (1,330,900 km) of cable throughout the country. The telegraph was used to dispatch news from the fronts of the Mexican-American War, coordinate Union troop movements during the Civil War, relay stock and commodity prices and orders between markets on ticker tape, and conduct diplomatic negotiations after the Transatlantic telegraph cable was laid in 1866.Alexander Graham Bell obtained a patent in 1876 to a device that could transmit and reproduce the sound of a voice over electrical cables. Bell realized the enormous potential for his telephone and formed the Bell Telephone Company which would control the whole system from the manufacture the telephones and exchange equipment to leasing the equipment to customers and operators.Between 1877 and 1893 (the term of Bell’s patent coverage) the number of phones leased by Bell’s company increased from 3,000 to 260,000, although these were largely limited to businesses and government offices that could afford the relatively high rates.
After the Bell patents expired, thousands of independent operators became incorporated and their competition for services to middle and low-class households as well as rural farmers drove prices down significantly. By 1920, there were 13 million phones in the United States providing service to 39 percent of all farm households and 34 percent of non-farm households. . 4 Petroleum The 1859 discovery of crude oil in western Pennsylvania set off an “oil rush” reminiscent the 1849 California Gold Rush and would prove to be a valuable resource on the eve of the Civil War. Because crude oil needs to be distilled to extract usable fuel oils, oil refining quickly became a major industry in the area. However, the rural and mountainous terrain of these Pennsylvania oilfields allowed neither economical in-place refining nor efficient railroad transportation of extracted oil.
Beginning in 1865, the construction of oil pipelines to connect the oilfields with railroads or oil refineries alleviated this geographical bottleneck but also put thousands of coopers and teamsters (who made the barrels and drove the wagons to transport oil) out of business. As the network of oil pipelines expanded, they became more integrated with both the railway and telegraph systems which enabled even greater coordination in production, scheduling, and pricing. John D.Rockefeller was a forceful driver of consolidation in the American oil industry. Beginning in 1865, he bought refineries, railroads, pipelines, and oilfields and ruthlessly eliminated competition to his Standard Oil.
By 1879, he controlled 90% of oil refined in the US. Standard Oil used pipelines to directly connect the Pennsylvanian oilfields with the refineries in New Jersey, Cleveland, Philadelphia, and Baltimore, rather than loading and unloading railroad tank cars, which enabled huge gains in efficiency and profitability.Given the unprecedented scale of Standard Oil’s network, the company developed novel methods for managing, financing, and organizing its businesses. Because laws governing corporations limited their ability to do business across state lines, Standard Oil pioneered the use of a central trust that owned and controlled the constituent companies in each state.
The use of trusts by other industries to stifle competition and extract monopoly prices led to the 1890 passage of the Sherman Antitrust Act. In the 1911 case of Standard Oil Co. of New Jersey v.United States, the Supreme Court ordered the Standard Oil Trust be disbanded into competing companies that would become Exxon (Standard Oil of New Jersey), Mobil (Standard Oil of New York), and Chevron (Standard Oil of California). The demand for petroleum products increased rapidly after the turn of the century as families relied upon kerosene to heat and light their houses, industries relied upon lubricants for machinery, and the ever-more prevalent internal combustion engine demanded gasoline fuel.
Between 1880 and 1920, the amount of oil refined annually jumped from 26,000,000 barrels (4,100,000 m3) to 442 million.The discovery of large oil fields in Texas, Oklahoma, Louisiana, and California in the early 20th century touched off “oil crazes” and contributed to these states’ rapid industrialization. Because these previously agrarian western states lay outside of the various Standard Oil’s production and refining networks, cities like Long Beach, California, Dallas, Texas, and Houston, Texas emerged as major centers for refining and managing these new fields under companies like Sunoco, Texaco, and Gulf Oil.
2. 5 ElectricityBenjamin Franklin pioneered the study of electricity by being the first to describe positive and negative charges, as well as advancing the principle of conservation of charge. Franklin is best known for the infamous feat of flying a kite in thunderstorm to prove that lightning is a form of electricity which, in turn, led to the invention of the lightning rod to protect buildings. Early physicists, like Humphry Davy, demonstrated that electricity could generate light under certain conditions, but the batteries of the time could not sustain the necessary currents for long periods of time.
In 1831, the Englishman Michael Faraday demonstrated the relationship between electricity and magnetism and devised an electrical generator that used a spinning magnet to create a current. Generators were soon used to power arc lamps in Britain and France, but they generated high temperatures and sparks that prevented widespread adoption. In 1880, Thomas Alva Edison developed and patented a long-lasting incandescent lamp based upon the previous work of many inventors.Like Bell, Edison immediately set about commercializing his invention through a shrewd business plan involving companies that would manufacture the whole technological system upon which the “light bulb” would depend – generators (Edison Machine Company), cables (Edison Electric Tube Company), generating plants and electric service (Edison Electric Light Company), sockets, and bulbs. As in other industries of the era, these companies achieved greater efficiencies by merging to form a conglomerated General Electric company.
Lighting was mmensely popular: between 1882 and 1920 the number of generating plants in the US increased from one in downtown Manhattan to nearly 4,000. While the earliest generating plants were constructed in the immediate vicinity of consumers, plants generating electricity for long-distance transmissions were in place by 1900. To help finance this great expansion, the utility industry exploited a financial innovation known as the “holding company”; a favorite holding company investment among many was the Electric Bond and Share Company (later much-changed, and known as Ebasco), created by the General Electric company in 1905.The abuse of holding companies, like trusts before it, led to the Public Utility Holding Company Act of 1935, but by 1920, electricity had surpassed petroleum-based lighting sources that had dominated the previous century. In addition to lighting, electric motors (analogous to generators operating in reverse, or using a current to spin a magnet to perform work) became extremely important to industry. In 1883, a Serbian immigrant, Nikola Tesla, a protege of Edison’s, invented an electric motor which greatly simplified electric motors and licensed the invention to the Westinghouse Corporation.Electric motors quickly replaced steam engines in factories around the nation as they required neither complex mechanical transmissions from a central engine nor water sources for steam boilers in order to operate. Frank Sprague, an electrical engineer who also previously worked for Edison, pioneered the use motors to power electric street carriages in 1888.
Edison’s patents on direct current generation and illumination allowed him to dominate the initial years of electric power distribution.However, DC transmission was hampered by the difficulty in changing voltages between industrial generation and residential/commercial consumption as well as low transmission efficiency. In 1887, Tesla introduced system for alternating current generators, transformers, motors, wires and lights that allowed for convenient voltage transformation and greater transmission efficiencies and licensed the inventions to George Westinghouse to commercialize.Despite the apparent technical superiority of Tesla’s system, Edison’s GE began a campaign to disparage the competing AC system in the war of currents by holding animal executions such as Topsy the elephant using AC current (which led to the invention of the electric chair), publicizing accounts of injuries related to AC power, and lobbying state legislatures. In 1893, the Niagara Falls Commission awarded Tesla-Westinghouse (backed by J.
P.Morgan, Lord Rothschild, and John Jacob Astor IV) their hydroelectric dam contract over opposition from GE, thereby establishing AC generation and transmission on a large scale as well as creating the 60 Hz standard. 2. 6 Automobiles The technology for creating an automobile emerged in Germany in the 1870 and 1880s: Nicolaus Otto created a four-stroke internal combustion engine, Gottlieb Daimler and Wilhelm Maybach modified the Otto engine to run at higher speeds, and Karl Benz pioneered the electric ignition.
The Duryea brothers and Hiram Percy Maxim were among the first to construct a “horseless carriage” in the US in the mid-1890s, but these early cars proved to be heavy and expensive. Henry Ford revolutionized the automobile manufacturing process by employing interchangeable parts on assembly lines—the beginning of industrial mass production. In 1908, the Ford Motor Company released the Model T which could generate 20 horsepower, was lightweight, and easy to repair. Demand for the car was so great, he had to relocate his assembly plant to Highland Park, Michigan in 1912.
The new plant was a model of industrial efficiency for the time: it was well-lit and ventilated, employed conveyors to move parts along an assembly line, and workers’ stations were orderly arranged along the line. The efficiency of the assembly line allowed Ford to realize great gains in economy and productivity; in 1912, Ford sold 6,000 cars for approximately $900 and by 1916 approximately 577,000 Model T automobiles were sold for $360. Ford was able to scale production rapidly because assembly-line workers were unskilled laborers performing repetitive tasks.Ford hired European immigrants, African-Americans, ex-convicts, and the disabled and paid comparatively high wages, but was quick to dismiss anyone involved in labor unions or radical political associations. With growth of American automobile usage, urban and rural roads were gradually upgraded for the new traffic.
Local automobile clubs formed the American Automobile Association to lobby city, state, and federal governments to widen and pave existing roads and build limited-access highways. Some federal road aid was passed in the 1910s and 20s (resulting in highways like U. S. Route 1 and U.
S. Route 66). The coverage and quality of many roads would greatly improve following Depression-era Works Progress Administration investment in road infrastructure. New Automobile sales were temporarily slowed during World War II when wartime rationing and military production lines limited the number of automobiles that could be manufactured—the largest companies like Ford, GM, and Chrysler would survive those lean years. After the war, rising family sizes, increasing affluence, and government-subsidized mortgages for veterans fueled a boom in single-family homes.
Many were automobile-owners.In 1956, Congress passed the Interstate and National Defense Highway Act which provided funding for the construction of 41,000 miles (66,000 km) of toll-free expressways throughout the country laying the legislative and infrastructural foundations for the modern American highway system.Works Cited Lucas, Robert E. , Jr. Lectures on Economic Growth, Cambridge, Harvard University Press. 2002 Cowan, Ruth Schwartz, A Social History of American Technology, New York: Oxford University Press. 1997 Burke, John G.
, “Bursting Boilers and the Federal Power”, Technology and American History, 1997