Outline the key strands of the sociology of work! The term work is expressed as performing duties involving the use of psychological and physical energy, for the purpose of the manufacture of goods and services in order to achieve an individuals needs (Gedden’s 2008). There are six key areas of thought in the sociology of work these include “managerial psychologist”, Durkheim systems”, Interactionist”, Weber Interpretivist”, Marxian and “Post structuralise and Post Modern” (Watson 2008).
Sociology is defined as the examination of the connections which grow between individuals as they are arranged by others in cultures and how these patterns are affected by the interactions of individuals around them (Giddens 2009). The Managerial – psychologist strand is a significant area to grasping the concept of the growth of industrial sociology as it offers a type of reasoning and thinking. Scientific management and Psychological humanism are both separate methods of reflecting on work and are both linked to advise managers on how they should integrate with their employer’s and arrange EEs duties (Watson 08).
Both of these methods focus on requests of human nature and don’t distinguish the variety of options for work arrangement and indiv’s may select to familiarize themselves by taking into consideration their primary aims in life (W-08). The main interest of each method is to control scientific styles to ID the procedures of influence. Scientific management which was discovered by F. W Taylor is related with the “deskilling and degradation of labour (Giddens 09).
Scientific management involves the evaluation by employers of all duties which need to be done effectively and the organisation of jobs by managers to attain full practical distribution of work through progressive breaking up of jobs. It divides the preparation of labour from its implementation; it limits the demanding of qualified staff and keeping learning on the job periods to a small amount (w-08). It decreases resources managed by operators and the division of planned responsibilities from direct or beneficial tasks.
Scientific management uses such plans as supervisory systems to organise these divided features and the labour of the deskilled EE’s. It encourages the use of motivation compensation schemes both to strengthen and support an EE’s involvement in the workforce. However this type of management handles ER-EE dealings at a distant level. Psychological humanism debates that EE’s should attain organisational competence not through the elimination of workers to work related decision-making but by inspiring their contribution in it.
This can be achieved by workers participating more by establishing their own aims, tasks being developed by minimising the time managers spend observing and scrutinising EE’s and encouraging more approachable relationships by introducing more team orientated tasks. McGregor categorised the scientific management type of method, by stating that there is two key theories “theory x and theory Y”. Theory X mainly identifies workers who do not enjoy work and escape it as much as they can; they lack commitment and determination, dislike taking charge of their duties and prefer to be told what to do by their manager instead of taking initiative.
They also wish for security and see it as their main objective. Theory Y workers enjoy work and see it as a type of fulfilment they are motivated and committed to the job. Maslow introduced a “hierarchy of needs” model which demonstrates 5 sets of requirements which people own and as one accomplishes the needs at one level they then wish accomplish the needs of the next in order to motivate them. The Durkheim Systems Strand defines that there is a refusal in the second strand to comprehend social structures through an emphasis on human individ’s and the allocation of their requirements.
This Strand focuses on the forms of relationships which occur among individ’s rather than on the people. Emile Durkheim created the discipline of sociology and its significant figure in sociology. He was the first ever sociologist to become a professor of the science of education and sociology. He focused heavily on the area of science and over emphasised on the reality of independence and externally existing society. Durkheim outlined the divisions of labour by distinguishing between mechanical forms of solidarity and organic solidarity.
He disagreed with “psychological reductionism” displaying that even an issue like suicide has to be understood in terms of the level of the individual’s interactions with others and taking their psychological state into account. Durkheim examined the significance of “Social currents & Social Facts” in society. An important term outlined by Durkheim is Anomie which is a form of social breakdown in which the standards that would normally occur in a particular situation does not operate. Elton Mayo (1880-1949) was greatly inspired by Durkheim’s work and created the concept of the Human Relations School.
The Hawthorn Studies was started in Chicago by examining the effects of workshop lighting had on workers productivity. It concluded that the close interests shown in the workers had brought the group together as a team and increased commitment motivation and collaboration. In “Systems Thinking” these are societies which are viewed as if they were independent bodies controlling energy and resources with the environment to live. Systems thinking are valuable in its importance on arrangements and outlines in social life.
It is therefore a beneficial style to psychologist methods to explanation. Though, it faces the risk of exaggerating to unusual outlooks. The Interactionist Strand was established by the Chicago school of Sociology which created a clear influence to the sociology of work and organisations. “Symbolic interactionism” is the study of social interactionism which concentrates on how people grow their perception of themselves through developments communications in which symbols such as words, signs and clothing let people to comprehend the prospects of others.
Consciousness of self is essential through captivating on the role of other, mainly what are called “significant others” that we study about the expectations which others have of us. This helps us in deciding what role we will play in any given situation. Likewise by taking the part of the other mainly what are called “significant others” that we study about the others which others have of us. As we work our way through life we observe a variety of what are defined as reference sets and we identify a sequence of circumstances which present individuality on us we are said to abide by a subjective job. Subjective career” is the way an individual understands the approach they have progressed through numerous societal situations in their life. Interactionism has also added to how we appreciate work groups as a “negotiated order”. Negotiated order is the arrangements of actions which occur over time as a result of the interaction of the numerous benefits, considerations, responses and creativities of the groups in a society. “Ethnomethodology” is the examination of how normal followers of civilization in their daily lives see the world as significant by achieving a sense of “taken for grantedness”.
Ethnomethodology may be recognised as looking at interactionist insights their reasonable conclusion. The interactionist strand of the sociology of work and industry clearly pays great attention to individ’s and their role in social life and it focuses on people and their function in life. The Weber – Interpretivist Strand of sociological thinking takes into account both the animated action of the person and inquiries of alteration from the past. Max Webers studies have been misjudged and distorted.
At the start of his investigation it tries to achieve an explanatory comprehension of an individ’s behaviour, the second part of his studies states that individ’s who are being studied think in casual terms about what they are doing and because they based their actions on certain rationally based assumptions of regularities in the world. “Paradox of consequences” is the means selected to attain ends in social life to overthrow those ends. “Rationalism” is a tendency in social alteration where traditional standards of achievement are substituted by technical standards.
Orientation to work illustrates the meaning attached by individ’s. “Social Construction of reality” is a method in which people, through traditional collaboration, make sense of the world- a world that may well occur outside language but in which can only and expressed by people through linguistic founded processes of cultural understanding. “Institutional entrepreneurs” states that individ’s with important means and securities are capable to stand back from current official preparations.
Marx and Engels produced the “Marxian Strand” and it is of the most significant notions of social life ever made obtainable to those attempting to create some kind of systematic sense of the contemporary industrialising domain. It believes that human beings attain the richness of their humanity through their work. Under capitalism workers are required into an unequal association with the owner of money to who they market their labour power. Marx believes that it is the quantity of the economic base which explains a society.
The “capitalist labour process” plans, controls and observes the work duties and activities by employers acting as representatives of the “capital owing class to surplus value” from the work actions of EE’s. The biggest influence of the thoughts of Marx on modern industrial sociology has without a doubt been through the routine of his idea of the labour process to grow a outlook which joins interests in EE performance, employment dealings and queries of labour strategies and establishment.
The final strand of this school of thought is the “Postmodernist perspective and Post structuralism” it is a method which refuses efforts to form descriptions of history and human movement and focuses on techniques on how individ’s create an innovative world. Modernism is a way of handling the world based on the concentration of rational and scientific analysis to social, political organisations to greater control over the world and resulting in the progress in the condition of directing individ’s.
Subjectivity is the concept that individ’s are continually advancing in various situations of what their role is and their identity in society. Postmodernism is an approach of observing the world and related claims that the world is progressing into a new method of postmodernity. Conclusion: These strands focus on how we see the world, understand…………. Add own conclusion.