The principal ethical teachings within Islam are derived from both the Qur’an and Hadith. These teachings include the belief that there is no God but Allah, that God is the origin of all creation (The first revelation 96:1-5), that man can be forgiven of their sins through prayer (Hadith Bukhari), the belief in the last day (yawm a-Din) and the world to come (al-Akhira), the following of the books of Allah (Kutubu’llah), the belief in His messengers, the belief in fate (al-Qadr), and that the actions of the prophet Muhammad should be followed as best as possible (Qur’an 59:7).The principal ethical teachings within Islam enable Muslims to differentiate between Halal and Haram. These principal ethical teachings include the rule that all things are Halal unless explicitly forbidden by the Legislator (Allah). This teaching is derived from clear verses in the Qur’an, including “The lawful is what Allah has made lawful in His Book and the unlawful is that which He made unlawful” (19:64). This verse also describes another principal ethical teaching within Islam that declares that only Allah has the right to legislate for man, and nobody is allowed to forbid something that Allah has forbidden.According to the principal ethical teachings within Islam, forbidding Halal and allowing Haram is synonymous with Shirk. The Qur’an strongly condemned the pagans of Arabia for forbidding lawful things like cattle and for their shirk.
Principal ethical teachings within Islam associate bad and harmful acts with Haram. The Qur’an describes this teaching declaring Allah is “making lawful for them the good things and making unlawful for them the corrupt things” (7:156-157). It is believed, within the ethical principal teachings of Islam, that in Halal there is a better substitute for Haram.Whenever Islam forbids something, it provides a better substitute to replace it, showing mercy towards its believers.
The principal ethical teachings of Islam declare that whatever leads to acts of Haram is also Haram, declaring that something is Halal when it is Haram is an act of Haram, and that good intentions do not justify committing acts of Haram. It is also understood that, based on the ethical principal teachings within Islam, one should guard against things considered to be on the borderline of Halal and Haram, or mushtabahat. Islam’s principal ethical eachings declare that what is Haram is Haram for everybody, with no privileges enjoyed by a certain group.
These teachings also declare that in the case of constraint, acts of Haram are considered permissible within certain limits. This teaching is clearly defined in the Qur’an when Allah declared “Yet, whoso is constrained, not desiring nor transgressing, no sin shall be upon him: Allah is All Forgiving, All Compassionate. ” (2:173). The principal ethical teachings of Islam govern all aspects of Muslim life, from hygiene and etiquette to social and political order.
The principal ethical teachings outlined in the Qur’an and Hadith define what actions are considered lawful or Halal in Islam, and those that are considered sinful or Haram. These ethical teachings reflect the beliefs and teachings of Islam, and places very strong emphasis on the importance of the right action. The principal ethical teachings of Islam regulate all aspects of Muslim life and are vital for the correct practice of the religion.
Muslims constantly look to the Qur’an and Hadith for direction and guidance of their actions, and aspects of everyday life such as the performance of ritual, and the submission to Allah.