Krishna is a Hindu deity, regarded as an avatar of Vishnu and in some traditions considered the Supreme Being.
Krishna is often depicted as an infant or young boy playing a flute as in the Bhagavata Purana, or as a youthful prince giving direction and guidance as in the Bhagavad Gita.  The stories of Krishna appear across a broad spectrum of Hindu philosophical and theological traditions.  They portray him in various perspectives: a god-child, a prankster, a model lover, a divine hero and the Supreme Being. 4] The principal scriptures discussing Krishna’s story are the Mahabharata, the Harivamsa, the Bhagavata Purana and the Vishnu Purana. Worship of a deity or hero called Krishna, in the form of Vasudeva, Bala Krishna or Gopala, can be traced to as early as 4th century BC. Worship of Krishna as svayam bhagavan, or the Supreme Being, known as Krishnaism, arose in the Middle Ages in the context of the bhakti movement.
From the 10th century AD, Krishna became a favorite subject in performing arts and regional traditions of devotion developed for forms of Krishna such as Jagannatha in Orissa, Vithoba in Maharashtra and Shrinathji in Rajasthan.The Gaudiya Vaishnavism sect of Krishnaism was established in the 16th century, and since the 1960s has also spread in the West, largely due to the International Society for Krishna Consciousness.  Contents [hide] 1 Name and titles 2 Iconography 3 Literary sources 4 Life 4. 1 Birth 4. 2 Childhood and youth 4. 3 The prince 4. 4 Kurukshetra War and Bhagavad Gita 4.
5 Later life 5 Worship 5. 1 Vaishnavism 5. 2 Early traditions 5. 3 Bhakti tradition 5. 4 Spread of the Krishna-bhakti movement 5. 5 In the West 6 In the performing arts 7 In other religions 7. 1 Jainism 7.
2 Buddhism 7. 3 Baha’i Faith 7. Ahmadiyya Islam 7. 5 Other 8 References 9 Further reading 10 External links Name and titles Krishna as Jaganatha in a typical Oriya style, shown at the far right, with sister Subhadra in the center and brother Balarama on the left. Main article: List of titles and names of Krishna The Sanskrit word k??? a is primarily an adjective meaning “black”, “dark” or “dark-blue”.
It is cognate with Slavic c?rn? “black”. As a feminine noun, k??? a is used in the meaning “night, blackness, darkness” in the Rigveda, and as a demon or spirit of darkness in RV 4. 16.13.
As a proper noun, K??? a occurs in RV 8. 5. 3 as the name of a poet. In the Lalitavistara Sutra, Krishna is the chief of the black demons, the enemies of the Buddha.  As a name of Vishnu, Krishna listed as the 57th name in the Vishnu Sahasranama. Based on his name, Krishna is often depicted in murtis as black or blue-skinned. There are a number of mystical speculations surrounding the name. In the Brahmasambandha mantra of the Vallabha sampradaya, the syllables of the name Krishna are assigned the power to destroy sin relating to material, self and divine causes.
 Mahabharata’s Udyoga-parva (Mbh 5. 71. 4) divides k??? a into elements k?? nd ? a, k?? (a verbal root meaning “to plough, drag”) being taken as expressing bhu (meaning “being; earth”), and ? a being taken as expressing nirv? ti “bliss”.  Mahabharata verse5.
71. 4 is also quoted in Chaitanya Charitamrita and Srila Prabhupada in his commentary, translates the bhu as “attractive existence”, thus Krishna is also interpreted as meaning “all-attractive one”.  This quality of Krishna is stated in the atmarama verse of Bhagavatam 1. 7. 10.  The name is glossed as “Existence of Bliss” in Adi Sankara’s interpretation of the Vishnu sahasranama.
11] Krishna is also known by various other names, epithets and titles, which reflect his many associations and attributes. Among the most common names are Govinda, “finder of cows”, or Gopala, “protector of cows”, which refer to Krishna’s childhood in Vraja.  Some of the distinct names may be regionally important; for instance, Jagannatha (literally “Lord of the Universe”), a popular deity of Puri in eastern India.  Iconography Krishna with cows, herdsmen and Gopis, painting from Smithsonian Institution Krishna is easily recognized by his representations.Though his skin colour may be depicted as black or dark in some representations, particularly in murtis, in other images such as modern pictorial representations, Krishna is usually shown with blue skin. He is often shown wearing a yellow silk dhoti and peacock feather crown. Common depictions show him as a little boy, or as a young man in a characteristic relaxed pose, playing the flute.
 In this form, he usually stands with one leg bent in front of the other and raises a flute to his lips, accompanied by cows, emphasising his position as the divine herdsman, Govinda, or with the gopis (milkmaids).The scene on the battlefield of Kurukshetra, notably where he addresses Arjuna in the Bhagavad Gita, is another common subject for representation. In these depictions, he is shown as a man, often with typical god-like characteristics of Hindu religious art, such as multiple arms or heads, denoting power, and with attributes of Vishnu, such as the chakra or in his two-armed form as a charioteer.
A 800 B? cave paintings in Mirzapur, Uttar Pradesh, North India, which show raiding horse-charioteers, one of whom is about to hurl such a wheel could potentially be identified as Krishna. 17] Bala Krishna dancing, sculpture from National Museum, New Delhi. Representations in temples often show Krishna as a man standing in an upright, formal pose. He may be alone, or with associated figures: his brother Balarama and sister Subhadra, or his main queens Rukmini and Satyabhama. Often, Krishna is pictured with his gopi-consort Radha. Manipuri Vaishnavas do not worship Krishna alone, but as Radha Krishna, a combined image of Krishna and Radha. This is also a characteristic of the schools Rudra and Nimbarka sampradaya, as well as that of Swaminarayan faith.The traditions celebrate Radha Ramana murti, who is viewed by Gaudiyas as a form of Radha Krishna.
 Krishna is also depicted and worshipped as a small child (Bala Krishna, bala k??? a the child Krishna), crawling on his hands and knees or dancing, often with butter in his hand.  Regional variations in the iconography of Krishna are seen in his different forms, such as Jaganatha of Orissa, Vithoba of Maharashtra and Shrinathji in Rajasthan. Literary sources See also: Krishna in the MahabharataYashoda bathing the child Krishna. (Western Indian illustrated Bhagavata Purana Manuscript) The earliest text to explicitly provide detailed descriptions of Krishna as a personality is the epic Mahabharata which depicts Krishna as an incarnation of Vishnu.
 Krishna is central to many of the main stories of the epic. The eighteen chapters of the sixth book (Bhishma Parva) of the epic that constitute the Bhagavad Gita contain the advice of Krishna to the warrior-hero Arjuna, on the battlefield.Krishna is already an adult in the epic, although there are allusions to his earlier exploits. The Harivamsa, a later appendix to this epic, contains the earliest detailed version of Krishna’s childhood and youth. In early texts, such as Rig Veda, there are no references to Krishna, however some, like Ramakrishna Gopal Bhandarkar attempted to show that “the very same Krishna” made an appearance, e. g. as the drapsa .
.. krishna “black drop” of RV 8. 96. 13.  Some authors have also likened prehistoric depictions of deities to Krishna. Chandogya Upanishad (3.
17. ) Composed around 900BC-700BC mentions Vasudeva Krishna as the son of Devaki and the disciple of Ghora Angirasa , the seer who preached his disciple the philosophy of ‘Chhandogya. ’ Having been influenced by the philosophy of ‘Chhandogya’ Krishna in the Bhagavadgita while delivering the discourse to Arjuna on the battlefield of Kurukshetra discussed about sacrifice, which can be compared to purusha or the individual.  Yaska’s Nirukta, an etymological dictionary around 6th century BC, contains a reference to the Shyamantaka jewel in the possession of Akrura, a motif from well known Puranic story about Krishna.27] Shatapatha Brahmana and Aitareya-Aranyaka, associate Krishna with his Vrishni origins.  Panini, the ancient grammarian and author of Asthadhyayi (probably belonged to fifth Cent. or sixth Cent.
BC) mentioned about a character called Vasudeva son of Vasudev and also mentioned about Kaurava and Arjuna which also testimonies Vasudeva Krishna, Arjuna and Kauravas were all contemporaries.  The name K? ish? a occurs in Buddhist writings in the form Ka? ha, phonetically equivalent to K? ish? a.  The Ghata-Jataka (No. 454) gives an account of K? ish? ‘s childhood and subsequent exploits which in many points corresponds with the Brahmanic legends of his life and contains several familiar incidents and names, such as Vasudeva, Baladeva, Ka? sa. Yet it presents many peculiarities and is either an independent version or a misrepresentation of a popular story that had wandered far from its home. Jain tradition also shows that these tales were popular and were worked up into different forms, for the Jains have an elaborate system of ancient patriarchs which includes Vasudevas and Baladevas.
K? ish? a is the ninth of the Black Vasudevas and is connected with Dvaravati or Dvaraka.He will become the twelfth tirthankara of the next world-period and a similar position will be attained by Devaki, Rohini, Baladeva and Javakumara, all members of his family. This is a striking proof of the popularity of the K? ish? a legend outside the Brahmanic religion.  According to evidence of Megasthenes and in the Arthasastra of Kautilya (400-300BC) Vasudeva was worshiped as supreme Deity in a strongly monotheistic format.  Around 150 BC, Patanjali in his Mahabhashya quotes a verse: “May the might of Krishna accompanied by Samkarshana increase! Other verses are mentioned. One verse speaks of “Janardana with himself as fourth” (Krishna with three companions, the three possibly being Samkarshana, Pradyumna, and Aniruddha). Another verse mentions musical instruments being played at meetings in the temples of Rama (Balarama) and Kesava (Krishna). Patanjali also describes dramatic and mimetic performances (Krishna-Kamsopacharam) representing the killing of Kamsa by Vasudeva.
 In the 1st century BC, there seems to be evidence for a worship of five Vrishni heroes (Balarama, Krishna, Pradyumna, Aniruddha and Samba) for an nscription has been found at Mora near Mathura, which apparently mentions a son of the great satrap Rajuvula, probably the satrap Sodasa, and an image of Vrishni, “probably Vasudeva, and of the “Five Warriors”.  Brahmi inscription on the Mora stone slab, now in the Mathura Museum.  Many Puranas tells Krishna’s life-story or some highlights from it.
Two Puranas, the Bhagavata Purana and the Vishnu Purana, that contain the most elaborate telling of Krishna’s story and teachings are the most theologically venerated by the Gaudiya Vaishnava schools. 42] Roughly one quarter of the Bhagavata Purana is spent extolling his life and philosophy. A steatite tablet unearthed from Mohanjodaro depicting a young boy uprooting the two trees from which are emerging two human figures is an interesting archaeological finding for fixing the date of Krishna. This image recalls the Yamalarjuna episode of Bhagavata and Harivamsa Purana. In this image, the young boy depicted is undoubtedly Krishna and two human beings emerging out of the trees are the two cursed Gandharvas, identified as Nalkubara ; Manigriva, who were turned into to two Arjuna trees or Yamalarjuna got liberated by Krishna.
Dr. E. J. H. Mackay did the excavation at Mohanjodaro who compares this image with the Yamalarjuna episode. Prof. V. S.
Agrawal has also accepted this identification. This seems that the Indus valley people knew Krishna’s exploits and stories related to Krishna. However, this lone finding may not substantiate to corroborate with the date of Krishna contemporary to Pre-Indus or Indus times but at the same time it cannot be ignored.  Life This summary is based on details from the Mahabharata, the Harivamsa, the Bhagavata Purana and the Vishnu Purana.The scenes from the narrative are set in north India, mostly in the present states of Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Haryana, Delhi and Gujarat.
Birth Traditional belief based on scriptural details and astrological calculations gives the date of Krishna’s birth, known as Janmashtami, as either 18 or 21 July 3228 BCE.  Krishna belonged to the royal family of Mathura, and was the eighth son born to the princess Devaki, and her husband Vasudeva. Mathura was the capital of the Yadavas, to which Krishna’s parents Vasudeva and Devaki belonged.
The king Kamsa, Devaki’s brother, had ascended the throne by imprisoning his father, King Ugrasena. Afraid of a prophecy that predicted his death at the hands of Devaki’s eighth son, Kamsa had the couple locked into a prison cell. After Kansa killed the first six children, and Devaki’s apparent miscarriage of the seventh (which was actually a secret transfer of the infant to Rohini as Balarama), Krishna was born. Since Vasudeva believed Krishna’s life was in danger, Krishna was secretly taken out of the prison cell to be raised by his foster parents, Yasoda  and Nanda, in Gokula.Two of his other siblings also survived, Balarama (Devaki’s seventh child, transferred to the womb of Rohini, Vasudeva’s first wife) and Subhadra (daughter of Vasudeva and Rohini, born much later than Balarama and Krishna).  According to Bhagavata Purana it is believed that Krishna was born without a sexual union, by “mental transmission” from the mind of Vasudeva into the womb of Devaki.
Hindus believe that in that time, this type of union was possible for achieved beings.  Childhood and youth Krishna holding Govardhan hillNanda was the head of a community of cow-herders, and he settled in Vrindavana. The stories of Krishna’s childhood and youth tell how he became a cow herder, his mischievous pranks as Makhan Chor (butter thief), his foiling of attempts to take his life, and his role as a protector of the people of Vrindavana. Krishna is said to have killed the demons like Putana, sent by Kansa for Krishna’s life. He tamed the serpent Kaliya, who previously poisoned the waters of Yamuna river, thus leading to the death of the cowherds.
In Hindu art, Krishna is often depicted dancing on the multi-hooded Kaliya. Krishna is believed to have lifted the Govardhana hill and taught Indra, the king of the devas and rain, a lesson to protect native people of Vrindavana from persecution by Indra and prevent the devastation of the pasture land of Govardhan. Indra had too much pride and was angry when Krishna advised the people of Vrindavana to take care of their animals and their environment that provide them with all their necessities, instead of worshipping Indra annually by spending their resources.
55] In the view of some, the spiritual movement started by Krishna had something in it which went against the orthodox forms of worship of the Vedic gods such as Indra.  The stories of his play with the gopis (milkmaids) of Vrindavana, especially Radha (daughter of Vrishbhanu, one of the original residents of Vrindavan) became known as the Rasa lila and were romanticised in the poetry of Jayadeva, author of the Gita Govinda. These became important as part of the development of the Krishna bhakti traditions worshiping Radha Krishna.58] The prince On his return to Mathura as a young man, Krishna overthrew and killed his uncle, Kansa, after avoiding several assassination attempts from Kansa’s followers. He reinstated Kansa’s father, Ugrasena, as the king of the Yadavas and became a leading prince at the court.
 During this period, he became a friend of Arjuna and the other Pandava princes of the Kuru kingdom, who were his cousins. Later, he took his Yadava subjects to the city of Dwaraka (in modern Gujarat) and established his own kingdom there. 60] Krishna married Rukmini, the princess of Vidarbha, by abducting her from her wedding on her request. According to Bhagavata Purana, Krishna married with only 16,108 wives, of which eight were chief—collectively called the Ashta Bharya—including Rukmini, Satyabhama, Jambavati, Kalindi, Mitravrinda, Nagnajiti, Bhadra and Lakshana.  Krishna subsequently married 16,100 maidens who were being held in captivity by demon Narakasura, to save their honour.
Krishna killed the demon and released them all.According to strict social custom of the time all of the captive women were degraded, and would be unable to marry, as they had been under the control of Narakasura, however Krishna married them to reinstate their status in the society. This wedding with 16,100 abandoned daughters was more of a mass women rehabilitation.  In Vaishnava traditions, Krishna’s wives are believed to be forms of the goddess Lakshmi—consort of Vishnu, or special souls who attained this qualification after many lifetimes of austerity, while his queen Satyabhama, is an expansion of Radha. 66] When Yudhisthira was assuming the title of emperor, he had invited all the great kings to the ceremony and while paying his respects to them, he started with Krishna because he considered Krishna to be the greatest of them all. While it was a unanimous feeling amongst most present at the ceremony that Krishna should get the first honours, his cousin Shishupala felt otherwise and started berating Krishna. Due to a vow given to Shishupal’s mother, Krishna forgave a hundred verbal abuses by Shishupal, and upon the one hundred and first, he ssumed his Virat form and killed Shishupal with his Chakra.
It is said that the blind king Dhritarashtra also obtained divine vision during this time to be able to see the Lord’s form. Essentially, Shishupal and Dantavakra were both re-incarnations of Lord Vishnu’s gate-keepers Jay and Vijay who had been cursed to be born on Earth and were delivered by the Lord back to Heaven.  Kurukshetra War and Bhagavad Gita Main articles: Kurukshetra War and Bhagavad GitaOnce battle seemed inevitable, Krishna offered both sides the opportunity to choose between having either his army or simply himself alone, but on the condition that he personally would not raise any weapon. Arjuna, on behalf of the Pandavas, chose to have Krishna on their side, and Duryodhana, chief of the Kauravas, chose Krishna’s army. At the time of the great battle, Krishna acted as Arjuna’s charioteer, since it was a position that did not require the wielding of weapons. Krishna displays his Vishvarupa (Universal Form) to Arjuna on the battlefield of Kurukshetra.Upon arriving at the battlefield, and seeing that the enemies are his family, his grandfather, his cousins and loved ones, Arjuna becomes doubtful about fighting. Krishna then advises him about the battle, with the conversation soon extending into a discourse which was later compiled as the Bhagavad Gita.
 Krishna had a profound effect on the Mahabharata war and its consequences. He considered the Kurukshetra war as a last resort by voluntarily making himself as a messenger in order to establish peace between the Pandavas and Kauravas.But, once these peace negotiations failed and was embarked into the war, then he became a ruthless strategist. During the war, upon becoming angry with Arjun for not fighting in true spirit against his ancestors, Krishna had once picked up a carriage wheel and converted it to a Chakra (discus) to challenge Bhishma when the latter injured him. Upon seeing this, Bhishma dropped his weapons and asked Krishna to kill him. However, Arjuna apologized to Krishna, promising that he would fight with full dedication hereafter, and the battle continued.Krishna had directed Yudhisthira and Arjuna to return to Bhishma the boon of “victory” which he had given to Yudhisthira before the war commenced, since he himself was standing in their way to victory.
Bhishma understood the message and told them the means through which he would drop his weapons—which was if a woman entered the battlefield. Next day, upon Krishna’s directions, Shikhandi (who was a rebirth of Amba) accompanied Arjuna to the battlefield and thus, Bhishma laid down his arms. This was a decisive moment in the war because Bhishma was the chief commander of the Kaurava army and the most formidable warrior on the battlefield.
Krishna aided Arjuna in killing Jayadratha, who had held the other four Pandava brothers at bay while Arjuna’s son Abhimanyu entered Drona’s Chakravyuha formation—an effort in which he got killed by the simultaneous attack of eight Kaurava warriors. Krishna also caused the downfall of Drona, when he signalled Bhima to kill an elephant called Ashwatthama, the namesake of Drona’s son. Pandavas started shouting that Ashwatthama was dead but Drona refused to believe them saying he would believe it only if he heard it from Yudhisthira.Krishna knew that Yudhisthira would never tell a lie, so he devised a clever ploy so that Yudhisthira wouldn’t lie and at the same time Drona would be convinced of his son’s death. On asked by Drona, Yudhisthira declared, ” Ashwatthama is dead.
May be elephant,may be man”. But as soon as Yudhisthira had uttered the first line, Pandava army on Krishna’s direction broke into celebration with drums and conchs, in the din of which Drona could not hear the second part of the Yudhisthira’s declaration and assumed that his son was indeed dead.Overcome with grief he laid down his arms, and on Krishna’s instruction Dhrishtadyumna beheaded Drona. When Arjuna was fighting Karna, the latter’s chariot’s wheels sank into the ground.
While Karna was trying to take out the chariot from the grip of the Earth, Krishna reminded Arjuna how Karna and the other Kauravas had broken all rules of battle while simultaneously attacking and killing Abhimanyu, and he convinced Arjuna to do the same in revenge in order to kill Karna.During the final stage of the war, when Duryodhana was going to meet his mother Gandhari for taking her blessings which would convert all parts of his body on which her sight falls to steel, Krishna tricks him to wearing banana leaves to hide his groin. When Duryodhana meets Gandhari, her vision and blessings fall on his entire body except his groin and thighs, and she becomes unhappy about it because she was not able to convert his entire body to steel.
When Duryodhana was in a mace-fight with Bhima, Bhima’s blows had no effect on Duryodhana. Upon this, Krishna reminded Bhima of his vow to ill Duryodhana by hitting him on the thighs, and Bhima did the same to win the war despite it being against the rules of mace-fight (since Duryodhana had himself broken Dharma in all his acts in the past). Thus, Krishna’s unparalleled strategy helped the Pandavas win the Mahabharata war by bringing the downfall of all the chief Kaurava warriors, without him having to lift a weapon.
He also brought back Arjuna’s grandson Parikshit to life, who had been attacked by a Brahmastra weapon from Ashwatthama while he was in his mother’s womb. Parikshit became the successor of the Pandavas. Later lifeAt a festival, a fight broke out between the Yadavas who exterminated each other. His elder brother Balarama then gave up his body using Yoga. Krishna retired into the forest and sat under a tree in meditation. While the Mahabharata narrates the story that a hunter named Jara mistook his partly visible left foot for a deer and shot an arrow wounding him mortally; while Krishna’s soul ascended to heaven, his mortal body was cremated by Arjuna.  According to Puranic sources, Krishna’s disappearance marks the end of Dvapara Yuga and the start of Kali Yuga, which is dated to February 17/18, 3102 BCE. 73] Vaishnava teachers such as Ramanujacharya and Gaudiya Vaishnavas held the view that the body of Krishna is completely spiritual and never decays as this appears to be the perspective of the Bhagavata Purana.
Krishna never appears to grow old or age at all in the historical depictions of the Puranas despite passing of several decades, but there are grounds for a debate whether this indicates that he has no material body, since battles and other descriptions of the Mahabharata epic show clear indications that he seems to be subject to the limitations of nature. 74] While battles apparently seem to indicate limitations, Mahabharatha also shows in many places where Krishna is not subject to any limitations as through episodes Duryodhana trying to arrest Krishna where his body burst into fire showing all creation within him.  Krishna is also explicitly told to be without deterioration elsewhere.  Worship Vaishnavism Main articles: Vaishnavism and Krishnaism The worship of Krishna is part of Vaishnavism, which regards Vishnu as the Supreme God and venerates His associated avatars, their consorts, and related saints and teachers.Krishna is especially looked upon as a full manifestation of Vishnu, and as one with Vishnu himself.  However the exact relationship between Krishna and Vishnu is complex and diverse, where Krishna is sometimes considered an independent deity, supreme in his own right.  Out of many deities, Krishna is particularly important, and traditions of Vaishnava lines are generally centered either on Vishnu or on Krishna, as supreme. The term Krishnaism has been used to describe the sects of Krishna, reserving term “Vaishnavism” for sects focusing on Vishnu in which Krishna is an avatar, rather than as a transcendent Supreme Being.
80] All Vaishnava traditions recognise Krishna as an avatar of Vishnu; others identify Krishna with Vishnu; while traditions, such as Gaudiya Vaishnavism, Vallabha Sampradaya and the Nimbarka Sampradaya, regard Krishna as the svayam bhagavan, original form of God, or the Lord himself.  Swaminarayan, the founder of the Swaminarayan Sampraday also worshipped Krishna as God himself. “Greater Krishnaism” corresponds to the second and dominant phase of Vaishnavism, revolving around the cults of the Vasudeva, Krishna, and Gopala of late Vedic period. 88] Today the faith has a significant following outside of India as well.  Early traditions An image of Bala Krishna displayed during Janmashtami celebrations at a Swaminarayan Temple in London The deity Krishna-Vasudeva (k??? a vasudeva “Krishna, the son of Vasudeva”) is historically one of the earliest forms of worship in Krishnaism and Vaishnavism.  It is believed to be a significant tradition of the early history of the worship of Krishna in antiquity. 91] This tradition is considered as earliest to other traditions that led to amalgamation at a later stage of the historical development.
Other traditions are Bhagavatism and the cult of Gopala, that along with the cult of Bala Krishna form the basis of current tradition of monotheistic religion of Krishna. Some early scholars would equate it with Bhagavatism, and the founder of this religious tradition is believed to be Krishna, who is the son of Vasudeva, thus his name is Vasudeva, he is belonged to be historically part of the Satvata tribe, and ccording to them his followers called themselves Bhagavatas and this religion had formed by the 2nd century BC (the time of Patanjali), or as early as the 4th century BC according to evidence in Megasthenes and in the Arthasastra of Kautilya, when Vasudeva was worshiped as supreme deity in a strongly monotheistic format, where the supreme being was perfect, eternal and full of grace.  In many sources outside of the cult, devotee or bhakta is defined as Vasudevaka.
95] The Harivamsa describes intricate relationships between Krishna Vasudeva, Sankarsana, Pradyumna and Aniruddha that would later form a Vaishnava concept of primary quadrupled expansion, or avatara.  Bhakti tradition Main article: Bhakti yoga Bhakti, meaning devotion, is not confined to any one deity. However Krishna is an important and popular focus of the devotional and ecstatic aspects of Hindu religion, particularly among the Vaishnava sects.  Devotees of Krishna subscribe to the concept of lila, meaning ‘divine play’, as the central principle of the Universe.
The lilas of Krishna, with their expressions of personal love that transcend the boundaries of formal reverence, serve as a counterpoint to the actions of another avatar of Vishnu: Rama, “He of the straight and narrow path of maryada, or rules and regulations. “ The bhakti movements devoted to Krishna became prominent in southern India in the 7th to 9th centuries AD. The earliest works included those of the Alvar saints of the Tamil country.  A major collection of their works is the Divya Prabandham.The Alvar Andal’s popular collection of songs Tiruppavai, in which she conceives of herself as a gopi, is the most famous of the oldest works in this genre.   Kulasekaraazhvaar’s Mukundamala was another notable work of this early stage.
Spread of the Krishna-bhakti movement Gita Govinda by Jayadeva. The movement spread rapidly from northern India into the south, with the Sanskrit poem Gita Govinda of Jayadeva (12th century AD) becoming a landmark of devotional, Krishna-based literature.It elaborated a part of the Krishna legend—his love for one particular gopi, called Radha, a minor character in Bhagavata Purana but a major one in other texts like Brahma Vaivarta Purana. By the influence of Gita Govinda, Radha became inseparable from devotion to Krishna.
 While the learned sections of the society well versed in Sanskrit could enjoy works like Gita Govinda or Bilvamangala’s Krishna-Karnamritam, the masses sang the songs of the devotee-poets, who composed in the regional languages of India. These songs expressing intense personal devotion were written by devotees from all walks of life.The songs of Meera and Surdas became epitomes of Krishna-devotion in north India. Krishna (left) with the flute with gopi-consort Radha, Bhaktivedanta Manor, Watford, England These devotee-poets, like the Alvars before them, were aligned to specific theological schools only loosely, if at all. But by the 11th century AD, Vaishnava Bhakti schools with elaborate theological frameworks around the worship of Krishna were established in north India. Nimbarka (11th century AD), Vallabhacharya (15th century AD) and Chaitanya Mahaprabhu (16th century AD) were the founders of the most influential schools.
These schools, namely Nimbarka Sampradaya, Vallabha Sampradaya and Gaudiya Vaishnavism respectively, see Krishna as the supreme god, rather than an avatar, as generally seen. In the Deccan, particularly in Maharashtra, saint poets of the Varkari sect such as Dnyaneshwar, Namdev, Janabai, Eknath and Tukaram promoted the worship of Vithoba, a local form of Krishna, from the beginning of the 13th century until the late 18th century.  In southern India, Purandara Dasa and Kanakadasa of Karnataka composed songs devoted to the Krishna image of Udupi.
Rupa Goswami of Gaudiya Vaishnavism, has compiled a comprehensive summary of bhakti named Bhakti-rasamrita-sindhu.  In the West Since 1966, the Krishna-bhakti movement has also spread outside India. This is largely due to the International Society for Krishna Consciousness (ISKCON), popularly known as the Hare Krishna movement.  The movement was founded by Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada, who was instructed by his guru, Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati Thakura, to write about Krishna in English and to share the Gaudiya Vaishnava philosophy with people in the Western world.  In the performing artsA Kathakali performer as Krishna. While discussing the origin of Indian theatre, Horwitz talks about the mention of the Krishna story in Patanjali’s Mahabhashya (c.
150 BC), where the episodes of slaying of Kamsa (Kamsa Vadha) and “Binding of the heaven storming titan” (Bali Bandha) are described.  Bhasa’s Balacharitam and Dutavakyam (c. 400 BC) are the only Sanskrit plays centered on Krishna written by a major classical dramatist.
The former dwells only on his childhood exploits and the latter is a one-act play based on a single episode from the Mahabharata when Krishna tries to make peace between the warring cousins. 105] From the 10th century AD, with the growing bhakti movement, Krishna became a favorite subject of the arts. The songs of the Gita Govinda became popular across India, and had many imitations. The songs composed by the Bhakti poets added to the repository of both folk and classical singing.The classical Indian dances, especially Odissi and Manipuri, draw heavily on the story. The ‘Rasa lila’ dances performed in Vrindavan shares elements with Kathak, and the Krisnattam, with some cycles, such as Krishnattam, traditionally restricted to the Guruvayur temple, the precursor of Kathakali.
106] Krishna as depicted in Yakshagana, which emerged as part of Bhakti tradition in Karnataka. The Sattriya dance, founded by the Assamese Vaishnava saint Sankardeva, extols the virtues of Krishna. Medieval Maharashtra gave birth to a form of storytelling known as the Hari-Katha, that told Vaishnava tales and teachings through music, dance, and narrative sequences, and the story of Krishna one of them.
This tradition spread to Tamil Nadu and other southern states, and is now popular in many places throughout India.Narayana Tirtha’s (17th century AD) Krishna-Lila-Tarangini provided material for the musical plays of the Bhagavata-Mela by telling the tale of Krishna from birth until his marriage to Rukmini. Tyagaraja (18th century AD) wrote a similar piece about Krishna called Nauka-Charitam. The narratives of Krishna from the Puranas are performed in Yakshagana, a performance style native to Karnataka’s coastal districts. Many movies in all Indian languages have been made based on these stories. These are of varying quality and usually add various songs, melodrama, and special effects. edit]In other religions Jainism The most exalted figures in Jainism are the twenty-four Tirthankaras.
Krishna, when he was incorporated into the Jain list of heroic figures presented a problem with his activities which are not pacifist or non-violent. The concept of Baladeva, Vasudeva and Prati-Vasudeva was used to solve it. The Jain list of sixty-three Shalakapurshas or notable figures includes amongst others, the twenty-four Tirthankaras and nine sets of this triad.
One of these triads is Krishna as the Vasudeva, Balarama as the Baladeva and Jarasandha as the Prati-Vasudeva.He was a cousin of the twenty-second Tirthankara, Neminatha. The stories of these triads can be found in the Harivamsha of Jinasena (not be confused with its namesake, the addendum to Mahabharata) and the Trishashti-shalakapurusha-charita of Hemachandra.  In each age of the Jain cyclic time is born a Vasudeva with an elder brother termed the Baladeva.
The villain is the Prati-vasudeva. Baladeva is the upholder of the Jain principle of non-violence. However, Vasudeva has to forsake this principle to kill the Prati-Vasudeva and save the world.The Vasudeva then descends to hell as a punishment for this violent act. Having undergone the punishment he is then reborn as a Tirthankara.  Buddhism Depiction of Krishna playing flute in the temple constructed in AD 752 on the order of Emperor Shomu; Todai-ji Temple, Great Buddha Hall in Nara, Japan The story of Krishna occurs in the Jataka tales in Buddhism, in the Ghatapandita Jataka as a prince and legendary conqueror and king of India.  In the Buddhist version, Krishna is called Vasudeva, Kanha and Keshava, and Balarama is his younger brother, Baladeva.These details resemble that of the story given in the Bhagavata Purana.
Vasudeva, along with his nine other brothers (each son a powerful wrestler) and one elder sister (Anjana) capture all of Jambudvipa (many consider this to be India) after beheading their evil uncle, King Kamsa, and later all other kings of Jambudvipa with his Sudarshana Chakra. Much of the story involving the defeat of Kamsa follows the story given in the Bhagavata Purana.  As depicted in the Mahabharata, all of the sons are eventually killed due to a curse of sage Kanhadipayana (Veda Vyasa, also known as Krishna Dwaipayana).
Krishna himself is eventually speared by a hunter in the foot by mistake, leaving the sole survivor of their family being their sister, Anjanadevi of whom no further mention is made.  Since Jataka tales are given from the perspective of Buddha’s previous lives (as well as the previous lives of many of Buddha’s followers), Krishna appears as one of the lives of Sariputra, one of Buddha’s foremost disciples and the “Dhammasenapati” or “Chief General of the Dharma” and is usually shown being Buddha’s “right hand man” in Buddhist art and iconography. 114] The Bodhisattva, is born in this tale as one of his youngest brothers named Ghatapandita, and saves Krishna from the grief of losing his son.  The ‘divine boy’ Krishna as an embodiment of wisdom and endearing prankster is forming a part of worshipable pantheon in Japanese Buddhism.  Baha’i Faith Baha’is believe that Krishna was a “Manifestation of God”, or one in a line of prophets who have revealed the Word of God progressively for a gradually maturing humanity.
In this way, Krishna shares an exalted station with Abraham, Moses, Zoroaster, Buddha, Muhammad, Jesus Christ, the Bab, and the founder of the Baha’i Faith, Baha’u’llah.  Ahmadiyya Islam Members of the Ahmadiyya Community believe Krishna to be a great prophet of God as described by their founder, Mirza Ghulam Ahmad. Ghulam Ahmad also claimed to be the likeness of Krishna as a latter day reviver of religion and morality whose mission was to reconcile man with God. 117] Ahmadis maintain that the term Avatar is synonymous with the term ‘prophet’ of the middle eastern religious tradition as God’s intervention with man; as God appoints a man as his vicegerent upon earth. In Lecture Sialkot, Ghulam Ahmed wrote: Let it be clear that Raja Krishna, according to what has been revealed to me, was such a truly great man that it is hard to find his like among the Rishis and Avatars of the Hindus.
He was an Avatar—i. e. , Prophet—of his time upon whom the Holy Spirit would descend from God.He was from God, victorious and prosperous. He cleansed the land of the Aryas from sin and was in fact the Prophet of his age whose teaching was later corrupted in numerous ways. He was full of love for God, a friend of virtue and an enemy of evil.
 Other Krishna worship or reverence has been adopted by several new religious movements since the 19th century, and he is sometimes a member of an eclectic pantheon in occult texts, along with Greek, Buddhist, Biblical and even historical figures. 118] For instance, Edouard Schure, an influential figure in perennial philosophy and occult movements, considered Krishna a Great Initiate; while Theosophists regard Krishna as an incarnation of Maitreya (one of the Masters of the Ancient Wisdom), the most important spiritual teacher for humanity after Buddha.  Krishna was canonized by Aleister Crowley and is recognized as a saint in the Gnostic Mass of Ordo Templi Orientis.